Sientific Method 5&6 The steps of the scientific conduct


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1. Narrowing down the topic of interest.
2. Conducting an exhaustive literature review.
3. Deciding on a question.
4. Formulating a hypothesis.
5. Developing an experiment.
6. Analyzing data.
7. Interpreting results.

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Sientific Method 5&6 The steps of the scientific conduct

  1. 1. Scientific Method 61 MA English PhilologyBarbara KonatDepartment of Epistemology and Cognitive SciencesFaculty of Social Sciences2013
  2. 2. ExperimentObservationRepresentativenessSampleGeneralizationsIntuitionKnowledgeIntersubjectiveVerificationReplicability
  3. 3. Article reporting original research.Review article.Theoretical article.
  4. 4. I - introductionM - methodR - resultsandD - discussion
  5. 5. Abstract– What is the paper about?– How did the researchers set up their study?i.e., who were the subjects, what was theexperiment?– What did the experiment measure?– What were the main results of the study?(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  6. 6. Introduction– What were the theoretical considerations underlying theresearch?– Why was the particular topic chosen for study?– Does the chosen topic have implications beyond itself?– What are the authors hypotheses?– What questions do the researchers hope to answer with theresults of their study?(Note that this is a different question than what theirhypotheses were.)– How did the authors decide on their research strategy, i.e.did they develop an experiment or chose to do acorrelational study?(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  7. 7. Method– How were the hypotheses turned into testablequestions?– How were the variables manipulated, i.e. howwas the experiment done?– Were appropriate controls used?– Were the measures used appropriate to thequestion being asked, i.e. is income anacceptable measure of socio-economic status?(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  8. 8. ResultsWhat are the main results of the study?– Can the results be used to answer the researchquestion?– Can the results be generalized beyond thecontext of the study?(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  9. 9. Discussion– What conclusions do the researchers drawfrom their results?– What questions were left unanswered by thestudy?(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  10. 10. Preparing your own research plan(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  11. 11. 1. Narrowing down the topic of interest.2. Conducting an exhaustive literature review.3. Deciding on a question.4. Formulating a hypothesis.5. Developing an experiment.6. Analyzing data.7. Interpreting results.IntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussion(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  12. 12. Narrowing down the topic of interest(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  13. 13. Conducting an exhaustive literaturereviewClassics + current methods(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  14. 14. Developing a research questionWhat do you want to know?The question must be:– Precise– Interesting– Relevant – timely and important– Novel– Testable.(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  15. 15. Types of research questions1. Descriptive questions.2. Causal questions.3. Consequence questions.4. Nondirectional relational.(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  16. 16. (Gonzales et al. 2006)
  17. 17. Scientific methodology„Scientific methodology encompassesstandardized methods of testing whetheran idea, translated into a hypothesis,has explanatory value over a phenomenonin a setting that allows falsifiability.”(Gonzales et al. 2006: 66)(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  19. 19. Methods:Discourse analysis, Corpus Study,Psycholinguistics experiment, Survey,Recordings, Gesture analysis, Longitudinalstudies, Response times, Brain imaging andmany others…
  20. 20. ExerciseWork in pairs.Prepare:1. Research question.2. Research hypotheses.3. Research method.4. Expected results.Substantiate your choice
  21. 21. Part TwoThe practical steps(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  22. 22. 1. Narrowing down the topic of interest.2. Conducting an exhaustive literature review.3. Deciding on a question.4. Formulating a hypothesis.5. Developing an experiment.6. Analyzing data.7. Interpreting results.IntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussion(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  23. 23. (Gonzales et al. 2006)
  24. 24. VariablesWhat is a variable?OED on-line:(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  25. 25. „A variable can best be qualified as a set ofevents that can take on different values.Typical ones include sex, age, scores on anexam, number of milliseconds required torespond to a stimulus etc. „(Gonzales et al. 2006:67)
  26. 26. Variable classificationBy their nature• Behavioral• Stimulus• SubjectBy their use• Independent• Dependent• Extraneous• Constant(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  27. 27. (Gonzales et al. 2006)Birthday party WeddingOffice meeting FuneralIndependent: Social setting (levels: Birthday party, Wedding, Officemeeting, Funeral)Dependent: Amount of dancingExtraneous: Alcohol consumptionConstant: Number of subjects
  28. 28. (Gonzales et al. 2006)Birthday party WeddingBirthday party WeddingIndependent: Social setting +AlcoholDependent: Amount of dancing
  29. 29. Constants• the same number of subjects in each socialsituation• the same number of males and femalesConstants are kept constant to preventunwanted variation.(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  30. 30. Discrete or continous• Discrete: the number of children in the family(1,5 child?)• Continous (decomposable): the number ofkm you’ve ran this morning (1,7 km).(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  31. 31. Qualitative or quantitative• Qualitative:– Female– Left-handed– Educated• Quantitative (can occur in different amounts):– Amount of money on your bank account– Number of foot tappings in dance experiment(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  32. 32. Operationalization• Transform any concept you are interested ininto observable phenomenon that can bemeasured (intersubjectivity!)How do you measure the amount of dancing?(Gonzales et al. 2006)attempted rhythmic movement performed by aperson not including swaying while sitting orleaning against a wall, or foot-tapping while sittingor standing
  33. 33. Experimental design• Control group• Random assignment– Between subject design– Within subject design(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  34. 34. (Gonzales et al. 2006)Birthday party +alc Birthday partyAlone +alc AloneSetting + amount of alcohol-> Amount of dancingExperimental design
  35. 35. Research hypothesesand experimental hypotheses• Experimental hypotheses: predictions aboutthe type of information that can be used tosupport research hypothesis• Experimental hypotheses: hypothesesinvolving the experiments themselves.(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  36. 36. If thenIf then(Gonzales et al. 2006)Research hypothesesExperimental hypothesesOperationalization
  37. 37. The Data• Observable• Measurable• Can help to support or negate the researchhypothesis(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  38. 38. The experimental and the nullhypotheses1) that the chosen task will produce thepredicted effect2) that it will not(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  39. 39. Reliability and validityReliability:• Test-retest• Inter-observer.Validity:• Construct• Ecological• Internal• External(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  40. 40. Few last steps• Data collection• Obtaining results• Results interpretation(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  41. 41. Additional factors• Language• Culture• Nationality• Linguistic ability(Gonzales et al. 2006)
  42. 42. Based on:Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica, Raymond Becker,and James Cutting. „An introduction toexperimental method for languageresearchers”. In: Methods in CognitiveLinguistics, Eds.: Monica Gonzalez-Marquez,Seana Coulson, Michael J. Spivey, IreneMittelberg. John Benjamins Pub Co, 2007.