Behaviourist theory


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Behaviourist theory

  1. 1. Behaviourist Theory
  2. 2. Ivan Pavlov <ul><li>1849 – 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Russian scientist best known for his work on classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>A reflex response such as salivating can be conditioned to occur using another stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Example: dog salivating at the sound of a bell </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ivan Pavlov
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Organism + stimulus = response </li></ul><ul><li>Dog + food = saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Dog + Bell + Food = saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Dog + Bell = saliva </li></ul><ul><li>This conditioned response will be extinguished if not reinforced. </li></ul>
  5. 5. John B Watson <ul><li>1878 – 1958 American doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Pavlov’s theory to humans </li></ul><ul><li>“ Give me a dozen healthy infants ... and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist i might select.” </li></ul><ul><li>Albert and the white rat </li></ul>
  6. 6. J B Watson
  7. 7. B(urrhus) F(rederic) Skinner <ul><li>1904 – 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning – behaviour operates on the environment to produce consequences, certain kinds of which re-inforce behaviour. </li></ul>
  8. 8. B F Skinner
  9. 9. Operant conditionng <ul><li>The behaviour results in a consequence that can reinforce it </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement strengthens the behaviour that produces it </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement strengthens the behaviour that reduces it </li></ul>
  10. 10. Operant conditioning contd. <ul><li>Positive reinforcement – the child cries for lollies, receives the lollies and learns that crying results in lollies </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement – the child cries for lollies, is slapped and learns that the slap is the consequence of crying. The child ceases to cry when she wants something. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Operant conditioning contd. <ul><li>Reinforcement can be physical rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement can be emotional – praise or criticism </li></ul>
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Behaviour = effect on environment </li></ul><ul><li>Effect can be positive = influences behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Effect can be negative = influences behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of behaviour can be both a stimulus and a reinforcement </li></ul>
  13. 13. Albert Bandura <ul><li>1925 - ? American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Skinner’s operant conditioning into the social area </li></ul><ul><li>We are social beings and the strongest reinforcement is from our social environment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Albert Bandura
  15. 15. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>We are both the producer and product of our environment (not just passive within it) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of our learning that comes from direct experience can also be acquired through observations of others – the power of imitation and observation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social learning Theory contd. <ul><li>The stimulus of watching others can have the response of the person choosing to imitate </li></ul><ul><li>Adults can model desired behaviour to a child </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing and love can be the reward that produces the desired behaviour in a child </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social Learning Theory contd. <ul><li>Learning is not simple imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s understanding of the situation and what is being modelled can shape their response </li></ul><ul><li>People process information over time and are not bound by the immediate situation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Learning Theory contd. <ul><li>Stimulus + person’s cognitive process = response </li></ul>
  19. 19. Questions <ul><li>How do you think Skinner believes children learn? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think Bandura believes children learn? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think Piaget believes children learn? </li></ul>