Presentation_ENTER2012 PhD Workshop_Barbara Neuhofer


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Presentation ENTER 2012 PhD Workshop @ Helsingborg, Sweden; Barbara Neuhofer, PhD Researcher Bournemouth University, UK

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  • Presentation_ENTER2012 PhD Workshop_Barbara Neuhofer

    1. 1. Barbara Neuhofer BU eTourism Lab Bournemouth University, UK
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Theoretical Background </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Research Aim & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated Results </li></ul>
    3. 3. Theoretical Background I: Experience <ul><li>Consumers strive for unique and memorable experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Products have become increasingly commoditized and competitive advantage can only be obtained by providing consumers with experiences (Pine and Gilmore, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Company-centric idea of staging experiences in the experience economy is being substituted by experience co-creation (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-creation recognises active and powerful who co-create their own personal experiences (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Theoretical Background II: ICTs <ul><li>ICTs have not only become important in people’s everyday life contexts but have become increasingly implemented in tourism experiences (Crouch and Desforges, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-based technologies play a major role in supporting consumers throughout all stages of the consumption of travel experiences pre/during/post phase (e.g. preliminary information search, decision making, travel planning, communication, and retrieval of information or post-sharing of experiences) (Gretzel et al. , 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of emerging ICTs will lead to new types of experiences (Darmer and Sundbo, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs enable tourists to create richer experiences (Tussyadiah and Fesenmaier, 2007) and empower them to co-create their own personal experiences (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Research Problem <ul><li>The increasing proliferation of ICTs in tourism has had fundamental impacts on the nature of the tourist experience (Tussyadiah and Fesenmaier, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that the tourist experience in a technology-mediated context is still little understood (Beeton et al., 2006) the understanding of which is crucial to create unique and memorable tourist experiences in the future </li></ul>TOURIST EXPERIENCE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED TOURIST EXPERIENCE
    6. 6. Research Question & Objectives <ul><li>Overall Research Question: </li></ul><ul><li>How can tourist experiences be enhanced by technologies through co-creation throughout all three stages of the travel process? </li></ul><ul><li>Aim & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To holistically explore how ICTs can enhance tourist experiences through consumer-company experience co-creation in the pre/during/post phase of the travel process </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the use of ICTs in the tourist experience in all three stages (pre/during/post) of the travel process </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a theoretical model of the Technology Enhanced Tourist Experience </li></ul><ul><li>To validate the proposed model empirically to identify the factors determining the Technology Enhanced Tourist Experience </li></ul>
    7. 7. Conceptual Model
    8. 8. Proposed Methodology This study proposes a Mixed Methods Approach: PHASE 1: QUAL Secondary Research To identify the changing nature of the tourist experience in relation to the impact of ICTs Netnography To understand the role and use of ICTs in the pre/during/post phase of the tourist‘s travel Focus Group Interviews To understand how the tourist experience can be co-created between the company and the consumer through ICTs PHASE 2: QUAN ANALYSIS OF QUAL DATA Development of a theoretical model Survey To test and validate the developed model empirically ANALYSIS OF QUAN DATA Structural Equation Modeling
    9. 9. Anticipated Results <ul><li>Contribution to Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Generate an understanding and filling a gap of tourist experience theory in a technology-context </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the novel and still under-explored experience co-creation theory </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a model of the Technology Enhanced Tourist Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Enable managers to understand how to co-create technology enhanced tourist experiences together with the consumer in the pre/during/post phase of the tourist’s travel provess </li></ul><ul><li>Enable managers to understand the factors determining an overall Technology Enhanced Tourist Experience for the tourist consumer to support successful experience co-creation in the future </li></ul>
    10. 10. List of References <ul><li>Beeton, S., Bowen, H.E. & Santos, C.A. (2006). State of knowledge: Mass media and its relationship to perceptions of quality, In: Jennings, G. & Nickerson, N.P. (Eds.) Quality Tourism Experiences. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Crouch, D. & Desforges, L. (2003) The sensuous in the tourist encounter. Tourist Studies, 3 (1): pp. 5-22. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutler, S. Q. & Carmichael, B. (2010) The Dimensions of the Tourist Experience. In: Michael M., L., P., Brent Ritchie, J. R. (ed.) The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives. Bristol: Channel View Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Darmer, P. and Sundbo, J. (2008). Introduction to experience creation. In: Sundbo, J. & Darmer, P. (Eds.) Creating Experiences in the Experience Economy . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. </li></ul><ul><li>Gretzel, U., Fesenmaier, D.R. & O'Leary, J.T. (2006). The Transformation of consumer behaviour. In: Buhalis, D. & Costa, C. (Eds.) Tourism business frontiers: Consumers, Products and Industry . Oxford: Elsevier: pp. 9-18. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, M., Lugosi, P. & Ritchie, J. R. B. (Eds.) (2010). The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives. Bristol: Channel View. </li></ul><ul><li>O’dell, T. (2007) Tourist Experiences and Academic Junctures. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7 (1): pp. 34-45. </li></ul><ul><li>Oh, H., Fiore, A. M. & Jeoung, M. (2007) Measuring Experience Economy Concepts: Tourism Applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46: pp. 119-132. </li></ul><ul><li>Pine, J.B. & Gilmore, J.H. (1999). The Experience Economy: Work is a Theatre and every Business a Stage . Cambridge Harvard Business School. </li></ul><ul><li>Prahalad, C. K. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3): pp. 5-14. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritchie, J.R.B. & Hudson, S. (2009). Understanding and Meeting the Challenges of Customer/Tourist Experience Research. International Journal of Tourism Research 11: pp. 111-126. </li></ul><ul><li>Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Tung, V. W. S. & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2011) Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, (0). </li></ul><ul><li>Tussyadiah, I.P. & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2007). Interpreting Tourist Experiences from First-Person Stories: A Foundation for Mobile Guides. Proceedings of The 15th European Conference on Information Systems , St. Gallen, Switzerland. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Thank you! Questions & Comments Barbara Neuhofer PhD Researcher BU eTourism Lab Bournemouth University, UK [email_address]