Rajput clans emerged and held their sway over different parts of Rajasthan from about 700 AD. Before that, Rajasthan was a part of several republics. It was a part of the Mauryan Empire. Other major republics that dominated this region include the Malavas, Arjunyas, Yaudhyas, Kushans, Saka Satraps, Guptas and Hunas. The Rajput clans ascendancy in Indian history was during the period from the eighth to the twelfth century AD. The Pratihars ruled Rajasthan and most of northern India during 750-1000 AD. Between 1000-1200 AD, Rajasthan witnessed the struggle for supremacy between Chalukyas, Parmars and Chauhans.
Ancient Period, up to 1200 AD
Around 1200 AD a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthanbhor was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century AD, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar.
Medieval Period, 1201 - 1707
Rajasthan had never been united politically until its domination by Mughal Emperor - Akbar. Akbar created a unified province of Rajasthan. Mughal power started to decline after 1707. The political disintegration of Rajasthan was caused by the dismemberment of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas penetrated Rajasthan upon the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1755 they occupied Ajmer. The beginning of the 19th Century was marked by the onslaught of the Pindaris. In 1817-18 the British Government concluded treaties of alliance with almost all the states of Rajputana. Thus began the British rule over Rajasthan, then called Rajputana.
Modern Period, 1707 - 1947
The erstwhile Rajputana comprised 19 princely states and two chiefships of Lava and Kushalgarh and a British administered territory of Ajmer-Merwara. Rajasthan State was heterogeneous conglomeration of separate political entities with different administrative systems prevailing in different places. The present State of Rajasthan was formed after a long process of integration which began on March 17, 1948 and ended on November 1, 1956. Before integration it was called Rajputana; after integration it came to be known as Rajasthan. At present there are 32 districts (including the new district of Karauli), 105 sub-divisions, 241 tehsils, 37889 inhabited villages and 222 towns in the State.
Geographic Profile of Rajasthan
Rajasthan is located in the north western part of the subcontinent. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, on the east and southeast by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, and on the southwest by the state of Gujarat. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district. The state has an area of 132,140 square miles (342,239 square kilometers). The capital city is Jaipur.
Map of Rajasthan
Gazal(Chinkara) Godawan Godawan Khejri Tree Rohida
In the west, Rajasthan is relatively dry and infertile; this area includes some of the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert. In the southwestern part of the state, the land is wetter, hilly, and more fertile. The climate varies throughout Rajasthan. On average winter temperatures range from 8° to 28° C (46° to 82° F) and summer temperatures range from 25° to 46° C (77° to 115° F). Average rainfall also varies; the western deserts accumulate about 100 mm (about 4 in) annually, while the southeastern part of the state receives 650 mm (26 in) annually, most of which falls from July through September during the monsoon season.Generally dry with monsoon during July–August
People of Rajasthan
Brahmins : Their main occupation was worshipping and performance of religious rites.
Vaishya : These people generally took up business as their source of livelihood. These days they are settled in every nook and corner of the country & world.
There is a large group of agricultural castes to be found in Rajasthan.These people depend on Agriculture for thier livelihood. Some of these castes are Jat,Gurjar,Mali, Kalvi etc.
Irrespective of the birth-based caste system, each individual is free to follow the profession / occupation as per choice, in modern Rajasthan.
Many tribes are also found in different parts of Rajasthan. These tribes have their own social systems and customs.Some of the commonly known tribs are Meena, Bhil, Garasia, Kanjar.
Culture Rajasthan is a vibrant, exotic state where tradition and royal glory meet in a riot of colors against the vast backdrop of sand and desert. It has an unusual diversity in its entire forms- people, customs, culture, costumes, music, manners, dialects, cuisine and physiographic. The land is endowed with invincible forts, magnificent palace havelis, rich culture and heritage, beauty and natural resources. It is a land rich in music, Dance, Art & Craft and Adventure, a land that never ceases to intrigue & enchant. There is a haunting air of romance, about the state, which is palpable in its every nook and corner. This abode of kings is one of the most exotic locales for tourist world over. The state has not only survived in all its ethnicity but owes its charisma and color to its enduring traditional way of life. The Ghoomar dance from Udaipur and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmer have gained international recognition. Folk music is a vital part of Rajasthani culture. Kathputli , Bhopa , Chang , Teratali, Ghindar, Kachchhighori, Tejaji etc. are the examples of the traditional Rajasthani culture. Folk songs are commonly ballads which relate heroic deeds and love stories; and religious or devotional songs known as bhajans and banis (often accompanied by musical instruments like dholak , sitar , sarangi etc.) are also sung.
Costumes Both males and females dress in the customary dresses fully influenced by climate, economy, status and the profession, they are engaged. The traditional dresses being Potia, Dhoti, Banda, Angrakhi, Bugatari, Pachewara, Khol, Dhabla, amongst Hindus; and Tilak, Burga, Achkan amongst Muslims which fast changing now with Bushirt, Salwar and Skirts, Saris and Pants accordingly. Turbans the head dress of Rajasthan is a differential pattern of each geographical region designed to its terrain and climatic influence. Clothes express ones personality and tell people which village and caste they belong. All over Rajasthan the bandhni, tie-dye sari and turban reign supreme. The common dress of the women constitutes (i) Sari or Odhani, (ii) Kanchli or Kunchuki or Choli (iii) Ghaghra or Ghaghri or Lahanga Besides, the women of high status and ranks wear dupatta and patka. The use of chappals or sandals or jutees is also common but ladies of high families use coloured sandals studded with gold threads and stars.Thus, it is concluded that the costumes of women are very colourful and fascinating.
Ornaments Both men and women wear ornaments but with the passage of time, men are giving up their use. The ornaments of gold and silver are more prevalent in Rajasthan. There are certain ornaments which are used by men. In daily use the ladies wear normal ornaments of neck, hand, nose and ear but on special occasions and social functions women wear all the ornaments of to look beautiful and attractive. For its exquisite designs and delicacy of art Rajasthan jewelry is a rage not only for ladies in India but also for women of foreign countries.
The mother tongue of the majority of people in Rajasthan is Rajasthani. Rajasthani and Hindi are the most widely used languages in Rajasthan. Rajasthani is used as a medium of instruction, along with Hindi and English, in some schools. Some other languages used in Rajasthan are Gujarati, BrajBhasha, Sindhi and Punjabi.
Popular Rajasthani dishes
Dhungari Hui Chaach
Popular Rajasthani curries
Beans ki sabji
Gajar ki sabji
Guwar fali ki saag
Karela ki sabji
Keri ki sabji
Kicha ki sabji
Kikoda ki sabji
Makki ki raab
Matar ki sabji
Moranga ki sabji
The main religious festivals
Deepawali, Holi, Gangaur, Teej, Gogaji, Shri Devnarayan Jayanti,Makar Sankranti and Janmashtami, as the main religion is Hinduism.
Rajasthan's desert festival is celebrated with great zest and zeal. This festival is held once a year during winter. Dressed in brilliantly hued costumes, the people of the desert dance and sing haunting ballads of valor, romance and tragedy.
There are fairs with snake charmers, puppeteers, acrobats and folk performers. Camels, of course, play a stellar role in this festival
Advocate, Agriculturist and Hony, Prof of Law Profession One Son and One Daughter Children Late Smt. Vijaya Patil Wife Married in June 1963 Marital Status Punjab Raj Bhavan, Sector-6, Chandigarh. Official Residence 4, Janpath Road, New Delhi-110011 Official Residence Chakur,Dist-Latur,Maharashtra Place of Birth “ Deoghar” Sabdhawana Nagar, Latur-413512 (Maharashtra) Permanent Address 12th October 1935 Date of Birth Late Shri Vishwanath Patil Father’s Name Shri Shivraj V Patil Name
House of People 10
Major Political party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (National) 79
Communist Party of India Marxist (National)
Bahujan Samaj Party (National) 6
Indian National Congress (National) 96
Indian National LokDal (State)
Janata Dal (United) (State)
Lok Jan Shakti Party (State)
Rajasthan Samajik Nyaya Manch (State)
Members of Council of States (Rajya Sabha) Dr. PrabhaThakur 10 Dr. Abhishek Manu Singhvi 9 Dr. Gyan Prakash Pilania 8 Shri Om Prakash Mathur 7 Shri Ram Jethmalani 6 Shri Narendra Budania 5 Shri V.P.Singh Badnore 4 Shri Anand Sharma 3 Shri Ramdas Agarwal 2 Shri Ashk Ali Tak 1
Members of Parliament (Lok Sabha) Shri Bharat Ram Meghwal, Ganganagar(SC) 11 Dr. Kirodilal Meena, Dausa(ST) 10 Shri Ram Singh Kaswan, Churu 9 Dr.(Kum.) Girija Vyas, Chittorgarh 8 Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal, Bikaner (SC) 7 Dr. C. P. Joshi, Bhilwara 6 Shri Ratan Singh, Bharatpur(SC) 5 Shri Harish Choudhary, Barmer 4 Shri Tarachand Bhagora, Banswara(ST) 3 Shri Jitendra Singh, Alwar 2 Shri Sachin Pilot, Ajmer 1 Name of Member Costituency S.No.
Chief Ministers of Rajasthan Party Left Office Took Office Name Indian National Congress 29 April 1977 11 August 1973 Hari Dev Joshi 11 Indian National Congress 11 August 1973 9 July 1971 Barkatullah Khan 10 Indian National Congress 9 July 1971 26 April 1967 Mohan Lal Sukhadia  9 Indian National Congress 13 March 1967 12 March 1962 Mohan Lal Sukhadia  8 Indian National Congress 11 March 1962 11 April 1957 Mohan Lal Sukhadia  7 Indian National Congress 11 April 1957 13 November 1954 Mohan Lal Sukhadia 6 Indian National Congress 12 November 1954 1 November 1952 Jai Narayan Vyas  5 Indian National Congress 31 October 1952 3 March 1952 Tika Ram Paliwal 4 Indian National Congress 3 March 1952 26 April 1951 Jai Narayan Vyas 3 Indian National Congress 25 April 1951 6 January 1951 C S Venkatachari 2 Indian National Congress 5 January 1951 7 April 1949 Heera Lal Shastri 1
Indian National Congress Incumbent 12 December 2008 Ashok Gehlot  23 Bharatiya Janata Party 11 December 2008 8 December 2003 Vasundhara Raje Scindia 22 Indian National Congress 8 December 2003 1 December 1998 Ashok Gehlot 21 Bharatiya Janata Party 29 November 1998 4 December 1993 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat  20 Bharatiya Janata Party 15 December 1992 4 March 1990 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat  19 Indian National Congress 4 March 1990 4 December 1989 Hari Dev Joshi  18 Indian National Congress 4 December 1989 20 January 1988 Shiv Charan Mathur  17 Indian National Congress 20 January 1988 10 March 1985 Hari Dev Joshi  16 Indian National Congress 10 March 1985 23 February 1985 Hira Lal Devpura 15 Indian National Congress 23 February 1985 14 July 1981 Shiv Charan Mathur 14 Indian National Congress 13 July 1981 6 June 1980 Jagannath Pahadia 13 Janata Party 16 February 1980 22 June 1977 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat 12 Indian National Congress 29 April 1977 11 August 1973 Hari Dev Joshi 11
Chief minister of Rajasthan Indian National Congress (INC) - Party Sardarpura (Jodhpur) - Constituency Political and Social Worker - Profession B.Sc., M.A. (Economics), LL.B. Jodhpur University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan). - Educational Qualifications Son - One, Daughter - One - No. of Children Smt Sunita Gehlot - Spouse’s Name 27 November, 1977 - Date of Marriage Married - Marital Status Mahamandir, Jodhpur - Place of Birth 3 May, 1951 - Date of Birth Late Lachman Singh Gehlot - Father's Name Sh. Ashok Gehlot - Name
Tourism in Rajasthan
Rajasthan attracted 14% of total foreign visitors during 2009-2010 which is fourth highest in all states of India.
Rajasthan is famous for the majestic forts, intricately carved temples and decorated havelis .
Parks and Sancturies
Wildlife & Adventure
Palance on Wheels
Royal Rajasthan On wheels
Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti,Ajmer Dargah Sharif
Janter Manter Jaipur
National Parks & Sanctuaries
Rajasthan is also noted for National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. There are four national park and wildlife sanctuaries named the Keoladeo National Park of Bharatpur , Sariska Tiger Reserve of Alwar, Ranthambore National Park of Sawai Madhopur, and Desert National Park of Jaisalmer.
Besides, it houses several small wildlife sanctuaries and eco-tourism parks . Prominent among them are Mount Abu Sanctuary, Bhensrod Garh Sanctuary, Darrah Sanctuary, Jaisamand Sanctuary,Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawahar Sagar sanctuary and Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary.
RSRTC (Bus Service)
The Corporation has 48 depot spread over the State. The Corporation buses daily cover over 1.5 million kilometers catering to nearly 1 million passengers through its network of over 13000 services to all-important places in Rajasthan and adjoining States of Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Roads: 1,51,914 km. (8,798 km National Highway)
All the major city linked each other by Mega Highway.
National highways crossing Rajasthan: Delhi-Ahmedabad, Agra-Bikaner, Jaipur-Bhopal, Bhatinda-Kandla and Pali-Ambala & East - West Corridor.
Rajasthan is connected with the main cities of India by rail.
Jaipur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer, Udaipur and Jodhpur are the principal railway stations in Rajasthan.
North Western Railway is one of the sixteen railway zones in India.It is headquartered at Jaipur.
It comprises four divisions: Jodhpur and reorganized Bikaner division of the erstwhile Northern Railway and reorganized Jaipur and Ajmer divisions of the erstwhile Western Railway
Airports in Rajasthan
All chief cities are connected by air
Jaipur Sanganer Airport International / Domestic
Udaipur - Maharana Pratap Airport Domestic
Jodhpur Airport Domestic
Jaisalmer Airport Domestic
Kota Airport Domestic
Bikaner - Nal (Bikaner) Airport Domestic
Media Print Rajasthan’s frist news paper is Majhrul-surur (1849),this newspaper is published in two languages Urdu & hindi from bharatpur. 1879-1920 Desh hiteshi, Paropkari, Anath rakshak, Dharm vartant 1920-1974 Tarun Rajasthan, Rajasthan, Meera After 1947 Amar jyoti, Arawali, 15-August, Sawtrant Bharat, Lalkar, Lok Jivan, Senani, Lokmat, Ganrajya, Aag, Jawala, Lokraj, Jai-hind Current The Hindustan times, Time of India, Indian Express, Statesman, Time (English Daily) Rastrduth, Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Jalte deep, Dainik navjyotik, Amar Rajasthan, Jai Rajasthan, Lokwarta Samachar (Hindi Daily)
Samachar Jagat, Mahanagar times, News today, Evening plus, Evening Post Broadcast medium Regional News Channel Doordarshan Jaipur ETV Rajasthan TV9 Rajasthan Sahara Samay Radio Air, Gyan Vani, Radio Banasthali Major FM Station Radio Mirchi, Radio City, South Asia FM, MY FM, FM Radio 7, 95 FM Tadka
Rivers, Canals & Dams
Chambal,Ghaggar-Hakra, Sabarmati, Luni, Mahi, Banas, Kali Sindh, Jawai, Ahar, Gambhir, West Banas, Arvari, Bandi, Parbati, Mithari, Berach, Gomati, Sukri, Sukali
Dams And Canals In Rajasthan: Agra Canal, Indira Gandhi Canal, Jawai Dam, Kota Barrage, Hemawas, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam, Ummed Sagar Bandh.
Economy Rajasthan's economy is primarily agricultural and pastoral . Wheat and barley are cultivated over large areas, as are pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Cotton and tobacco are the state's cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India and the main opium producer and consumer. There are mainly two crop seasons. The water for irrigation comes from wells and tanks. The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates northwestern Rajasthan. The main industries are mineral based, agriculture based, and textiles. Rajasthan is the second largest producer of polyester fibre in India. The Bhilwara District produces more cloth than Bhiwandi, Maharashtra and the bhilwara is the largest city in suiting's production and export.
Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the town of Kota , in southern Rajasthan. Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The Taj Mahal was built from the white marble which was mined from a town called Makrana . The state is the second largest source of cement in India. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar , copper mines at Khetri , Jhunjhunu and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines at Zawarmala for zinc , Rampura Aghucha (opencast) near Bhilwara . Dimensional stone mining is also undertaken in Rajasthan. Jodhpur sandstone is mostly used in monuments, important buildings and residential buildings. This stone is termed as "chittar patthar". Rajasthan is now the preferred destination for IT companies and North India's largest integrated IT park is located in Jaipur and is named as Mahindra World City Jaipur covering nearly 3,000 acres (12 km2) of land. Some of the companies operating in Rajasthan include Infosys , Genpact , Wipro , Truworth, Deutsche Bank, NEI, MICO, Honda Siel Cars, Coca Cola and Procter & Gamble.
Gross area irrigated 8088455 Hect. in 2008-2009 594056 10035 (iv) Sugarcane 146576 353812 (iii) Cotton 4229346 2575439 (ii) Oil seeds 16084435 3820898 (i) Food grains Production (m.tn) Irrigated Area (Hect.) Crop