온톨로지 개념 및 표현언어

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온톨로지 개념 및 표현언어

  1. 1. 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 온톨로지 개념 및 온톨로지 표현언어 김동범 (eastkim@gmail.com) 아이네크 시맨틱사업팀 http://www.dbdb.kr, @eastkim on twitter 2009.05.29 1
  2. 2. The Role of RDF on Semantic Web Semantic Aspect 시맨틱 웹 표준의 첫 번째 Layer Web Aspect 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -2-
  3. 3. Why RDF model is different from the XML model ?  “The author of the page is Ora”  triple(author, page, Ora) has author page Ora Tim Berners-Lee (1998), http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDF-XML 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -3-
  4. 4. How would this information be typically represented in XML? or may be <author> <document> <uri>page</uri> <details> <uri>href=“page”</uri> <name>Ora</name> <author> </author> <name>Ora</name> </author> </details> or may be </document> <document href=“page”> <author>Ora</author> <document> </document> <author> <uri>href=“page”</uri> <details> <name>Ora</name> </details> </author> </document> or may be <document href=“http://www.w3.org/test/page” author=“Ora” /> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -4-
  5. 5. What is the author of page? <v> <x> <y>a=“pppp”</y> <z> <w>qqqqq</w> </z> </x> </v> has author page Ora b a c 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -5-
  6. 6. In RDF Graph <Description about=quot;http://www.w3.org/test/pagequot; Author =quot;Oraquot; /> <?xml version=quot;1.0quot;?> <Description about=quot;http://www.w3.org/test/page“> <s:Author =quot;http://www.w3.org/staff/Oraquot; /> </Description> has author page Ora 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -6-
  7. 7. The RDF Graph displays the same thing <Description about=“xquot; y=“z” /> <?xml version=quot;1.0quot;?> <Description about=“x“> <y =“z” /> </Description> y x z 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -7-
  8. 8. 분산된 데이터의 웹에서…. 글을 영화 ‘xxx’에 작성하다 출연하다 통합문서 Ora는 ‘page’의 저자이고, 영화 ‘xxx’에 출연했다 xxx has author page Ora plays in 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -8-
  9. 9. What is ontology? quot;formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization“ “공유된 개념에 대한 형식적이고, 명시적인 명세……??” Tom Gruber (1993) 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 -9-
  10. 10. What is ontology? 존재론 in Philosophy 즉, 온톨로지는 “존재하는 것들에 대한 설명” 그럼 존재하는 것이란 무엇일까요? 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 10 -
  11. 11. 존재하는 것 Thing 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 11 -
  12. 12. 스무고개… Asia partOf Person lives in type Korea Asia age Thing works at 3X INEK name type ?? Corporation 정답!! >> 김동범 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 12 -
  13. 13. 이와 같이 온톨로지는….  Thing 에 제약(속성, 관계)을 가함으로써 개념을 정의  제약이 많다 = 표현력(Expressivity)이 풍부하다  객관적인 형식과 그 형식이 동작하는 방식을 규정 (formal) 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 13 -
  14. 14. 표현력에 따른 온톨로지  Lightweight ontologies  Heavyweight ontologies  Concepts  type constraints on relations  Relationships between  Cardinality constraints Concepts  Axioms  IS-A Hierarchy RDF, RDFS, OWL Lite OWL DL 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 14 -
  15. 15. 온톨로지 표현 언어 RDF, RDFS, OWL 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 15 -
  16. 16. History of Ontology Language  RDF(S)  Developed by W3C (1999, 02)  Ontology Inference Layer : OIL  Developed by group of European researchers (2000, 01)  DAML Ontology Language : DAML-ONT  Developed by US researchers working in DAML program (2000, 10)  Effort merged in DAML+OIL  Developed by EU/US joint committee (2000, 12)  W3C Web Ontology group : OWL  W3C standard based on DAML+OIL (2002, 02) 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 16 -
  17. 17. RDF stands for Resource : URI를 갖는 모든 것 (웹 페이지, 이미지, 동영상 등) Description : 자원(Resource)들의 속성, 특성, 관계 Framework : 위의 것들을 기술하기 위한 모델, 언어, 문법 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 17 -
  18. 18. RDF 데이타 모델 Predicate Subject Object : Triple Model example title 온톨로지 개념 및 표현언어 http://www.dbdb.kr/rdf_tutorial author DongBeom Kim <?xml version=“1.0”> <RDF> <Description about=“http://www.dbdb.kr/rdf_tutorial”> <author>DongBeom Kim</author> <homepage>온톨로지 개념 및 표현언어</homepage> </Description> </RDF> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 18 -
  19. 19. Movie List URI : http://movie.naver.com/ 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 19 -
  20. 20. RDF Example title director country runtime genre reviewer 007 퀀텀 오브 솔러스 마크 포스터 미국 106분 액션 genie 아내가 결혼했다 정윤수 한국 119분 멜로 eastkim … … … … … … <?xml version=“1.0”> <RDF xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:movie=“http://movie.naver.com/”> <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/007quantumofsolace”> <movie:title>007 퀀텀 오브 솔러스</movie:title> <movie:director>마크 포스터</movie:director> <movie:country>미국</movie:country> <movie:runtime>106분</movie:runtime> <movie:reviewer>genie</movie:reviewer> </Description> <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/2husbands”> <movie:title>아내가 결혼했다</movie:title> … </Description> </RDF> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 20 -
  21. 21. RDF Main Elements <rdf:RDF> Element RDF 문서의 root Element <rdf:Description> Element about 속성을 가진 resource를 식별(기술)하기 위해 사용 Resource를 기술하기 위한 여러 Element(title, director, etc)를 포함 <?xml version=“1.0”> <RDF xmlns:rdf=“http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#” xmlns:movie=“http://movie.naver.com/”> <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/007quantumofsolace”> . <movie:title>007 goes 오브 솔러스</movie:title> . Description 퀀텀 here <movie:director>마크 포스터</movie:director> . <movie:country>미국</movie:country> <movie:runtime>106분</movie:runtime> <movie:reviewer>genie</movie:reviewer> </Description> <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/2husbands”> <movie:title>아내가 결혼했다</movie:title> … </Description> </RDF> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 21 -
  22. 22. RDF Main Elements  Properties as Attributes <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/007quantumofsolace” movie:title=“007 퀀텀 오브 솔러스” movie:director=“마크 포스터” movie:country=“미국” movie:runtime=“106분” movie:reviewer=“genie” />  Properties as Resources <Description rdf:about=“http://movie.naver.com/007quantumofsolace”> <movie:title>007 퀀텀 오브 솔러스</movie:title> <movie:director>마크 포스터</movie:director> <movie:country>미국</movie:country> <movie:runtime>106분</movie:runtime> <movie:reviewer>genie</movie:reviewer> </Description> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 22 -
  23. 23. RDF Main Elements  rdf: Alt, Bag, Description, ID, List, Property, Statement, Seq, XMLLiteral about, first, nodeID, object, parseType, predicate, resource, rest, subject, type, value, nil  rdfs : Class, Container, ContainerMembershipProperty, Datatype, Literal, Resource comment, domain, isDefinedBy, label, member, range, sellAlso, subClassOf, subPropertyOf 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 23 -
  24. 24. OWL (Web Ontology Language)  More Expressive than RDF(S)  Adds more vocabularies for describing properties and classes  Based on Description Logic  W3C Recommendation (2004.02) 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 24 -
  25. 25. OWL 의 하위 언어들  OWL Lite  Subset of DL  light-weight 한 ontology 구축에 적합  OWL DL  Support Description Logic segment  Has properties for reasoning systems  heavy-weight한 ontology 구축에 적합  OWL Full  Union of OWL and RDFS  Allow free mixing of OWL with RDF Schema  Not enforce a strict separation of classes, properties, individuals  OWL Lite ⊂ DL ⊂ Full 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 25 -
  26. 26. OWL Lite Contructions (1)  RDF Schema Features:  (In)Equality  Class  equivalentClass  rdf:Property  equivalentProperty  rdfs:subClassOf  sameIndividualAs  rdfs:subPropertyOf  differentFrom  rdfs:domain  allDifferent  rdfs:range  Individual 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 26 -
  27. 27. OWL Lite Contructions (2)  Property Type  Restricted Cardinality Restrictions: – minCardinality (only 0 or 1)  allValuesFrom – maxCardinality(only 0 or 1)  someValuesFrom – cardinality (only 0 or 1)  Class Intersection  Property Characteristics:  intersectionOf  inverseOf  transitiveProperty  Datatypes  symmetricProperty  functionalPropety  InverseFunctionalProperty 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 27 -
  28. 28. Property type restrictions  owl:allValuesFrom <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource=quot;#hasParentquot; /> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource=quot;#Humanquot; /> </owl:Restriction> hasParent X Y Y는 모두 Human  owl:someValuesFrom : 부모중 적어도 한명은 Physician 이다. <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource=quot;#hasParentquot; /> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource=quot;#Physicianquot;/> </owl:Restriction> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 28 -
  29. 29. Property type restrictions  owl:inverseOf if hasChild inverseOf hasParent and Deborah hasParent Louise then Louise hasChild Deborah  owl:transitiveProperty if pair(X,Y), pair(Y,Z) are instances of transitive property P, then pair(X,Z) is also instance of P  owl:symmetricProperty if pair(X,Y) is an instance of P, then pair(Y,X) is also instance of P 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 29 -
  30. 30. OWL DL, FULL Contructions (2) Axioms:  Class Boolean Combinations   oneOf of Class Expressions:  disjointWith – unionOf  equivalentClass – intersectionOf (applied to class expressions) – complementOf  rdfs:subClassOf (applied to class expressions)  Filler Information:  Arbitrary Cardinality: – hasValue  minCardinality  maxCardinality  cardinality 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 30 -
  31. 31. OWL DL 표현 예제  owl:intersectionOf  links a class to a list of class description  represent the “AND” <owl:Class rdf:ID=quot;Adultquot;> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType=quot;Collectionquot;> <owl:Class rdf:about=quot;#Personquot;/> <owl:restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource=quot;#agequot;/> <owl:someValuesFrom df:resource=quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/@@/owl-ex-dt#over19quot;/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Adult = Person ∩ $ age.over19 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 31 -
  32. 32. OWL DL 표현 예제  owl:inverseOf <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasChild”> <owl:inverseOf rdf:resource=“#hasParent”/> </owl:ObjectProperty>  owl:FunctionalProperty <owl:FunctionalProperty rdf:ID=quot;husbandquot;> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=quot;#Womanquot; /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=quot;#Manquot; /> </owl:FunctionalProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=quot;husbandquot;> <rdf:type rdf:resource=quot;&owl;FunctionalPropertyquot; /> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=quot;#Womanquot; /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=quot;#Manquot; /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 32 -
  33. 33. OWL DL 표현 예제  owl:TransitiveProperty <owl:TransitiveProperty rdf:ID=quot;subRegionOfquot;> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=quot;#Regionquot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=quot;#Regionquot;/> </owl:TransitiveProperty>  owl:SymmetricProperty <owl:SymmetricProperty rdf:ID=quot;friendOfquot;> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=quot;#Humanquot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=quot;#Humanquot;/> </owl:SymmetricProperty> 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 - 33 -
  34. 34. 시맨틱 웹 VoCamp 서울: 여름 감사합니다 ! 34

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