Physics of Tsunami By: Febdian Rusydi   Aree Witolear
 
Part 1 Earthquake
Causes of Earthquake <ul><li>Volcanic eruption  </li></ul><ul><li>Meteor impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Underground explosions ...
Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Lithosphere      </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of  many plates that slide over  the lubricating...
Plate Tectonics <ul><li>At the boundaries between plates </li></ul><ul><li>Plates  slide  against each other </li></ul><ul...
Earthquake at Sea 1 st  possibility:
Earthquake at Sea 2 nd  possibility:
 
Part 2 Tsunami
Tsunami <ul><li>Tsunami  ( tsoo – nah – mee ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsu (harbor) & nami (wave) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ A ...
Theory of Waves <ul><li>Traveling Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Wave moves energy,  not  matter! </li></ul><ul><li>Energy     E ...
Ocean Waves <ul><li>Wind blows     grab water molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Water’s surface stretches    ripples (capillar...
Tsunami Waves
Tsunami At Sea <ul><li>Unlike a normal wave, energy of a tsunami moves  through  the water, not on top of it. </li></ul><u...
Energy Loss <ul><li>Waves loses energy as it moves away from its source </li></ul><ul><li>Energy  loss rate  ~ 1 / wavelen...
Normal Wave vs Tsunami Wave <ul><li>Ocean Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Speed = 8-100 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Wave Period = 5-20 se...
As Tsunami Moves…
 
At the Beach <ul><li>Shallow water  compresses the energy </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami moving  away the beach : fast, short h...
 
 
Part 3 Impact
Some Pictures from Satellite
Tsunami 12/26 <ul><li>Magnitude of earthquake = 9.0 SR </li></ul><ul><li>Slipped plate length = 1,200 km </li></ul><ul><li...
Detected Earthquake
Tsunami Animation
Tsunami in Aceh <ul><li>Magnitude:  9.0  on the Richter scale </li></ul><ul><li>The  Energy  possessed (roughly): </li></u...
Impact on Earth <ul><li>Some smaller island southwest Sumatera  moved ~ 20 m to southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Northern tip o...
What we believe <ul><li>This is not a disaster, but a miracle </li></ul><ul><li>Miracle that changes many things in our so...
Poem by Heri Latief
The End Credits: BBC, How Stuff Works
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Physics of tsunami

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Physics of tsunami

  1. 2. Physics of Tsunami By: Febdian Rusydi Aree Witolear
  2. 4. Part 1 Earthquake
  3. 5. Causes of Earthquake <ul><li>Volcanic eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Meteor impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Underground explosions (like nuclear tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of plates (tectonic) </li></ul>
  4. 6. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Lithosphere  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of many plates that slide over the lubricating athenosphere layer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why does it move? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid (magma) underneath is moving all the time. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>At the boundaries between plates </li></ul><ul><li>Plates slide against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Plates move apart  magma flows up to the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Plates push together  one subducts the other, or neither plate subducts under the other. </li></ul>San Andreas Fault 1 2 3
  6. 8. Earthquake at Sea 1 st possibility:
  7. 9. Earthquake at Sea 2 nd possibility:
  8. 11. Part 2 Tsunami
  9. 12. Tsunami <ul><li>Tsunami ( tsoo – nah – mee ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsu (harbor) & nami (wave) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ A natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale” (www.wikipedia.org) </li></ul>
  10. 13. Theory of Waves <ul><li>Traveling Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Wave moves energy, not matter! </li></ul><ul><li>Energy  E ~ f ~ v/  </li></ul>T = 1/f
  11. 14. Ocean Waves <ul><li>Wind blows  grab water molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Water’s surface stretches  ripples (capillary waves) </li></ul><ul><li>Ripples moves  more molecules collected </li></ul><ul><li>Size and momentum increase  reach the beach </li></ul>
  12. 15. Tsunami Waves
  13. 16. Tsunami At Sea <ul><li>Unlike a normal wave, energy of a tsunami moves through the water, not on top of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity: </li></ul><ul><li>d = water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Moves fast in deep waters  400 km/hour! </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 1 meter high  can not be seen </li></ul><ul><li>“… we only felt that the waves were larger than normal. Only that!” </li></ul><ul><li>- Rusli, a fisherman </li></ul>
  14. 17. Energy Loss <ul><li>Waves loses energy as it moves away from its source </li></ul><ul><li>Energy loss rate ~ 1 / wavelength </li></ul><ul><li> The longer the wavelength, the less energy it loses </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami wavelength = 200 km! </li></ul><ul><li> Energy is almost constant far from epicenter </li></ul>
  15. 18. Normal Wave vs Tsunami Wave <ul><li>Ocean Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Speed = 8-100 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Wave Period = 5-20 seconds apart </li></ul><ul><li>Wave Length = 100-200 meters apart </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Speed = 800-1000 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Wave Period = 10 min-2 hours apart </li></ul><ul><li>Wave Length = 100-500 km apart </li></ul>
  16. 19. As Tsunami Moves…
  17. 21. At the Beach <ul><li>Shallow water compresses the energy </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami moving away the beach : fast, short height </li></ul><ul><li> v &  increase, A decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami moving toward the beach : slow, tall height </li></ul><ul><li> v &  decrease, A increase </li></ul>
  18. 24. Part 3 Impact
  19. 25. Some Pictures from Satellite
  20. 26. Tsunami 12/26 <ul><li>Magnitude of earthquake = 9.0 SR </li></ul><ul><li>Slipped plate length = 1,200 km </li></ul><ul><li>Slip over = 15 m </li></ul><ul><li>Height of wave reach up to 30 m with speed ~ 800 km/hr </li></ul>
  21. 27. Detected Earthquake
  22. 28. Tsunami Animation
  23. 29. Tsunami in Aceh <ul><li>Magnitude: 9.0 on the Richter scale </li></ul><ul><li>The Energy possessed (roughly): </li></ul><ul><li>~ 5 MTons of TNT = 2*10 18 Joules </li></ul><ul><li>~ 2 x explosive energy during all WW II </li></ul><ul><li>~ 30% energy consumed in USA a year </li></ul><ul><li>~ 70 days Hurricane Isabel </li></ul>
  24. 30. Impact on Earth <ul><li>Some smaller island southwest Sumatera moved ~ 20 m to southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Northern tip of Sumatera moved ~ 36m to southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Some small islands near Aceh province are gone forever </li></ul><ul><li>New lakes/rivers created in ex-land in Aceh, disconnecting transportation to ex-villages </li></ul>
  25. 31. What we believe <ul><li>This is not a disaster, but a miracle </li></ul><ul><li>Miracle that changes many things in our social life! </li></ul><ul><li>The miracle is not finished yet </li></ul><ul><li>We have a responsibility, to finish the miracle: </li></ul><ul><li>DONATE YOUR MONEY FOR ACEH! </li></ul>
  26. 32. Poem by Heri Latief
  27. 33. The End Credits: BBC, How Stuff Works

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