Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

香港六合彩

  • 834 views
Uploaded on

并做了个很惬意的表情。那你应该谢我才对。王峰为自己境遇的峰回路转而高兴。谢你?没门,除非你能抢到我的球。说完子允快速起身踩住一个球,逗王峰来抢。王峰笑着去逼。此时王秀打这经过,不知香港六合彩看没看见。《Y滋味》显得极为可爱赵子允,去哪?哎,听没听见啊?赵子允!我在问你哪。走在路上的子允听是王秀声音,不情愿地回了下头。这一回头,就回不回来了。王秀身旁站着周晨晨。子允没有准备笑的脸,非常戏剧效果......

并做了个很惬意的表情。那你应该谢我才对。王峰为自己境遇的峰回路转而高兴。谢你?没门,除非你能抢到我的球。说完子允快速起身踩住一个球,逗王峰来抢。王峰笑着去逼。此时王秀打这经过,不知香港六合彩看没看见。《Y滋味》显得极为可爱赵子允,去哪?哎,听没听见啊?赵子允!我在问你哪。走在路上的子允听是王秀声音,不情愿地回了下头。这一回头,就回不回来了。王秀身旁站着周晨晨。子允没有准备笑的脸,非常戏剧效果地绽放出喜笑颜开,身体也转了过来。是啊,走那么急去哪呀?周晨晨嘴角微翘,专利似的笑脸在毛茸茸的衣领中显得极为可爱。子允的嘴失灵半天才说,呃,我……我去食堂。噢!香港六合彩问话你就屁颠屁颠回答得快,我刚才喊那么几声你却全当没听见。王秀眨着肥眼皮怨道。子允很受用王秀甘为人梯的话,觉得香港六合彩像白蛇传里的小青。香港六合彩并不回答,原样笑着。你怎么不回答,不会抄作业抄昏了头吧?王秀受到鼓励似的戏道。碍于周晨晨的面子,子允还是笑,觉得此时只有这样笑才最有意思。多大人了,还惦记着吃。微笑的周晨晨这才拐弯说。现在是课间,还没到吃饭时间。处于青春发育期,能吃是正常的事。人小的时候胃小,吃多不消化,老了以后,胃功能退化,没食欲。难道这些理由还不足够说服我来尽情享受吃的滋味吗?子允回答问题从不愿直接了当,香港六合彩觉得不绕上几个弯就像没有经过思考一样,就是不尊重问话人的表现.现在面对的是周晨晨,大脑更得快速飞转,恨不得说出口的话都能百转千回的和羊肠有一比.就你能说,当香港六合彩嘴拙?王秀又往香港六合彩中间插杠子,子允疼得直咬牙。周晨晨轻轻推王秀胳膊,张开口还没说话,哎,王秀不仅抢先一步嘴,还抢先一步脚,声音提高三度,赵同学,说到吃,你还想起什么啦?子允的目光从周晨晨那拔出来,艰难地看着王秀,用了个只有低音do那么低的声音问,什么?你是真想不起来,还是装傻啊。晨晨,看香港六合彩差不差劲。王秀卖着关子下定义。可周晨晨也一脸的不知其意。哎呦,看看,看看,男生就是这样轻易把女生骗了的。晨晨啊,你要还这样没脑子,将来被香港六合彩卖了还为香港六合彩数钱呢。两人被说得摸不着头脑,但将来被香港六合彩卖了这句话倒使香港六合彩在一种来不及享受的兴奋中相互渗透着羞涩。哎呀,你的心思都到哪去啦?我说白了吧。王秀看自己话没能达到预期效果,只得像《英雄》怕盗版者抢了饭碗一样提前上映。你不是答应请我吃饭的吗?还没几天就忘光了啊?王秀抹了一下只有周晨晨一半长的头发等着子允作如何反应。这事啊,子允舒了口气,没问题,就今天吧

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
834
On Slideshare
834
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The New Alternate Assessment for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities 15 th Annual Alaska Statewide Special Education Conference: Perspectives & Snapshots Developing images of success February 21, 2006 Aran Felix, Alternate Assessment Program Manager, EED Fran Maiuri, Special Education Professional Development, ASD
  • 2. Purpose of Presentation, Section 1
    • Explain why the state is changing to a new Alternate Assessment; the AA’s connection to Grade Level Expectations; and general information and background about the AA.
    • Assessment’s connection to standards and instruction.
    • Opportunity for stakeholders to provide feedback on several assessment products.
  • 3. Quick Quiz
    • Who takes the alternate assessment?
    • Approximately how many students in Alaska take this test?
    • Who decides eligibility to take this test?
    • Where can you find the eligibility criteria?
    • What kind of test is the AA?
    • Is the Alternate part of the CSSA?
    • Who scores the alternate assessment portfolio?
  • 4. For the FAQ Files – (Handout)
    • Pink cards in folder
    • Write down your burning questions throughout presentations
    • 1 ? per card, more cards available
    • What do you want to know about the AA?
    • Pass to side, we will collect
    • Review and discuss at end of session
    • Design FAQ File from your questions
  • 5. Abbreviations – (Handout)
    • AA – Alternate Assessment
    • CSSA – Comprehensive System of Student Assessment
    • DRC – Data Recognition Corporation (Vendor for SBA, HSGQE, Science)
    • DRA – Dillard Research Associates (Vendor for all AA, R/W/M/S)
    • ExGLEs – Extended Grade Level Expectations
    • GLEs- Grade Level Expectations
    • HSGQE – High School Graduation Qualifying Exam
    • IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    • IEP – Individualized Education Program
    • NCLB – No Child Left Behind
    • SBAs – Standards Based Assessments
    • SCD – Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities
    • SWD – Students with Disabilities
  • 6. Background Legal and Historical Shifts
  • 7. Federal & State Legislation
    • IDEA
      • SWD access general education curriculum
      • Accommodations
      • Do Alternate Assessment
      • Report performance on standards & test results
    • AK STATUTES
      • Assess Grades 3-10, R/W/M and HSGQE
    • NCLB
      • Same, Challenging Academic Standards for all, including SWD
      • Assess ALL students including SWD
      • Accountability (AYP)
      • Assess Reading, Math, Science
      • High Technical Quality
  • 8. Historical Perspective: Changing Curricular Context for SCD
    • Early 1970s
      • Adapting infant/early childhood curriculum for students with the most significant disabilities of all ages
    • 1980s
      • Rejected “developmental model”
      • Functional, life skills curriculum emerged
    • 1990s
      • Also: social inclusion focus
      • Also: self determination focus
      • Assistive technology
    • 2000
      • General curriculum access (academic content)
      • Plus earlier priorities (functional, social, self determination)
      • Digitally accessible materials
  • 9. Positive Consequences for SWD when included in state assessments
    • Higher levels of learning and achievement for students with disabilities
    • Increased access to general ed curriculum
    • Increased opportunity to learn grade level material
    • Accountability for student learning
    • Documents what students ‘know’ & ‘can do’
  • 10. Who are the AA Students? Articulating the Population
  • 11. Who are the students who take Alternate Assessments?
    • The number of students participating in alternate assessments on alternate achievement standards as compared to the total population of student learners and students with disabilities…
  • 12. More different than alike…
    • The total student population receiving special education services broken down by disability category
    • SOURCE: Education Week analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education,
    • Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis System, 2002-03.
  • 13. Issues in Teaching & Assessing Students taking AA (Handout)
  • 14. Overview of Alaska’s Alternate Assessment For Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities
  • 15. What Is the Alternate Assessment?
    • Part of the Comprehensive System of Student Assessments (CSSA)
    • For a special population of students with disabilities (SWD)
    • Non-Diploma Path
    • 2000-2006 AA was a Portfolio assessment consisting of data collection and supporting evidence covering 6+ months of learning
  • 16. Eligibility Criteria – (Handouts)
    • Designed for students with significant cognitive disabilities
    • 1-2% of the student population (approximately 550 students actually take the assessment in AK)
    • IEP Team makes the decision
    • Eligibility Criteria in Participation Guidelines, Page 11-12 (Handout)
    • Expanded Format Criteria on website (Handout)
      • http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/AlternateOptional/05-06/ExpandedFormatPartCriteriaAug05. pdf
  • 17. AA Website (Handout) http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/alternate_optional.html Participation Criteria
  • 18. Notification of Non-Diploma Path on IEP (Handout) Parent Signature
  • 19. Diploma Requirements
    • Must earn minimum 21+ credits in specific content areas
    • Plus any additional district requirements
    • Plus Pass all three basic competency exams in Reading/Writing/Math (HSGQE or Modified or Non-Standardized HSGQE)
  • 20. More Diploma Information
    • Contact District Test Coordinator
    • Assessment Website http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/hsgqe.html
    • Map of Regulations http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/general/MapofRegulations.doc
  • 21. Why Change Assessments?
  • 22. Reasons for Change
    • Reliability/Validity Study Conducted
    • Recommendations Include:
      • Restructuring portfolio to include standardized performance tasks
      • Standardize the methods for teachers in collecting data, supporting evidence, & examples of work
      • Align alternate standards to grade level expectations (content/learning standards)
  • 23. Worth Fixing the Old?
    • Difficult to retrofit an old assessment
    • Shorter assessment window desirable
    • Portfolios require much staff development and staff time to collect, assemble
    • Standardize the assessment with performance tasks
    • Scoring Rubric issues (Meaning of Generalization, Appropriateness categories, System vs. Student scores)
    • Major change to link portfolio collections to GLEs
    • Due to NCLB, many states currently developing new AA
  • 24. New Alternate Assessment
  • 25. Background Work – (Handouts)
    • Workgroups of special education teachers & content teachers met April & November 2005
    • Developed draft proficiency descriptors (Handout)
    • Proficiency levels for this group of students by grade cluster (3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10)
    • Extended Grade Level Expectations developed to provide access to the general content (Handout)
    • Commissioner Announcement (Handout)
    • System test of connectivity in December by Tech Coordinators and AA Mentors
    • Pilot Test and Bias Review
  • 26. New Test
    • Developed and used in Oregon, 7 years
    • Modified for Alaska
    • Reading, Writing, Math & Science
    • Type of test: Performance Tasks administered by a teachers one-on-one to a student
    • Replaces AA Portfolio – 2005-06 is the last year
  • 27. Online Assessment
    • Materials downloaded from web
    • Online training modules for test administration
    • Test results are entered online
    • Student reports immediately generated
    • Student does NOT take the assessment online
  • 28. Test Administration
    • AA Mentors become Qualified Assessors, then Qualified Trainers
    • Mentors train district teachers to administer test
    • Teachers achieve proficiency before administering assessment (Qualified Assessors)
    • 6 week test window
    • One-on-one assessment
    • Teachers record results online, report generated
  • 29. Preview of New AK AA Handout & Website
    • Handout of Reading, Writing, Math Task Lists and Example of a Task
    • Servers currently being installed
    • Alaska URL
    • Preview Training Module: Welcome to ExRWMS Online Training , http:// brtgroup .org/ exrwms /
  • 30. Providing Access to the General Curriculum Slides from Massachusetts used with permission, Dan Wiener & Pam Green, 2002
  • 31. Access to the General Curriculum: A Continuum of Learning (Mathematics) Dan Wiener & Pam Green 2002 Grade 7-8 Learning Standard #2 for Algebra: Solve simple algebraic expressions for given values Example: 3a 2 – b, for a=3 & b=7 Match pictures & objects to create and compare sets
    • Understand symbols and meaning of:
      • * addition +
      • * subtraction -
      • * equal to =
    Solve simple one- and two-digit number sentences Example: 1 + 1 + 1 = x 2 + x = 5 3x + 8 = 29 Standard ‘as written’ Less Complex More Complex ‘ Entry Points’
  • 32. Access to the General Curriculum: A Continuum of Learning (ELA – Reading and Literature) Dan Wiener & Pam Green 2002 Grade 7-8 Learning Standard #16.10 for Reading and Literature: Identify and analyze mythologies from different cultures Example: Student creates a hero tale, using epic tale conventions (e.g., quest, special weapons) Respond to epic tales read aloud by selecting/ drawing pictures related to the story Recognize that an epic tale is fictional Example: Student reads (or listens to) adapted stories, and categorizes each as ‘make-believe’ or ‘real’ Identify elements of fiction in an epic tale Example: Student reads an epic tale, identifying details related to characters, setting and plot Standard ‘as written’ Less Complex More Complex ‘ Entry Points’
  • 33. Examples of Weak Linkage to Content
      • Math
        • Replace rollers in beauty parlor
        • Measure growth of fingernails
      • Reading
        • Show anticipation on roller coaster
        • Attend to visual stimuli
        • NAAC, June 2005
  • 34. Advent of Assistive Technology Provides Access Tools
  • 35. Advent of Assistive Technology Provides Access Tools
    • Provides multiple means of representation of content (e.g., words, pictures, symbols, objects)
    • Provides engagement alternatives (e.g., use of computer, digital materials)
    • Provides multiple means of expression (e.g., communication systems)
          • (CAST, 2002)
  • 36. Read with technology Reading Pen Start to Finish Books Write: Out Loud Read and Write Denham, 2004
  • 37. Read using graphics Modified text from Jumangi using Writing With Symbols 2000. Denham, 2004
  • 38. Cheap Talk 4 (Enabling Devices) DynaVox 3100 Step By Step Communicator, Abel Net “ Active Participation” Picture Exchange Communication System, PECS (Pyramid Educational Consultants) Communication devices must provide a means of active participation within the curriculum
  • 39. “ Active Participation” - write with A plant needs oxygen ● .. word stamps .. sentence strips in science water ● The plant needs sunlight. .. individual laminated symbols secured with Velcro (Boardmaker, Meyer-Johnson) .. pictures – drawn, magazine
  • 40. What are AA Proficiency Descriptors? What are Extended GLEs?
  • 41. Proficiency Descriptors
    • Narrative descriptions that describe how a student performs at the four proficiency levels used in Alaska:
      • Advanced, Proficient, Below Proficient, Far Below Proficient
    • Guide instruction and assessment
    • Draft form until after 2007 test given
  • 42. Look in ExGLE Handbook - (Handout)
  • 43. Extended GLEs – (Handout)
    • Students receive instruction on grade level content standards and curriculum
    • Provide entry points to grade level content
    • Using same or adapted age-appropriate themes, topics, materials, activities
    • Complexity of standards reduced
    • Intent of grade level content remains intact
    • Use appropriate assistive technology
  • 44. Look in ExGLE Handbook–(Handout)
  • 45. Purpose of GLEs and ExGLEs
    • Guides development of assessment items
    • Basis for school district’s curriculum development
    • GLEs do not represent the entire curriculum
    • GLEs indicate core curriculum to be mastered by the end of a given grade.
  • 46. We do not know if we can teach academics to these students until we try…
    • Emerging evidence from teachers and students that students with severe disabilities can learn academics.
    • Lack of research with this population of SWD
    • Why it’s a challenge: 25 year tradition of focusing on separate functional curriculum, not academics
    • Academics (reading, writing, math) ARE functional skills
      • Diane Browder, October 7, 2005—ASES SCASS Meeting
  • 47. Seymour Sarason
    • “It could be argued with a good deal of persuasiveness that when one looks over the history of man the most distinguishing characteristic of his development is the degree to which man has underestimated the potentialities of men.”
        • (Christmas in Purgatory, 1965, p. 107)
  • 48. Tasks today for group…
    • Using new draft handbook in your folder
      • Review & provide feedback on introduction
      • Review & provide feedback on Proficiency descriptors
      • Review & provide feedback on Extended Grade Level Expectations in Reading, Writing, Math
    • Write your questions about new AA on pink FAQ cards – one question per card
  • 49. Contact Information
    • Aran Felix, Alternate Assessment Program Mgr
    • Telephone: 907-465-8437
    • Email: [email_address] , Website: http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/alternate_optional.html
    • Local Mentors: http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/assessment/AlternateOptional/05-06/2005AAMentorsContact.xls
  • 50. Questions?
  • 51. What are Access Skills?
    • From Massachusett’s Curriculum Frameworks:
    • After repeated attempts to address academic content through successively less complex entry points in a subject strand, it may be determined that the student would benefit at present from exposure to access skills (under “other educational needs” defined in the IEP) within the context of standards-based activities. In order to provide “access to the general curriculum,” the student may engage in standards-based instruction by practicing targeted social, motor, and communication skills (I.e. “access skills”) during such activities. Practicing these skills in the context of academic instruction benefits students by exposing a student to challenging new ideas and content, by providing new opportunities to practice targeted skills in a variety of settings.
  • 52. Example of Access Skill
    • From Massachusett’s Curriculum Frameworks:
    • This is a grade 5 activity in which students describe how electromagnets can be made and used. Small student groups design and construct electromagnets using a six-volt battery, insulated wire, a large nail, and an electronic switch. Norman participates in this activity by activating an electronic switch that connects the current to the electromagnet so his group can test a variety of objects for magnetic properties. Although Norman does not address the essence of the learning standard directly, this activity provides the opportunity for Norman to participate in instruction with his peers while practicing a targeted skill in his IEP.
  • 53. Quick Quiz Answers
    • Students with significant cognitive disabilities (1% of the student population)
    • Approximately 550 students
    • IEP team decides eligibility using
    • Participation Guidelines, page 11-12
      • Additional expanded criteria on AA website
    • Portfolio assessment using data collection and other types of supporting evidence
    • Yes, part of Comprehensive System of Student Assessment
    • Trained scorers @ DRC (2004-05 & 2005-06)
  • 54. Other Topics Proposed Federal Regulation (2%)
  • 55. Federal Proposed Regulation
    • “ The proposed regulations would provide States with additional flexibility regarding State, local educational agency (LEA), and school accountability for the achievement of a group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement standards within the same time frame as other students, even after receiving the best-designed instructional interventions from highly trained teachers.”
  • 56. Proposed 2% Flexibility
    • Status: Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM)
    • Comment period until February 28, 2006
    • Purpose of rule to provide flexibility for states in reporting on a specific group of SWD
    • Reporting proficient scores for AYP capped at 2%
    • Still allow reporting proficient scores for 1% group
  • 57. Requirements of 2% Rule
    • Develop participation guidelines
    • Develop Modified Achievement Standards (MAS)
    • Align instruction and assessment to GLEs
    • Reduce breadth, depth of content
    • No out-of-level testing allowed
    • Students eligible to receive diploma
  • 58. EED’s Current Position on 2% Rule
    • EED is examining the NPRM. After the rules are finalized, EED will determine if pursuing the modified achievement standards and a different assessment is good for Alaska students.
    • If Alaska uses an assessment based on modified achievement standards, a student would still have to take the HSGQE under the state regulations currently in place, to earn a diploma in the state of Alaska.
  • 59. Interesting Data from NCEO Teleconference Feb 2006