Reflections on Provenance Ontology Encodings Presentation Transcript
Reflections on Provenance Ontology Encodings Li Ding 1 , Jie Bao 1 , James Michaelis 1 , Jun Zhao 2 , Deborah L. McGuinness 1 1 Tetherless World Constellation, RPI 2 Image Bioinformatics Research Group, Oxford
From Provenance Vocabulary to Provenance Ontology
e.g. PREMIS, ICS-SRC,DDMS
Metadata + Inference
e.g. OPM,PML, DCTerms
Motivation : provide guidance to understand, align and evolve existing provenance ontologies
Source: PREMIS Data Dictionary, version 2.0 Source: http://twiki.ipaw.info/bin/view/Challenge/OPM1-01Review-Inferences
Semantic Web Provenance Ontologies
Declarative: encoded in OWL and RDFS
In-Use: applied by communities
Selected Semantic Web Provenance Ontologies
Open Provenance Model (OPM - Moreau et al. 2009)
Proof Markup Language (PML2 - McGuinness et al. 2007)
Dublin Core Terms (DCTerms - 2008)
Provenance Vocabulary (PRV - Hartig and Zhao 2009)
Provenir (Sahoo et al. 2008) importing OBO-RO
Related Semantic Web ontologies: FOAF, WGS84, OWL-Time, Web of Trust, …
* DL Expressivity is computed before importing external ontologies AL R+ HI ALCH RI(D) ALH(D) ALHF(D) ALCHIF(D) ALC F(D) DL Expressivity OWL Lite OWL DL OWL 2 DL RDFS OWL DL OWL DL OWL DL OWL Species 24 2 17 55 21 47 26 # of properties 0 8 14 22 8 30 20 # of classes 268 136 304 857 207 505 309 # of triples ro provenir prv dcterms pmlj pmlp opm
What can be learned from these OWL encodings of provenance ontology?
Concept Coverage (Vocabulary)
What primitive provenance concepts should be supported?
What are the differences between the primitive concepts?
Concept modeling (Computation)
What kinds of provenance computation is captured?
How are computational provenance semantics modeled?
Empirically Identified Themes (5W+H)
We empirically identify themes to group provenance primitives
Agents (Who) : Actionable entities that can take actions in an event.
Artifacts (Who) : Entities made by agents and involved in events.
Events (What) : Observable occurrence(s), execution of action(s) (potentially including the past).
Methods (How): Entities denoting the operations (or actions) used (or mentioned) in events.
Time (When): Temporal concepts, such as time and date when things were created (or updated), primarily used for annotating events.
Space (Where) :Geospatial concepts such as locations, GPS coordinates and regions.
(Why is left out …)
Theme Coverage Analysis
Agents: Immutable (OPM1.1), Taxonomy (e.g PML2)
Events: complex structure (OPM1.1, PML2) vs binary relation
Method: declarative method (PML2, DC, PRV)
Time: time structure (OPM1.1, DCTerms)
Space: spatial property (DCTerms, Provenir)
Spatial_parameter Location space temporal_parameter performedAt PeriodOfTime hasCreationDateTime OTime time DataCreationGuide Policy MethodOfAccrual InferenceRule methods provenir:process, ro:derives_from Execution ProvenanceStatement source pmlp:SourceUsage, pmlj:InferenceStep WasGeneratedBy Process events Data Artifact PhysicalResource IdentifiedThing, Information Artifact artifacts Agent Actor Agent Agent Agent agents Provenir (+OBO-RO) PRV core DCTerms PML 2.0 OPM 1.1
Provenance computations are reflected by the use of four categories of RDFS and OWL ontology constructs
Provenance graph inference can be modeled by owl:TransitiveProperty or OWL2 property chain inference.
X owl:propertyChainAxiom ro foaf,… reused ontology X X owl:imports Concept Reuse X X X Cardinality Restriction X X X X owl:allValuesFrom X X X X X X rdfs:domain /rdfs:range Constraints X owl:TransitiveProperty X X X owl:inverseOf Inference on relations X owl:equivalentClassOf X X X owl:unionOf X X X X owl:disjointWith X X X X X X rdfs:subPropertyOf X X X X X X rdfs:subClassOf Concept Taxonomy ro provenir prv dcterms pmlj pmlp opm
Although provenance primitives can be grouped by theme, they may not be fully interchangeable due to their semantic difference
The coverage on time and location themes could leverage existing ontologies such as OWL-Time
Not all provenance computations can be fully expressed using OWL (see Tao et al. 2010)
The results of this work will be contributions to W3C Incubator group