Linux: A Free and Open Source O.S.
M.E. (Software Engineering)
• What is Linux?
• Too many Linux Distributions.
• Where Linux is used?
• Market Share of Linux?
• Applications for Linux
• Linux FAQ’s.
• Linux Certifications.
• Linux in Thapar University.
• Windows or Linux?
• Free Knoppix 6.2 CD/DVD Download
What is Linux ?
Linux is an operating system. Linux is very similar to other operating systems,
such as Windows and OS X
It is an example of very successful open source project.
Initially developed by Linus Torvalds as a hobby
with the help of the programmer around the world.
Linux is a Free and Open Source O.S. (FOSS)
What it gives you?
Freedom to use
Freedom to examine
Freedom to redistribute
Freedom to modify
Company / developer Linus Torvalds and many others
Programmed in Assembly language, C
OS family Unix-like
Latest stable release 2.6.36 (October 20, 2010; 28 days ago))
Latest unstable release
2.6.37-rc2 (November 16, 2010; 1 days
IA-32, MIPS, x86-64, SPARC, DEC
Itanium, PowerPC, ARM, m68k, PA-
s390, SuperH, M32R and more
Marketing target Desktops, servers, embedded devices
Available language(s) Multi-lingual
Too many Linux Distributions
A Linux distribution is a collection of software applications built on top of the Linux
kernel and operating system. There are many variations between distributions, as
each strives to provide a unique user experience.
There are, at last count, over 350 distinct
distributions of Linux.
Where Linux is used?
• Super computers
• Televisions Samsung most models, LG some models
• Digital Video Recorder
• Set-top boxes
• MP3 / Ogg portable players
• Mobile phones
• Handheld and portable
• Internet Tablets
• Gaming consoles
Market Share of Linux
In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-
servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server.
90% of the supercomputers running on Linux. (e.g. Cray XT Jaguar)
Desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4.8%. In comparison,
Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%.
Cray XT Jaguar: The New World's Fastest
(1.64 quadrillion (1000000000000000 ) mathematical calculations per second )
45,000 quad-core AMD Opteron processors.
362 terabytes of memory.
Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Applications for Linux
• Office: Open office, Koffice .
• Database: Oracle, MySQL.
• Email: Evolution / Mozilla Thunderbird.
• Audio/Video: MPlayer / VLC.
• CD Burning: K3b.
• Graphics: The Gimp / Photogenics.
• Instant Messaging: Gaim.
• Web Browsing: Mozilla Firefox
• Antivirus: ClamAV
Partial list of Big and Famous Organizations using Linux
• U.S. Postal Service.
• U.S. Federal Courts.
• U.S. Army.
• U.S. Department of Defense.
• U.S. Navy.
• Federal Aviation Administration
• French Parliament.
• Commercial Bank of China .
• Government of Mexico City.
• New York Stock Exchange.
• Tommy Hilfiger
• Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A.
All these organizations have admitted that they got not only economical
advantage by using Linux but also got greater stability and security.
Advantages of Linux
• It’s Free and open source.
• Linux is portable to any hardware platform .
• Linux requires minimal hardware configuration.
• Linux continues work well even when the hard disk is
• Linux can run almost forever without any reboot. It’s
continued to next slide…
• Linux operating system does not slow down with time.
• Linux operating systems comes with some inbuilt softwares like open office for
Word, Power-point, Excel, Firefox, CD/DVD burner etc.
• Linux is one of the most secure operating systems.
• The large number of Linux distributions gives you a choice.
• The Linux OS and most Linux applications have very short debug-times.
• if there were a widespread Linux virus released today, there would be hundreds
of patches released tomorrow, either by ordinary people that use the operating
system or by the distribution maintainers. We wouldn’t need to wait for a patch
from a single company like we do with Windows.
• There’s no standard edition of Linux.
• Linux has patchier support for drivers.
• Linux is not very user friendly and confusing for beginners.
• Fans of PC gaming may find Linux offers them a much more limited range.
• Because Linux is a free, open source system, there are no legal comebacks if
you find software isn’t up to scratch or if it causes a problem.
• There are less application for Linux .
Interesting facts about Linux
• A 21 year-old Finnish college student created the Linux kernel as a hobby.
• As of today, only 2% of the Linux kernel has been written by Linus Torvalds.
• Linux kernel 1.0.0 was released with 176,250 lines of code. The latest Linux kernel has
over 10 million lines of code.
• According to a study funded by the European Union, the estimated cost to redevelop the
most recent kernel versions would be at $1.14 billion USD
• Linux has had about 60-100 viruses listed till date.
• Linux currently has an estimated user figures ranging from 20 to 30 million. And
• 80% web servers use linux.
• The Linux kernel can be found on more than 90% of systems on the world's Top 500
• Microsoft released 20,000 lines of device driver code to the Linux community. (Hyper-v
Major organizations which provide Linux Certification exams :-
• Linux Professional Institute.
• CompTIA (Linux+)
• Red Hat
Q. Why certification ?
• With it you can stand different from crowed.
• Certification is a great tool for self motivation to learn Linux in good depth.
• Higher salary and higher status in company.
• Most of the companies give preference to certified professional.
• According to a study done recently, more than 75% of the fortune 500
companies have already deployed Linux or are considering to do so in near
For more info logon to this URL
• Is Linux a company?
• Can we run applications for MS Windows on Linux?
• Can I have both Windows and Linux on my computer?
• Where can I find a driver for my hardware?
• Where can I get Linux?
• Is Linux difficult?
• If Linux is free of cost, how does a Linux company generate
revenue? (By customization, Tech support and Adverts)
• Can I experiment with linux without installing it ?
• I have an idea to improve Linux. How can I contribute to linux
Linux in Thapar University
2 FTP Linux Servers (FTP Services to access Linux home directory)
Server IPs are 172.31.4.14, 172.31.4.9
Use any type of windows machine and follow 3 simple steps
– Open Internet explorer or any other ftp client
– Type ftp://172.31.4.14
– Enter valid Linux Username & Password that you can obtain from
office of Head, Computer Centre.
3 Linux based Application Servers (AS)
These AS will provide all the development tool provided by linux, Sun or other Open
Software. Follow the easy three simple steps to connect Linux/Sun box.
Server IPs : 172.31.4.9 or 172.31.4.14 or 172.31.4.17 (Sun Solaris 10)
Linux or Windows?
If you are a experienced user of Windows.
If you are a curious programmer.
If you want to become a hacker.
If you want to experiment with OS.
If you have an old computer.
If you have budget problem.
If you have no experience with any OS.
If you are fond of PC Games.
If you have so lazy that you don’t want to use even a single
CLI in Linux
Basic commands (mkdir,cd,pwd,rmdir,chown,cp,cmp,finger)
Different ways to use Linux
1.Installing linux in system HDD. (Dangerous, you may loss your
Before taking risk please logon to this
2. Live cds ((Without actually installing in our system)
more info @ www.linux-live.org
3. Pen drive linux (Without actually installing in our system)
more info @ www.pendrivelinux.com
4. Using VMware (Without actually installing in our system)
Free Knoppix 6.2 DVD Download
(Don’t worry it is live cd, no tedious difficult installation procedure)
1.Browse to the
2. download the iso file:
3. burn the downloaded iso file to a dvd by using nero on any other
available dvd burning software.
4. Now set the fisrt boot device as cd/dvd rom from bios setting.
5. After burning insert the dvd into dvd rom and restart the system.after
the restart system will boot from dvd.
6. Linux desktop will be available within couple of minute.
• Linux is succeeding in the server market, and will probably soon
succeed on the desktop.
Linux is in increasing use in embedded systems, and has a reputation
for superior stability and security.
Countries around the world are turning to Linux to solve financial,
technical, and political problems with proprietary software.
Companies around the world are evaluating Linux as an alternative to
Microsoft ever since Microsoft's recent ham-handed price increases.
At MIT, 22% of the student body uses Linux, and MIT now supports
Linux on student laptops.
Linux-related jobs are increasing significantly from last 5 years.