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VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)  BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V
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VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY) BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, V

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VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY) BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO …

VITAMIN E (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY) BY P.RAVI SANKAR. [INTRODUCTION,STRUCTURES OF TOCOPHEROLS,CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E,RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE,DIETARY SOURCES ANS SUPPLEMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE RO IMPORTANCE,USES OF VITAMIN E, SIDE EFFECTS/ADVERSE EFFECTS, VITAMIN E PREPARATIONS

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  • 1. (tocopherols)VITAMINProf. RavisankarVignan Pharmacy collegeValdlamudiGuntur Dist.Andhra PradeshIndia.banuman35@gmail.com00919059994000
  • 2.  In the year 1922,Herbert M.Evans reported the existence of vitaminE.Infact vitamin E is the antisterility factor which is necessary forfertility of the male and the birth process of the female andtherefore it is also called tocopherols because the word ….Tokos(Greek) means = for child birthphero = to bearol = alcohol.It is very essential for the birth process in femaleand fertility in males and at the same time the compound reactslike an alcohol.. The vitamin E represents a group of eight compounds which arecollectively called tocopherols. Out of 8, α-tocopherol is most active.β andγ-tocopherols possess half the activity of the α-isomer.the tocopherols (4-forms and tocotrienols 4-formsBoth structures are similar except the tocotrienol structure has double bonds onthe isoprenoid units.There are many derivatives of these structures due to the different substituents
  • 3. TOCOPHEROL TOCOTRIENOLPosition of methylgroups on aromatic ringTocopherol structure Tocotrienol structure5,7,8 trimethyltocol) alpha-Tocopherol (α) alpha-Tocotrienol5,8 diemthyltocol) beta-Tocopherol (β) beta-Tocotrienol7,8 dimethyltocol) Gamma tocopherol(γ)Gamma-Tocotirenol8 mono methyl tocol Delta-tocopherol (δ) Delta-tocotrienol(occurs wheat germ oil)(occurs wheat germ oil)(cotton seed oil)1 2345678112131415161718191101111121Tocopherols are 6-Hydroxy chromanIsoprenoid side chain at C2The difering factor between tocopherols is the substitutionsOn c5,c7,and c8(3 W)
  • 4.  CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROLS) Vitamin E refers to a family of eight molecules having a chromanol ring(chroman ring with an alcoholic hydroxyl group) and a 12-carbon aliphaticside chain containing two methyl groups in the middle and two more methylgroups at the end. For the four tocopherols the side chain is saturated, whereas for the fourtocotrienols the side chain contains three double-bonds, all of which adjoina methyl group. The four tocopherols and the four tocotrienols have an alpha, beta, gamma anddelta form — named on the basis of the number and position of the methylgroups on the chromanol ring. The alpha form has three methyl groups, the beta & gamma forms have twomethyl groups and the delta for has only one methyl group.122 Middle methyl groups2 methyl groupsAt the end612Carbon side chain
  • 5.  Tocotrienols (found in highconcentrations in palm oil) aremany times more potent asanti-oxidant than are tocopherols,but they are poorly assimilated bydigestion, are poorly distributed totissues in blood and are rapidlymetabolized and eliminated fromthe body. But tocotrienols are well-absorbed by the skin and thusare well suited for use as aVitamin E cream.TOCOTRIENOLS
  • 6.  Recommended daily intake The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine reportthe following dietary reference intakes for vitamin E. Infants 0 to 6 months: 4 mg/day 7 to 12 months: 5 mg/day Children 1 to 3 years: 6 mg/day 4 to 8 years: 7 mg/day 9 to 13 years: 11 mg/day 14 years and adults: 15 mg/day
  • 7.  Dietary sources andsupplements The following foods are rich invitamin E. fortified cereals seeds and seed oils, like sunflowerand safflower. nuts and nut oils, like almonds green leafy vegetables, like spinach,turnip. tomato products pumpkin sweet potato blue crab rockfish mangoes asparagus broccoli papayasThe Avocado - Rich in Vitamin EHight amount foundIn livers of hourseAnd cattle.Small amountsFound in the musclesOf heart,kidney,Placenta,egg etc,.
  • 8. Wheat germ oil. Sunflower seeds,cooked spinach, almonds, saffloweroil,cottonseed oil,soybean.and hazelnuts.1 Tbsp. wheat germ oil = 20 mg1/4 cup sunflower seeds = 12 mg1 cup cooked spinach = 7 mg1 ounce almonds (23 nuts) = 7 mg1 Tbsp. safflower oil = 5 mg1 ounce hazelnuts (21 nuts) = 4 mgmustard greens, turnip greens, chard, sunflower seeds, almonds,,, parsley, kale,papaya, olives, bell pepper, brussel sprouts, kiwifruit, tomato, blueberries, andbroccoli.Vitamin E can be found in foods such as cooking oil, fish oil, multi-grain cereal,apricots, pumpkins, mustard and poutry,olives.
  • 9.  You can get vitamin E from 4main groups: Vegetable oils. Corn, canola,sunflower, sesame, cottonseed,peanut, rice bran, and palm oils. Nuts - almonds, walnuts,peanuts, pistachios andhazelnuts. Oil seeds, legumes and grains.Corn, lentils, wheat, rice,northern beans,chickpeas,Barley grass andoats. Wheat germ oil Extracted fromthe germ of wheat, Wheat germoil has been used since the 20sas a vitamin E supplement. Itoffers a good combination oftocopherols plus tocotrienols.. Wheat germ oil is great sources of natural vitamin E.
  • 10.  Uses of vitamin E Vitamin E is also particularly vital in treating many skin problems anddiseases such as psoriasis. As for the treatment of scars, although many people have experienced andclaimed that vitamin E lotions help soften the appearance of acne andsurgical scars . They have nevertheless, help preventing skin damage and cancer due toits sun protection quality and its powerful antioxidant properties. There was a 40% reduced risk of coronary artery disease for those whotook vitamin E supplements compared to those who did not. Many types of cancer are believed to result from oxidative damage toDNA caused by free radicals. Antioxidants - such as vitamin E - helpprotect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which maycontribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer.Vitamin E also may block the formation of nitrosamines, which arecarcinogens formed in the stomach from nitrites consumed in the diet.Vitamin E may also protect against the development of cancers byenhancing immune function.
  • 11.  Prostate cancer: some evidence associates higher intake of vitamin E witha decreased incidence of prostate cancer. The study showed that pre-menopausal women with a family history ofbreast cancer who consumed the highest quantity of vitamin E enjoyed a43% reduction in breast cancer A potent antioxidant, Vitamin E is useful for a range of topical applications,including treating burns, reducing wrinkles, healing irritations, and protecting against sun damage. Many physicians, surgeons, and wound technicians use and recommendvitamin E to help reduce scarring from surgery or injury. Vitamin E is also a popular treatment for post-pregnancy stretch marks,which is supported by a number of studies. The formation of amyloid plaques in the brain is one of the hallmarks ofAlzheimers disease.
  • 12. vitamin E can help prevent chronic age-related illnesses, including heart disease and Alzheimer’s. Vitamin E supports many of the body’s daily functions such as protectingred blood cells and maintaining the immune system. It may also safeguard skin from harmful ultraviolet rays. Vitamin E, an antioxidant that protects the skin from free radicals. The top layer(epidermis) protecting the skin from harsh weather and reducing the dryness thatcauses ashy skin.Vitamin E brings a lot of health benefits for the body and is particularly importantespecially for our skins, hearts, muscles and red blood cells. In addition, Vitamin E also protects our cell membranes as well as keeping ourblood circulations and nerves healthy. In actual, one of the major benefits of Vitamin E is protecting Vitamin A fromthe damage of free radicals which are substances that are known to damagebody cells and cause cancer. Vitamin E works to defends the body against tissue damage. As it alsoprotects the body’s red blood cells, it can ward of the possibledevelopment of anemia. Other benefits of Vitamin E include helping to control blood pressure andlowering blood sugar.
  • 13. Physiological role/importance of vitamin E Vitamin E plays an important role as anantioxident and protect the body cellsfrom the damage caused by freeradicals.These free radicals are highlyreactive and distructive compoundsformed as a result of oxidativedeterioration(metabolism) ofpolyunsaturated fats. Factors contributing for free radicalgenaration in the body include smokingand exposure to Uv- radiations. Tocopherols (Vitamin E) are equipped toperform a unique function. They caninterrupt free radical chain reactions bycapturing the free radical; this imparts tothem their antioxidant properties. Thefree hydroxyl group on the aromaticring is responsible for theantioxidant properties. The hydrogenfrom this group is donated to thefree radical, resulting in a relativelystable free radical form of thevitamin.
  • 14.  Genarally the free radicals attack the cell membrane, proteins, and DNAcausing severe health problums such as cancer and cardivasculardiseases.Vitamin E readily reacts with these free radicals and transforms theminto less reactive and non harmful forms.Vitamin E providers the stability and intergrity of cellular membranesand imparts protection from various pulmonary diseases,cardiovascular diseases,neuronal diseases,dermal diseases andother chronic diseases.vitamin E aids in proper blood clotting and skeletal and cardiacmuscles.It also useful in ----Regulating cellular metabolism in the body including protein synthesismuscles.Provides vitamin C form oxidation.production of red blood cells.Stabilization of fats and amino acids.Metabolism of nucleic aids and steroids.
  • 15.  The Importance Of Vitamin E Vitamin E is also important to the health of our skins and nails. . When Vitamin E is added to skin lotions, it carries the effect of anti-aging to the skin. It can reduce the appearance of lines and wrinklesthereby making the skin looks younger. Vitamin E is also particularly vital in treating many skin problems anddiseases such as psoriasis. As for the treatment of scars, although many people have experiencedand claimed that vitamin E lotions help soften the appearance of acneand surgical scars, recent research studies have shown otherwise. In fact, They have nevertheless, help preventing skin damage andcancer due to its sun protection quality and its powerful antioxidantproperties. vitamin E supports a healthy circulatory and cardiovascular system,aids in proper blood clotting, improves wound healing, is necessaryfor tissue repair, promotes healthy hair and skin and can in effect slowthe aging process. As the "master antioxidant," vitamin E fights the harmful free radicalswhich increase the risk of chronic disease and accelerate aging. It isan essential component of every wellness and anti-aging program
  • 16.  Rich in vitamin E, can help the protect your brain from Alzheimer’s, accordingto a new study. a role in immune function DNA repair, the formation of red blood cells and vitamin K absorption. Getting rid of black heads. Getting rid of acne. Getting Rid of Dandruff. Getting rid of stretch marks. Vitamin E keeps your skin smooth. Vitamin E is used as a component of multivitamin preparation. Vitamin E helpful in the prevention of caronary heart disease by limiting theoxidation of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) Development of age related muscular degenaration (AMD) Vitamin E is helpful in protecting the retina from glaucomatous damage. Vitmin E +Vitamin C = is used as a prophylactic in Alzeimer’s disease. Genarally tocopherols are widely used in cosmetic and food industry as aninexpensive preservative.
  • 17.  Vitamin E is a powerful anti-aging agent because it could reverse age-related declines in immune function.Here is the list of conditions and diseases that Vitamin E can help in: Heartdisease, angina, cancer, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer’sdisease, cataracts, emphysema, high cholesterol, fibrocystic breastcondition intermittent claudication, infertility, impotence, genitalherpes, bedsores, leg cramps, muscle soreness, phlebitis, menopausaldiscomforts, HIV, osteoarthritis, and chronic inflammatory diseasessuch as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Regarding sex, Vitamin E plays an important role in the production of sexhormones. It protects them from oxidation and degradation. Low vitamin Elevels can cause a decline in the formation of key sex hormones and enzymesresponsible for sperm production and ovarian health. Vitamin E also shows a protective effect on sperm cell membranes.Supplementation with Vitamin E can also aid in improving sperm motility.
  • 18.  The decline in sexual libido for women can sometimes be attributed tothe drop in levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.Several studies have shown that Vitamin E possesses estrogenic,androgenic and progesterone-like properties which can help incombating this hormonal change. Thus, this vitamin can assist ineasing hormonal imbalances, hot flashes, low libido and evencombating vaginal changes.Regarding sex, Vitamin E plays an important role in the production of sex hormones.It protects them from oxidation and degradation . Vitamin E, long thought of as the “sex vitamin,” is also an antioxidant. Whenerect, the penis is engorged with blood that carries vital oxygen. Vitamin E protectsthis oxygen-rich blood from becoming filled with free radicals, in addition to helpingthe heart during sex. Since it is almost impossible to get enough vitamin E from food,Gittleman advises supplementing at least 400 IU each day, as well as eating suchfoods as wheat germ, nuts, seeds and flaxseed oil. . These free-radical fighters, (antioxidants) which include vitamins A, C and E, helpprotect and promote your sexual organs by reversing a low sex drive.
  • 19.  What is the difference between natural vitaminE and synthetic vitamin E? Regarding the right form of Vitamin E to take, researchers said that Natural Vitamin E(d-alpha tocopherol) is better than the synthetic ones (dl-alpha tocopherol) becausethey are known to be retained in our body two times better than the latter In one word, the difference is: availability. Natural vitamin E has roughly twice theavailability of synthetic vitamin E. Here is the difference: The d-alpha-tocopherol in our food, the natural form, is asingle entity, in other words all the molecules are identical. By contrast, the syntheticdl-alpha-tocopherol is a mixture of 8 different molecular entities, known in thechemical jargon as "stereoisomers". Of these 8, only 1 is identical to the natural form.The other 7 do not exist in nature. Synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol is not harmful. But its value to your body is only 1/2 ofthe natural. Read the label - its the only way to tell if youare getting natural or synthetic. Natural will say"d-alpha-tocopherol", synthetic will say "dl-alpha-tocopherol.
  • 20.  Researchers are fairly certain thatoxidative modification of LDL-cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol)promotes blockages in coronaryarteries which may lead toatherosclerosis and heart attacks. Vitamin E may help preventor delay coronary heartdisease by limiting theoxidation of LDL-cholesterol
  • 21. Side effects/adverse effects. Taking vitamin E supplements for up to 4 months at doses of 530 mg or 800 IU(35 times the current RDA) had no negative side-effect on general health, body weight, levels of body proteins, lipid levels, liver or kidney function thyroid hormones amount or kinds of blood cells and bleeding time over doses may cause Nausea,vomitng,diarrhoea. vitamin E products in excess of 1200 IU daily may interfere with absorption and metabolism ofvitamins A and K. But one can get benefits with much lower levels of vitamin. individuals who are vitamin K(people who are on blood thinners) deficient should not takealpha-tocopherol supplements without close medical supervision because of the increased riskof hemorrhage.
  • 22. Physico-chemical properties of vitamin E Colour : pale yellow State: oil Solubility: soluble in fats and organicsolvents.hence it is stored in the adipose tissue ofthe body.stability : It is thermostable andchemostable compound.Hence acids and basis by the process ofhydrogenation or high temparature up to1800C.Long exposure to UV- Radiation andoxidising agents can distroy vitamin E.
  • 23. Vitamin E preparations Vitamin E preparations are are available in single form(alphatocopherol) or with one or more other additivies. Commercially available vitamin E preparations(vitamin E range of95% to 100% of the labelled amount. Evion(merck) ------ 200mg,400mg,600mg soft gelatin capsules. E-cap ------- 200mg,400mg capsules. Edge --------400 IU of gelatin capsules. Tocofer----- 200mg,400mg capsules. Monovitin--- 100 IU,200 IU,400 IU capsules.

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