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VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12.  BY P.RAVISANKAR.
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VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12. BY P.RAVISANKAR.

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VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12. BY …

VITAMIN B12[CYNACOBALAMIN][COBALAMIN],SOURCES OFVITAMIN B12,VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS, USES OF VITAMIN B12, PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE,PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12. BY P.RAVISANKAR.
VIGNAN PHARMACY COLLEGE VADLAMUDI, GUNTUR,ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.

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  • 1. Prof. RavisankarVignan Pharmacy collegeValdlamudiGuntur Dist.Andhra PradeshIndia.banuman35@gmail.com00919059994000
  • 2. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) (OR) cobalamin.Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a watersoluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain andnervous system, and for the formation of blood. It is one of the eightB vitamins.It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body,especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acidsynthesis and energy production.As the largest and most structurally complicated and last B vitamin to bediscovered and first natural product consisting cobalt. it can beproduced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis.It is produced by anaerobic bacteria like streptomyces species not byplants and animals.Vitamin B12 also called as anti-pernicious anaemia factor (APA-factor)it should be used in the treatment of pernicious anaemia.The co-enzyme form of vitaminB12 is known as biologic Grignardreagent.
  • 3. Sources of vitamin B12
  • 4. Vitamin B12 is found in foods that come from animals, including fish andshellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk .While lacto-ovo vegetarians usually get enough B12 through consumingdairy products, vegans will lack B12 unless they consume multivitaminsupplements or B12-fortified foods.Examples of fortified foods include fortified breakfast cereals, fortified soyproducts, fortified energy bars, and fortified nutritional yeast.CheeseOystersLiver of animals like Pig,fish,Horse.
  • 5. CategoryWitamin B12Nutritionalstandards(µg / day)kids 1-3 years 0,9kids 4-8 years 1,2boys 9-13 years 1,8young man 14-18 years 2.4man 19-30 years 2,4man 31-50 years 2,4man 50-70 years 2,4man over 70 years 2,4girls-13 years 1,8young female 14-18years2,4women 19-30 years 2,4women 31-50 years 2,4women 50-70 years 2,4women over 70 years 2,4pregnat woman 18 years 2,6pregnat woman 19-30years2,6pregnat woman 31-50years2,6pregnat woman 18 years 2,8nursing woman 19-30years2,8nursing woman 31-50years2,8Recommended Dietary allowance (RDA)
  • 6. Structure and chemistry of vitamin B12Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex and uniquestructure amongst all B-vitamins.The structure of B12 is based on a corrin ring, which is similarto the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, andcytochrome.The central metal ion is cobalt. Four of the six coordinationsites are provided by the corrin ring, and a fifth by adimethylbenzimidazole group.The sixth coordination site, the center of reactivity, is variable,being a cyano group (-CN),(hence the name cyanocobalamin)a hydroxyl group (-OH), a methyl group (-CH3) or a 5-deoxyadenosyl group (here the C5 atom of the deoxyribose forms thecovalent bond with Co), respectively, to yield the four B12forms.Historically, the covalent C-Co bond is one of first examples ofcarbon-metal bonds to be discovered in biology.
  • 7. The name "corrin" was proposed by those who established its structure becauseit is the core of the vitamin B-12 molecule; the letters "co" of corrin are notderived from the fact that vitamin B-12 contains cobalt.The name "corrin" was proposed by those who established its structure because itis the core of the vitamin B-12 molecule; the letters "co" of corrin are not derivedfrom the fact that vitamin B-12 contains cobalt.
  • 8. D-1-amino-2-propanol at position f, isnamed cobinic acidaminopropanol by an a-D-ribofuranose 3-phosphate residue (V) is namedcobamic acid; its hexaamide (III; R = NH2, R = V) is named cobamide.
  • 9. 5,6 dimethyl -benzimidazole1-amino-2-propanolD-ribofuranose 3-phosphate residue at position 24 reducedand substitutedpyrrole rings ----(Corrin ring)Structure of vitamin B12cobalt atom in thecenter of the macrocyclic ring.heptacarboxylic acid(cobyric acid)its hexaamide (cobinamide)1234α-The atoms are numbered and therings are lettered as shown instructure I. The numbering is thusthe same as that of the porphyrinnucleus, number 20 being omittedto preserve the identity.
  • 10. The foremost benefit of vitamin B12 is the function that itperforms. Vitamin B12 is necessary for the proper working of ournervous system and the brain.It also contributes in improving and maintaining the metabolicsystem of the body.Adequate quantities of vitamin B12 help in treating diseases anddisorders such as, diabetes, insomnia, allergies, osteoporosis,asthma, etc.Presence of vitamin B12 in the body, helps minimize thechances of pernicious anemia.Vitamin B12 also helps in relieving fatigue and contributes to theimprovement of concentration of a person.Sufficient quantities of vitamin B12 help in the generation ofgenetic material called DNA.In recent times, vitamin B12 and weight loss, have been linkedtogether. However, there is no direct evidence found in thisregard. The only trace that can be found in this association is theimprovement in the rate of metabolic process and digestionprocess on consuming vitamin B12.
  • 11. . The most common vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms are, shortness ofbreath, insomnia, memory loss, depression, fatigue, tiredness, perniciousanemia, sores in the mouth corner, eye twitching, migraine, headaches, etc.Some of the common vitamin B12 side effects include, breathing problems,heart palpitations, chest pain, skin rashes, panic attacks, anxiety and itchingvitamin B12 deficiency, if left untreated can result in anemia, as well asirreversible nerve and brain damage.Deficiency of vitamin B12 can result in fatigue and apathy, back pain, weightloss, bone loss, difficulty with balance andreflexes, abnormal gait, tinglingfingers, tinnitus, eye disorders, hallucinations and migraine headachesVitamin B12 Deficiency Symptomslow levels of vitamin B12 are at increased risk ofhaving brain atrophy or shrinkage. Brain atrophy isassociated with Alzheimer’s disease.B12 deficiency, if left untreated can result inanemia, as well as irreversible nerve and braindamage.
  • 12. .Glossistis Moeller-Huntur(Burning from the tongue)
  • 13. What are the causes of vitamin B12 deficiency?· pernicious anemia is caused by an autoimmune disease; theperson’s own immune system attacks good parts of the body, as if theywere bacteria or viruses.The immune system of patients with pernicious anemia createsantibodies which attack the lining of the stomach, damaging cells thatproduce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a substance that is secretedby the gastric mucous membrane (lining of the stomach) and is vital forthe absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestines. If the production ofintrinsic factor is undermined, vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed into thebody properly.· Bowel problem - patients with Crohn’s disease, as well as peoplewho have had their bowels surgically shortened, may have problemsabsorbing vitamin B12 into their bloodstream.Vegan diet - some people who follow a vegan diet may suffer fromB12 deficiency if they do not eat fortified foods, or some types of yeast.
  • 14. lack of vitamin B12 in the blood can lead to a blood disorder calledpernicious anemia. Those with the disorder are unable to produce enough ofa protein substance - IF (intrinsic factor) - in their stomach that allows theirbody to absorb vitamin B12.
  • 15. What are the treatment options for B12 deficiency?Hydroxocobalamin injections - this is a form of B12. It is injected into a muscleevery two to four days. After about six injections the patient should have a goodstore of B12.Most patients require booster injections of B12 every three months for the rest oftheir lives.Assay:25 mg of cyanocobalaminDissolve in waterMake volume upto 1000ml with waterMeasurement of absorbance at 361 nm.Determination of net content of vitamin B12by takingA1%1cm values as 207 at 361nm.
  • 16. Uses of vitamin B12•In the treatment of megaloblastic anaemia and psychiatric desorders.•Pernicious anaemia.•It is also used in deficiency of vitamin B12 caused by its insufficient intake due tomalabsorption,prolonged cemotherapy and by fish tapeworm infestation.•It is used prophylactically after surgeries of the site of IF(intrinsic factor)prductionor the site of vitamin B12 absorption is removed.Researchers recently reportedthat it is also useful in reducingBreast cancer,Lung cancer,stroke,fatigue,cardiovascular disease,Alzheimers disease.Folic acid 1mgvitaminB12-400mcgpyridoxine-10mgtaking dailydecreasestherestenosisin ballonangioplastypatients.
  • 17. Physiological Importance(pharmacological aspects) of vitaminB12.The vitamin B12 is one of the B vitamins which are important to maintain ahealthy body.The Vitamin B12 is required for the processes to change thecarbohydrates, fats and proteins from food into energy.Vitamin B12 also, more importantly, helps maintain the red blood cellshealthy and thus prevent heart disease along with maintaining theimmune system functioning at its optimum level. In addition, Vitamin B12 is utilized to produce the protective covering ofall nerve cells in the body.The most important function of Vitamin B12 is to form healthy red bloodcells.All of the nerve cells in the body also need Vitamin B12 to form theirprotective fatty layer. This really is essential for all of the nerves but isspecifically so for those in the brain. If theres not sufficient Vitamin B12 toproduce this protective layer then the brain will not be functioningproperlyInterestingly, the amount of Vitamin B12 that the body requires is rathersmall but is needed on a regular basis. Nevertheless, Vitamin B12 on itsown isnt enough as the body cannot absorb it very easily. To help the bodyabsorb Vitamin B12, the stomach produces intrinsic factor (IF) whichenables more of the Vitamin B12 to be absorbed.
  • 18. Vitamin B12 is converted in to its co-enzyme form in the body.This vitamin B12 co-enzymes is involved in many bio-chemical reactions occuringin the body like.1. Isomerization.Conversion of L-glutamic acid to L-β-Methyl aspartic acid.2. Formation of lipids from carbohydrates.3. Metabolism of deoxyriboses.4.Transmethylation.-It acts on bone marrow resulting in an increase in WBC and platelet count.-It is required for the formation and maturation of RBCs.
  • 19. Vitamin B-12 can give you the energy and focus you need to do the things you love -but it gives you so much more than just energy.Boost your energy levelsReduce the level of harmful homocysteine in your bodyLower your risk of heart disease and strokeCombat depression and the bluesDiminish your risk of developing Alzheimers DiseaseRestore mental clarity and emotional balanceTheres so much more that B12 can do to help you improve your health and well-being.
  • 20. Fatigue, Irritability, Depression, its Not You... its a Vitamin B12 Deficiency

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