VITAMIN-C [MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY] SOURCE, RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE,DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN C,FUNCTIONS,ASSAY, REACTION,PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE, INTERACTIONS,USES OF VITAMIN-C.
Prof. RavisankarVignan Pharmacy collegeValdlamudiGuntur Dist.Andhra PradeshIndia.firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid ) is one of the very essential water-solublevitamins. Mainly found in citrus fruits.It also called antiscorbutic vitamin.Ascarbate is versatile,water soluble,donor,antioxident.Thermodynamically, it can be considered to be the thermal,small-molecule anti oxidant.In many animals vitamin C is synthesised from glucose in their bodyespecially in the liver and the kidneys.In human beings and other primates vitamin C is not synthesised inthe body and it has to be sourced through their food.Guinea pigs, certain bats and some birds and fish also cannotsynthesise this vitamin in their body.The chemical formula of vitamin C is C6H8O6.Levo-form is biologically active but dextro-isoascorbic acid is noteffective as antiscorbutic due to its rapid elimination from thetissues.Insufficiency of vitamin C in humans can cause scurvy which can belife-threatening.Fun fact: "ascorbic acid" comes from the New Latin "scorbutus" meaning scurvy!
Citrus peelsCitrus fruitsStrawberriesGuavasKiwigreen and red peppertomatobroccolipotatoesGreen vegetables.
Daily intake of dietary vitamin C (according to U.S. recommendeddietary allowances), are listed below.PediatricBirth - 6 months: 40 mgInfants 6 - 12 months: 50 mgChildren 1 - 3 years: 15 mgChildren 4 - 8 years: 25 mgChildren 9 - 13 years: 45 mgAdolescent girls 14 - 18 years: 65 mgAdolescent boys 14 - 18 years: 75 mgAdultsMen over 18 years: 90 mgWomen over 18 years: 75 mgBreastfeeding women: 120 mgBecause smoking depletes vitamin C, people who smoke generallyneed an additional 35 mg per day.The doses recommended to prevent or treat many of the conditions500 - 1,000 mg per day.Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
“scorbutic tongue”, i.e., related to scurvy,involves inflammation of the tongue, orglossitisSigns of vitamin deficiency include dry andsplitting hair.Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) andbleeding gums.rough, dry, scaly skin.Decreased wound-healing rateeasy bruisingNosebleeds; and a decreased ability to ward offinfection. A severe form of vitamin C deficiencyis known as scurvy.
split-endnails,Frayed,pitted Red-brownspots ---Deficiency of Vit-C
gingivitisvitamin C deficiencyin pregnent,breastfeading womenmay lead to impaireddevelopment offoetus.corkscrew hair.
It has been known for many centuries as the potentially fatal disease.By the late 1700s the British navy was aware that scurvy could be cured by eatingoranges or lemons, even though vitamin C would not be isolated until the early1930s.•Captain James CookJames Lind, a pioneer inthe field of scurvy prevention.Cool Scurvy DudesTreatment is simply with vitamin C supplements taken orally.The adult dose is 800-1000mg/day for at least 1 week, then 400mg/day untillcomplete recovery.In the U.S., the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C wasrecently revised upward from 60 mg daily for men and women.Treatment
Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with anumber of conditions, includinghigh blood pressure,gallbladder disease,stroke,some cancers,and atherosclerosis (the build-up plaque in blood vesselsthat can lead to heart attack and stroke).Getting enough vitamin C from your diet (by eating lotsof fruit and vegetables) may help reduce the risk ofdeveloping some of these conditions.
FUNCTIONaccumulates iron in bone marrow, spleen and liverantioxidant which helps defend cells from the effects of smoke, pollution andother highly reactive substances called free radicalscontrols blood cholesterol levelsconverts amino acids into substances needed for normal brain and nervefunctionsconverts Folic Acid into active form Folinic Acidessential for the formation of intercellular material, bone and teethessential for the absorption of ironfights bacterial and viral infectionshelps in healinghelps produce anti-stress hormonesmaintains elasticity of the skinmaintains healthy blood capillariesmaintains healthy reproductive organsmay help protect against certain cancers, cataracts and heart diseasenecessary in production of red blood cellsprevents allergic reactions (antihistamine activity)prevents hemorrhagingpromotes healthy cell development and resistance to infectionspromotes wound healingprotects Vitamin Evital for collagen formation which is the connective tissue protein in all cells
ASSAY: 0.1g o acccurately weighed Vit-C is dissolved in a mixture of freshly boiledand cooled water(100ml) and 1M H2S04 (25ml). The solution is then titratedwith 0.05M iodine, using starch solution as an indicator,until a persistentblue-violet colour appears.Each ml of 0.05M Iodine is 0.00806 g of ascorbic acid (C6H8O6)
vitamin C is helpful for preventing heart attack or strokevitamin C, acting as an antioxidant, can slow down the progressionof atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). It helps preventdamage to LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which then builds up as plaquein the arteries and can cause heart attack or strokevitamin C, have a lower risk of high blood pressure than people whohave poorer diets. Eating foods rich in vitamin C is important for youroverall health, especially if you are at risk for high blood pressureprevention of high blood pressure, known as the DASH (DietaryApproaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, includes lots of fruits andvegetables, which are loaded with antioxidants.vitamin C can cure the common coldFoods rich in vitamin C may be associated with lower rates of cancer,including skin cancer, cervical dysplasia (changes to the cervix which may becancerous or precancerous, picked up by pap smear), and, possibly, breastcancer.
people who eat diets rich in vitamin C are less likely to be diagnosed with arthritisVitamin C (500 mg) appears to work with other antioxidants, including zinc (80mg), beta-carotene (15 mg), and vitamin E (400 IU) to protect the eyes againstdeveloping macular degeneration (AMD).Some studies suggest that taking vitamin C along with vitamin E may help preventpre-eclampsia in women who are at high risk. Pre-eclampsia, characterized by highblood pressure and too much protein in the urine, is a common cause of pre-termbirthsvitamin C may help reduce symptoms of exercise-induced asthma.vitamin C may also be helpful for:Boosting immune system functionMaintaining healthy gumsImproving vision for those with uveitis (an inflammation of the middle part ofthe eye)Treating allergy-related conditions, such as asthma, eczema, and hay fever(called allergic rhinitis)Reducing effects of sun exposure, such as sunburn or redness (callederythema)Alleviating dry mouth, particularly from antidepressant medications (acommon side effect from these drugs)Healing burns and woundsDecreasing blood sugar in people with diabetesHealing of bone fractures
Vitamin C is important for the formation of collagen, a form of protein bystimulating the synthesis of collagen peptides.High concentration of vit-C isfound in collagen. It is involved in the synthesis of collagen peptides, whichare imp. in the formation of dentin. which gives structure to blood vessels,bones, muscles and cartilage.Collagen is also found in skin, ligaments and scar tissue and is essential in thehealing of injuries and scar tissue.Cellular respiration.In the conversion of proline to hydroxyproline and lysine to hydroxylysine.In biosynthesis of epinephrine from dopamine in adrenal glands and brain.Vitamin C also helps in the maintenance of bones, teeth and capillaries.Vitamin C helps in the absorption of iron and its deficiency may causeanaemia.Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and it neutralises the free radicals.It reduces the oxidative stress and protects our body from the damages causedby the free radicals.Higher vitamin C intake has been correlated with reduced risk of gastriccancer..Vitamin C protects from arthritis, heart ailments and cancer, lowering of bloodpressure, and increase in immunity and fertility are some of the benefits.Physiological Importance (pharmacological aspects)
In the conversion of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate.In the metabolism of carbohydrates and oxidation of phenylalanine andtyrosine.hence decrease vit-C leads to hyperglycaemia,decreased glucosetolerence and resustance to insulin.In biosynthesis of adrenocorticoid hormones.In the conversion of cholesterol to cholic acid and in droxylation reactions.Formation of haemoglobin,erythrocyte maturation by improving theabsorption of iron from GIT.In microsomal drug metabolism.Maintenance of structrual integrity of teeth,matrix of bone ,capillary wall.Healing of bone fractures.It acts as an antioxidant in the body. It blocks the formation of activecarcinogens from its precursors.
OOHOOHOHHOOOHOOHOOOAnti-oxidant properties of vitamin C:helps prevent damage to cellular proteins and DNANormal metabolic processes in the cell lead to the generationof reactive oxidizing agents such as superoxideSuperoxide can react with and damage protein and DNA, leadingto cellular changes that can lead to premature aging and cancer.Vitamin C reacts with superoxide, thus preventing this damage
Possible Interactions::Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- Both aspirin and NSAIDs can lower theamount of vitamin C in the body because they cause more of the vitamin to be lost in urine.Acetaminophen (Tylenol) -- High doses of vitamin C may lower the amount of acetaminophen passedin urine, which could cause the levels of this drug in your blood to rise.Aluminum-containing antacids -- Vitamin C can increase the amount of aluminum your body absorbs,Aluminum-containing antacids include Maalox and Gaviscon.Barbiturates -- Barbiturates may decrease the effects of vitamin C. These drugs includephenobarbital (Luminal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), and seconobarbital (Seconal).Chemotherapy drugs -- As an antioxidant, vitamin C may interfere with the effects of some drugstaken for chemotherapy.Nitrate medications for heart disease -- The combination of vitamin C with nitroglycerin, isosorbidedinitrate (Isordil), or isosorbide mononitrate (Ismo) reduces the bodys tendency to build up atolerance to these medications so that they no longer work.Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -- Vitamin C cancause a rise in estrogen levels when taken with these drugs, particularly if you are deficient invitamin C to begin with and start taking supplements. Oral estrogens can also decrease the effects ofvitamin C in the body.Protease inhibitors -- Vitamin C appears to slightly lower levels of indinavir (Crixivan), a medicationused to treat HIV and AIDS.Tetracycline -- Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin C with the antibiotic tetracycline mayincrease the levels of this medication; it may also decrease the effects of vitamin C in the body.Warfarin (Coumadin) -- There have been rare reports of vitamin C interfering with the effectiveness ofthis blood thinning medication.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin which is necessary in thebody to form collagen in bones, cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels, andaids in the absorption of iron. The use of vitamin C in prevention/treatment ofthe common cold and respiratory infectionsVitamin C functions as an antioxidant and is necessary for the treatment andprevention of scurvy.Vitamin C may also be useful in lowering serum uric acid levels resulting in acorrespondingly lower incidence of goutand an oxidized version that cancross the blood-brain barrier may reduce neurological deficits and mortalityfollowing a strokeThere is suggestive evidence vitamin C may be useful in the treatment ofpneumoniaVitamin Cs effect on the common cold has been extensively researched andshown to have no effect.Treatment of adult scurvy.It is also increases the absorption of iron from GITIn combination with methenamine vitamin C increases its antibacterial effect.It is used in chronic iron toxicity.Ascorbic acid is used as an antioxident in natural flavours and colours.Uses of vitamin C