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  • 1.  | 1 (Identifying Yourself)                Hi. How is it going?      Hello. How are you? Good morning. How do you do?     o o       How are you doing?   2     o o o o I’m Chris Burke from Delta. I have (got) an appointment with Mr. Platt. I’m Chris Burke from Delta. Mr. Platt is expecting me. I’m Chris Burke from Delta. Mr. Platt asked me to come by. My name is Chris Burke. I’m from Delta. Could I see Mr. Platt, please?
  • 2. I have an appointment to see Mr. Platt at 10:00. My name is Chris Burke and I’m from Delta. o           I’m Chris Burke from Delta. I have an appointment with Mr. Platt of your/the customers service department. o              (Excuse me,) You must be Mr. Platt. (Excuse me,) Are you Mr. Platt? Excuse me, Mr. Platt? o o o       I’m Chris Burke from Delta.  How do you do? (I’m) pleased to meet you. o o                 Oh, I’m sorry. I thought you were Mr. Platt. I’m supposed to meet him here at 10:00. o        Steven : I’m Steven Ellis from IBM. I have an appointment at 10:30 with Mr. Platt (of the customers service department.) o Secretary : Please have/take a seat. I’ll tell him. He’s been expecting you. (     o   )    Lisa : Are you Mr. Brooks? Jon : That’s right. Lisa : I’m Lisa Powers from SW Agency. Jon : Oh, pleased to meet you. 
  • 3.                             Good morning/afternoon. May I see / How do you do? Could I see/meet / like to speak to/see /  . o o      ?  (, please)? I’d ........... 2   (Receiving a visitor)           Could/May I help you? What can I do for you? o o         Good morning/afternoon, Sir/Ma’am/Miss. How do you do, Sir/Ma’am/Miss? o o            o                         from from   o  Please take/have a seat. Just a moment, please. If you’d like to take a seat for a moment. Would you please wait for a few minutes? o o o    is here to see/meet you. would like to speak with you.  Please send him/her in. 
  • 4. Show him/her in, please. Please let him/her in. o o     Mr./Mrs./Miss ... will see/receive you now. o    If you’ll just follow me, Sir/Ma’am/Miss. This way, please. Please follow me. I/He/She will take you to his/her office. o o o o                            Is Mr./Mrs./Miss ... expecting you? Do you have an appointment? Did you make an appointment? Have you got an appointment? o o o o               I’m sorry, but Mr. Platt is not in today. I’m sorry, but Mr. Platt is in a meeting at the moment. I’m sorry, but Mr. Platt has just left/gone out. o o o I’m sorry, but ...  I’m afraid ...  I’m afraid Mr. Platt is not in today. o  o o o o  Take the elevator to the ninth floor. Mr. Schroeder’s office is to the right when you get out. o    Would Would Would Would you you you you like like like like to to to to   wait for a few minutes? leave a message? make a new appointment? come back later? 
  • 5.  If you’d ... (  Would you ...      Would you     If you     Would you ...  If you’d ...  If you’d like to wait for a few minutes. o  If you would ...)    (.)  Sir/Ma’am/Miss /   /    /  Sir/Ma’am/Miss     Sir (     Ma’am ( Miss (    )              Sir/Ma’am/Miss         )     )  : Good morning, Ma’am. May I help you? o   : I’m Pat Brown from Comtech. I have an appointment with Mrs. Novak of auditing department. : Please have a seat. I’ll tell her that you’re here. Mrs. Novak : Mrs. Novak. Mr. Brown from Comtech is here to see you. Novak : Please send him in.    : Mrs. Novak will see you now. If you’ll just follow me, Sir.  : All right. : How do you do, Miss? Could I help you? o   : I’d like to see Mrs. Novak. I’m Mitch Carson from May Company. : Is she expecting you?   : No, I’m afraid she isn’t. : If you’d like to take a seat for a moment.    : I’m sorry, but she is in a meeting at the moment. Would you like to leave a message for her?
  • 6.  | 3 (Asking General Questions)                         o o o o Please take/have a seat. Please sit down. Have a seat, please. Please be seated. o Thank you.   o o  Do/Would you care for some coffee/tea? Would you like some coffee/tea?     
  • 7. o Can/May I offer you a cup of coffee/tea? o o Yes, please. Yes, thank you. o o No, /thank you/thanks/. I can’t/don’t drink. ... No, thanks.                                           o o o o                 How do you like Bangkok? When did you arrive? How was your flight? Is this your first trip over here?        Question words      Who ...? What ...? When ...? Where ...? Why ...? Which ...? How ...?   question word       2       1. Question word + /is/am/are/was/were/has been/have been/will be/ ...? 
  • 8.  Where is your company? Who are your customers? What are your main products? 2. Question word + do/does/did/has/have/etc. + ...? o o o  o o o When did you arrive? When will you go back? Which products would you like to purchase?   Mr. Watson Suchai : Good morning, Mr. Watson. Watson : Good morning, Khun Suchai. Suchai : Have a seat, please. Watson : Thank you. Suchai : Would you care for a cup of coffee? Watson : Yes, thank you. Suchai : When did you arrive, Mr. Watson? Watson : Just arrived this morning. Suchai : Did you have a nice flight? Watson : Yes, it was a smooth flight, as smooth as silk. +
  • 9. 4   (Explaining One’s Position and Job Function)                               Let’s get down to business. Let’s get started. o o                    I work for Ford Motor in marketing.* I run Maxwell’s branch offices in the northern part of the city.* I am responsible for production planning. I am in charge of customers’ accounts. My job mostly deal(s) with personnel training. I look after recruitment section. I take care of advertising and promotion. I see to the company’s maintenance and security. My job involves a lot of travelling. o o o o o o o o o        I am an assistant manager. I work as a training officer. I work in the marketing department.  o o o   Perhaps we could talk about the subject of our meeting. o o o o         Over me, there are production manager and managing director. I report to financial manager. I am responsible to personnel manager.    
  • 10. There are sales manager and two sales teams under me. o         / I work for Ford in marketing. I am in charge of personnel training section and I report to personnel manager. There are two sales teams under me. I work in the marketing department. I look after upcountry marketing section. I report to sales manager and there are eight sales representatives under me. o o  o o o o o   *         What do you do? Whom do you work for? What company do you work for? What is your position? What are your responsibilities?  
  • 11.  | 5 (Talking About a Company)                      o The company was /founded/established/set up/ in 1912.  o o o o o o o o  The company is divided into ... Our parent company is ... We have subsidiaries in ... We’ve got branches in ... Our main branches are in ... We’ve got offices in ... We are a subsidiary of ... We’ve got affiliated companies in ...  
  • 12. Our main/major o o o o o o o o o o o client(s) competitor(s) current project(s) customer(s) domestic/foreign supplier(s) problem(s) product(s) service(s) target(s) is/are has/have been will be used to be ... . We manufacture/produce/supply ... We specialize in ... We import/export ... We target ... We market in ... We distribute our products ... Our markets are located in ... Our products are distributed ... We plan to market/distribute ... We hire/employ ... We represent ...  o o o o o o o We’d like to open up oversea markets. We’re interested in doubling our market share. It’s imperative/vital for us to get a new supplier. Our key interest is access to markets in Europe. Quality of service is extremely/very important to us. Foreign market is a lower priority. Oversea customer is of lesser importance to us. o o o Currently, we are the second largest advertising company. Our annual turnover/profit/etc. is over $30 million. Exports now account for 40 percent of our turnover.  o o  The company was founded in 1960. Our parent company is SJD. Our main branches are in San Francisco and San Diego. Our major products are Beachmobiles, so we’re interested in opening up markets in other cities in the west coast. Our company was founded in 1940. The parent company is IBM. We’ve got branches in three continents. We have four offices
  • 13. o here in Thailand, two in Bangkok. Our major clients are many five-star hotels and resorts. Set up in 1973, the company is divided into four departments: sale, customer service, factory and warehouse. Our main products are mobile telephones and pagers. We export to countries in Southeast Asia and Europe, and we plan to distribute our products in the US and Australia in a few years. 6  (Requesting Information)                        I was wondering if you’d mind telling me in detail about your products. I was wondering if you could tell me about your after sale service. I wonder if you’d mind my asking you about method of payment. Do you think I could ask you when the merchandise will be delivered? I wonder if you could tell me the conditions of your installment plan. Would you mind telling me the future plan of your company? Do you think you could tell me about the local markets for your products? Could you possibly tell me the names of your customers? Perhaps you could tell me a little bit more about your projects priority. Do you happen to know sale potential for this type of service? I’d like to know if full payment is required for delivery. I’d like to ask you whether you require other documents. Could you tell me something about your sale policy, please? Will you tell me a little bit more about after sale service? Can you tell me about your current projects? Do you know whether we need to open an account with you? Please tell me if you give special discount for first time customer. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o          question word (   is/are, do/does, has/have     3) can/could 
  • 14. How much do they cost? Do you still make/sell the smaller version? Can I just ask you a few questions about your service condition? o o o 7  (Talking About Products and Services)                      / o o o o We have a wide range of merchandise to suit the market demand. Our products come in different/many colors/shapes/sizes/styles/etc. There are four types/kinds of this product. Our service can be divided into three types/categories.  o o o  / It consists of a base unit and a mobile unit. It’s made (up) of detector system and alarm system. It’s composed of plastic and metal.  o o o  / It’s used for detecting thermal emission. It’s used as a thermal detector. It’s suitable for factory use.  / o o o o It’s It’s It’s It’s a version of IBM 900. an alternative to the SQ model made by Comptech. kind of portable copy machine. similar to the new model IBM just put out.  o o o The merchandise/item is popular with young customers. It sells well in domestic markets. There is a/an decreasing/increasing/steady demand for this kind/type of service.
  • 15. It costs $250 a set. It retails at $50. Our services/goods are offered/presented at competitive prices. o o o Our products/services are well-known/reliable. The reliability/efficiency/etc. of our products/services is widely accepted/known. Our products/services enjoy worldwide/international reputation/demand/acceptance. o o o  o   : I was wondering if you’d mind telling me in detail about your products.  : Our products come in different shapes and sizes. Each set consists of a base unit, a mobile unit and accessories. It’s a variation of the EQ900 series, and it retails at $300 a set. o  : Would you mind telling me a little bit more about your service?  : Certainly. Our services can be divided into three types: short term, medium term, and long term. Each service is suitable for our customers’ need in different period. The service for each period is composed of four phases: counselling, planning, executing and evaluating.  : I’d like to know about the total cost of the product. o  : It costs $170,000, which is a very competitive price. It sells well in international markets. o  : Do you still make the smaller version?  : This is similar to the last small version we marketed a few years back. The item is quite popular with business people.
  • 16.  | 8  (Asking About Requirements)                             o o o o o o o o o o o o o     We’d like to ask you some questions about ... What are you looking for? What can we do for you? What do you want me to get? What kind of ... would you like/care for? What would you like to ...? What color/size/etc. would you like? What do you want to ...? Would you like (to) ...? Would you care to ...? Would you be interested in ...? Which one are interested in? Which one do you want?  
  • 17. Which one would you like? Which size/color/etc. would you rather have/order/see/etc.? Where do you want the goods to be delivered/sent/etc.? When do you want to ...? How much would you like to order/buy/purchase/etc.? How would you like us to send it? How would you like me to ...? Do you want (me) to ...? Are you interested in ...? o o o o o o o o o 9   (Stating Requirements)      o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o           I’d like (to) ... I want (to) ... We need (to) ... We’re looking for ... I’ll have/take ... Let me have ... Give me ... We really want (to) ... We’d prefer ... The most important thing is (to) ... It’s necessary/important/urgent that we ... We need you to ... Could you ... I would like you to ... Please ... Can you ...  3  o o o Of course. No problem. All right. o We’re sorry, we can’t.        
  • 18. o I’m afraid I can’t. o o That could be a problem. We’re not so sure that/about ...     : What are you looking for? o  : Our company needs a wireless intercom system.  : Would you be interested in our IC-700 model? It has one main base station that can deal with as many sub-stations as you want.  : Could you show me how the system operates?  : Of course.  : We’d like to ask you some questions about your security service. o  : What kind of service are you interested in?  : We are looking for 24-hour security for an office building with four storeys.  : We offer three options. We have a two, a three, and a four men security team. Which one are you interested in?  : We’d prefer a two-men option. We need you to arrange the service as soon as next week.  : No problem. 10 (Explaining a Process)             2              First(ly), Second(ly), Third(ly) ... o o o   First, you place your order at our branch office. Second, you fax us your order form. Third, you transfer half of the payment into our account.
  • 19.   then, next, after that, at the same time, simultaneously, lastly, finally ... In the beginning, we process your order. Next we fax your order to our main factory. After that the merchandise will be transferred to our local warehouse. Finally, we contact your company and make delivery. o o o o     •    First, we process your order and then we fax it to our main factory. Next we transfer the merchandise to our local warehouse. The fourth step is for us to contact your company and make delivery.
  • 20. g  | 11     (Talking About Advantages and Disadvantages)                                 o o o o o What are the advantages/disadvantages? What would be the advantages in (v.1 + ing)? How/What could we benefit from (v.1 + ing)? What would be the benefits of (v.1 + ing)? Wouldn’t (noun) put us at disadvantage? o o o o What would be the advantages in ordering in bulk? How could we benefit from your insurance coverage? What would be the benefits of your sale promotion campaign? Wouldn’t your price increase put us at disadvantage? 
  • 21.  o o o o o        You’ll be able to ... . It will enable you to ... . The benefits from ... are ... . It will give you the benefits of ... . Your company will have the advantages of ... .  o o o o o You will be able to adapt our machine to some other uses. Our system will enable you to process orders much quicker. The benefits from using our products are cost-effectiveness and waste reduction. It will give you the benefits of easy access and total reliability. Your company will have the advantages of receiving full market report and evaluation within two weeks.  o o o o o o o        But there is a disadvantage, Mr./Mrs./Miss ... . It will/might be difficult to ... . You might find it ... . The system/product, however, has some limitations. It’s quite unfortunate that ... . (Even) Though the system/product/service can ..., it’s not designed to/for ... . The shortcoming(s) of the system/product/service is/are ... .  o o o o o  It might be difficult to use our product in a way that it’s not intended. You might find it unsuitable/inappropriate/inapplicable to other uses. It’s quite unfortunate that our service doesn’t include local market. Though the system can function under normal circumstances, it’s not designed for harsh weather conditions. The only shortcoming of the product is its price, I’m afraid.  o   / Willy : What are the advantages in merging the companies now? Kathy : You will be able to see the productivity of your company offset some of the losses suffered by my company, and the
  • 22. merger will enable your company to make better use of our production lines without having to start building new ones. o Tom : What would be the advantages in ordering in bulk? Sally : It will enable to save your money for each unit since there will be a 20 percent discount for a bulk sale totalling over 1,000 items.   o   / Barbara : Wouldn’t your price increase put us at disadvantage? Jack : You might find it disadvantageous, but it’s quite unfortunate that the hike in sale-tax forces us to increase our price by 2 percent. 12 (Asking Specific Questions)               o o o            May/Can I (just) move on to another question? May/Can I/we (just) ask you about (your) ...? May/Can I (just) ask you a few questions about (your) ...?  Roughly, how many/much do you ...? Can you give me an idea of what/how (many)/etc. ...? Can you give me a general idea/an overview of ...?  o o o        o o o    What emphasis do you place on ...? How much emphasis do you place on ...? How important is/are ... to you? 
  • 23.      Do you mean that ...? When you say ..., do you mean that ...? Does that mean ...? o o o   Warawut : Can I move on to another question? o Sirin: Yes. Warawut : Roughly, how much do you want to cash in on our first housing project? Sirin : It’ll be around 100-150 million baht. Warawut : Does that mean you are quite sure that the real estate business will be picking up next year? Sirin : I’m pretty sure that it will. JR : May I ask you about the firm’s present policy? o Vince : Please. JR : Can you give me an idea of the things you would do to improve your troubled finance company? Vince : We are fortunate in that we have set aside emergency fund for this kind of situation. For the future, we’ll be concentrating on managing our non-performance loans some of which show signs of recovery. 13 (Asking for Opinions)         WEAK | | | |         6                           Would I be right in thinking/assuming that you expect to increase your order? Am I right in thinking/believing that your company is satisfied with our service? Do you consider that our products are selling well in local market?
  • 24. | | | STRONG Do you believe that your products can help increase our sale volume? Do you think our prices are high? Don’t you think that our service can help you reduce the operating cost? Are you absolutely convinced/positive/sure that your machine is suitable for us? Do you really believe that our performance is not on target yet? Do you really think that price reduction won’t increase sale?          yes no   How do you feel about ...? What do you think about ...? Why do you think/feel (that) ...? o o o  o     Brad : From the survey we did at your firm, am I right in assuming that you are generally satisfied with our service? Christy : Pretty much so. o Keanu : Do you believe that your system can help us with our accounting and filing? Sharon : Absolutely. It can help you in other areas of work too. o Matt : Don’t you think that your work would be much enhanced with our TM-7076? Keith : I’d sure hope so.
  • 25.  | 14 (Giving Opinions)          WEAK | | | | | | | | | | | | STRONG I tend to think that this item will sell well in domestic market. I’m inclined to think that you offer the type of service that our company wants.* From my point of view you cannot find a better bargain than this. To my mind, the prices used to be a little lower. As I see it, the new model is quite different from the old one. I believe that you will find this new product suit your production plan.* I think/consider/feel that we need to revamp our marketing policy.* In my opinion, your service has been slow lately. I really feel that we have a wide range of products to cater to your need.* I really do think that my boss will agree to your proposal.* I certainly/definitely think that we can ship the items to you within
  • 26. one week.* I have absolutely no doubt that we can conclude the sale by next month. I strongly believe that you will be satisfied with our merchandise.* I’m convinced/sure/positive that we can give you special prices.* ( *)       2 don’t  not   I don’t believe that ... . I don’t think/consider/feel that ... . I certainly/definitely/really don’t think that ... . o o o      I tend to think that this item won’t sell well in domestic market. I’m inclined to think that you don’t offer the type of service that we want. o o  o doesn’t  Roger: Would I be right in thinking that your projection of sale increase will be correct? Mary: Yes. Have you seen all those orders that came in this morning? They alone account for 2 percent increase. o Sue: Are you sure that your system is compatible with ours? Dave: I’m positive. o Clark: Why do you think that an expansion does not deserve high priority in next year’s plan? Julie: Well, look at the present world economic situation; I don’t think recovery will come soon. So, consumption trend would be on the down side for a couple of years.  15   (Making Suggestions)          2                  
  • 27.  o o o o o   Do you have any (other) suggestions? Would you like/care to make any suggestions? Any suggestions? What would you suggest? I’d/We’d like to hear your suggestions?   o o o o o o o  Why don’t you I suggest you (I think) you should compare our prices with those of other companies before making a decision? I (would) advise you It’s advisable to place your order now. How about placing your order next week? I (would) recommend these two items for your business.   o o o o o o o o o o o   I think we should I suggest we We’d better Let’s Why don’t we Shall we discuss this matter again tomorrow.(?) We’ll have to We ought to We should Couldn’t we What if we    (.) (  o o  ) He/She/They recommended/suggested that you study the item first. He/She/They advised us/you to compare the prices first.      o   That’s a good/terrific/etc. idea/suggestion.   
  • 28.   I don’t think that’s a good idea. I don’t think (n.) is (n. adj.) I don’t think (n.) will (v.)  I don’t think bulk order is economical. I don’t think advertisement will increase sale. o o o o o      I’m not (so) sure about that. o       Marc: What would you suggest we do to increase our production? o Mitch: I suggest you improve your production line by replacing old machineries with new ones. Susan: We want to expand our operation abroad, and we’d like to hear your suggestions. o Alan: It’s advisable to do some market researches first to see if there is enough demand for your product.     Tony: I’d like to hear your suggestions on sale campaign for this coming spring. o Margaret: How about making a spot commercial for television? Tony: Terrific idea. Larry: Do you have other suggestions? o Susan: What if we do it by installment payment? Larry: Yes, that’s the idea.  o     Barry: Would you like to make any suggestions? Scott: I think you should delay the order for a while. Barry: I don’t think the delay would help us in the long run. o Ed: Any suggestions?
  • 29. Jan: We ought to put the whole production line on hold for a few days. Ed: I don’t think that will work. We still have many orders to be filled. 16  (Stating Option and Proposals)                  How about v.1 + ing? Have you considered (the idea of) v.1 + ing? We/You could v.1. We/You could either v.1or v.1? There are several possibilities for v.1 + ing. There are a number of ways to v.1. You (can) have a choice of/between ... . You have the options of ... . I’d like to present the following options for your consideration ... . o o o o o o o o o          Let’s go through each of these options in (more) detail. I think we should look at each option in turn. I suggest we examine the option in more detail one by one. o o o           o o o  o o o I propose/recommend/suggest that we ... . We propose that (we) ... . Our proposal is to ... .       Alternatively, we could ... . It could/would be a good idea to ... . May be a better solution would be to ... .   
  • 30.  | 17  (Replying to Proposals)      4 (accepting reluctantly) (rejecting) o o o o o o o    (accepting)    (raising objections) Yes, I’m (all) in favor of that. I totally accept that. That’s got to be the best option/proposal. That’s a very good idea. That would be acceptable. I fully/completely agree. I think we could go along with that.  o o o  I suppose that’s our/my only option. I’d accept that, but ... . That may be so, but ... .  
  • 31. That may/might be right, but ... . There doesn’t seem to be much choice. Up to a point. To a certain extent. We have no alternative. I’d have to consider ... . o o o o o o   o o o o o I’m afraid that might not be feasible because ... . I’ve got a few reservations about that because ... . There are a few problems with that proposal/option. That proposal/option poses some problems. It’d depend on ... . o o o o o o o o I’m sorry, but I’m not very happy about that. (I’m afraid) I can’t accept that. I can’t go along with that. I don’t accept that. It’s not acceptable. I find it (very) difficult to accept your proposal. I’m afraid that wouldn’t ... (v.1). I’m afraid we couldn’t accept that.  o  Mike: We could place our order by the beginning of each month. Mary: That’s a very good idea. We can make our delivery by the third week of a month, then. o Marty: There are a number of ways to design our systems to your company’s requirement, and the prices vary from $15,000$20,000. Nick: I think we could go along with that.   o Jay: There are several possibilities for product improvement. Julie: That may be right, but it will cost us a lot of money. o Pete: You have the options of laying off a few hundred workers or closing down the factory.
  • 32. Norm: There doesn’t seem to be much choice.   Richard: We can pay you in cash by the end of each month. o Roger: I’m afraid that might not be feasible because we clear our monthly account by the twenty-fifth of each month. Tim: How about sending you a new shipment? o Mary: I’m sorry, but I’m not very happy about that. Chang: We could cut down our staff to half. o Michael: I’m afraid that wouldn’t work. 18  (Negotiation)                    2         We We We We o o o o  would/could (v.1) if there was/were ... . Would/could (v.1) if you (v.2) wouldn’t/couldn’t (v.1) unless there was/were ... . wouldn’t/couldn’t (v.1) unless you (v.2).  If your company accepted our terms, we would provide free maintenance for one year. Unless there was an advanced payment, we couldn’t deliver the goods. o o    o o        We could give you a twenty percent discount if there was substantial order. We couldn’t provide transportation unless you ordered over fifty boxes.
  • 33. If you (v.2), we’d be prepared to (v.1). If you (v.2), I think we’d have a deal. If you (v.2), (I think) it would be acceptable. We’d have no objection provided that ... was/were ... . We’d have no objection provided that you (v.2). If ... was/were ..., we’d be prepared to agree to the proposal. o o o o o o   If you purchased the whole package, we’d be prepared to close this deal. We’d have no objection provided that there was no delayed payment. If there was no additional charge, it would be quite acceptable. o o o  )   1  We’ll be able to (v.1) provided that there is/are ... . If you accept ..., I may be able to (v.1). We’ll agree to (v.1) provided that you allow ... . o o o   We’ll be able to accept your terms provided that there are no further objections. If you accept our proposal, we may be able to give you special discount. We’ll agree to give you a discounted rate provided that you allow us two weeks to deliver the goods. o o o  o (    + Karl: We could send you a new shipment of there was any defect in any of our shipments. Leslie: If you would do that, we’d be prepared to do business with you. o + Art: We would provide delivery if your order is over 1,500 baht. Paul: We have no objection provided that the merchandise arrived packed in crates. 19  
  • 34. (Clarification)                                         /   (So,) if I understand you correctly, you feel that ... . (So,) if I’m not mistaken, you’re saying/proposing that ... . You mean ..., then. Do you mean ... when you say ...? Am I correct in understanding that ...? Is it my correct understanding that ...? o o o o o o /  That’s right/correct. Besides that, ... Exactly. What’s more is/are ... Moreover, ... That’s exactly/quite right/correct. Actually, ... That (really) isn’t so. What I meant is ... That’s not quite what I meant. o o o o o o         /           I see what you mean. I see your point. That’s certainly worth considering. o o o  /      I appreciate that, but ... I take your point(s) about ..., however, ... I’m not (quite) sure how practical/realistic that would be. o o o  o    Jeff: If I understand you correctly, you feel that our delivery schedule should be adjusted to your production timetable. David: That’s right.
  • 35. Mitch: Am I correct in understanding that the whole sale package includes training and maintenance? o Butch: That’s right. Besides that, we will also provide free repair for the next two years. Mitch: That’s certainly worth considering. 20 (Concluding and Settling)                                  agreements summarise Perhaps I could just our conclusions so far. Maybe sum up decisions  o o  We’ve agreed to ... . You’ve agreed to ... . As (we) agreed,    o The question(s) of ... remain(s) to be clarified/discussed. There are  deal with we'll ... . take care of you'll be responsible for   o a few a couple some of outstanding points (that) need to be discussed.  We’ll/You’ll set up a meeting ... . 
  • 36. o o o o We’ll/You’ll get further information about .... By our next meeting we’ll/you’ll have ... . We’ll discuss the issues/questions of ... at our next meeting on... . The question(s) of ... will be taken up at our next meeting on ... .  o o o o o    Have I covered everything? Is there anything else you’d like to add? Is there anything you wish to add? Would you like to add anything? Have I missed anything?  o Eric : May be I could just sum up our agreements so far. Our company has agreed to purchase electrical supplies from your company, and you’ve agreed to supply us the merchandise within 2 weeks of our orders. The questions of the method of payment and mode of delivery remain to be discussed. So we’ll set up a meeting to talk about these sometimes next week.
  • 37.  | 1  (First Greeting)                  o o           2                        o o   Good morning/afternoon/evening. How do you do?   I’m (very) pleased/delighted to meet you. It’s (very) nice to meet you.    
  • 38.   Hello. Hi. How are you? o o o    Good/Nice/Glad to meet you. Pleased to meet you. Good/Nice to have you with us. ( Good/Nice to be here. (  o o o o   2   ) )  Good morning/afternoon/evening. How do you do? o o    It’s (very) nice to meet you too. I’m pleased/delighted to meet you too. o o   Hello. Hi. o o    Nice/Good to meet you too. Pleased to meet you. Good/Nice to have you with us. ( o o o  o       )  A: Good evening. How do you do? It’s nice to meet you. B: How do you do? I’m pleased to meet you too. o A: Good afternoon. I’m Chris Wood. How do you do? I’m pleased to meet you. B: Good afternoon. How do you do? I’m delighted to meet you too. o A : How do you do?
  • 39. B : Hi. A : Hi. How are you? o B : Hi. How are you? 2 (Identifying Yourself)            (Hello,) (Hello,) (Hello,) (Hello,) (Hello,) o o o o o             I’m ... . my name is ... . let me introduce myself, I’m ... . . allow me to introduce myself, I’m ... .   A: Good morning. I’m Scott Carson. How do you do? It’s nice to meet you. o B: How do you do? I’m pleased to meet you, too. A: Hello, my name is Julie Dow. Nice to meet you. o B: How do you do? I’m Roger Scott. Pleased to meet you.  A: How do you do? Let me introduce myself, I’m Jon Astin. o B: Pleased to meet you. Mine’s Susan Jacob. + A: Glad to meet you. My name is Richard Clarks. o B: Nice to meet you. Lora Smith.         o o    You must be Mr./Mrs./Ms. ...? Are you Mr./Mrs./Ms. ...?    
  • 40.       o A: You must be Ms. Resnick? B: Yes, that’s right. A: Hello, my name is Jeff Eastbrook. I and your brother work in the same office. I’m pleased to meet you. B: I’m pleased to meet you, too.
  • 41.  | 3 (Subsequent Greeting)             o o o         (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) It’s (very) good/nice to meet you again. (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) I’m (very) pleased to meet you again.   How are you?  o o       (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) Good to meet you again. (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) Pleased to meet you again.  How are you?
  • 42.    o (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) It’s (very) good/nice to see you again. o (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) I’m (very) pleased to see you again.   How are you? How have you been?   (Hi, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) Good/Nice to see you. (Hi, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) Great to see you. o o   How’s everything going? How have you been? How are things?  1)  (       )  ‘too’   (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) I’m pleased to see/meet you again, too. (Hello, Mr./Mrs./Ms. ... .) It’s good/nice to see/meet you again, too. 2)      How are you? How have you been? I’m very well, thank you. (I’m) fine, thanks. Very well, thanks.* Not too bad. So so.* Not too good, I’m afraid.* Absolutely awful/terrible.* ( * are things?     How’s everything with you? )  How about you? And you? (And) What about you?    How
  • 43.    A : Hello, Miss Jones. It’s nice to see you again. o B : Hello, Mr. Jensen. I’m pleased to see you again, too.     A : Hello, Mrs. Karlstein. It’s good to see you again. o B : Hello, Mrs. Shaw. I’m pleased to see you again, too. How are you? A : I’m fine, thanks. What about you? B : Not too bad. A : Hello, Ms. Lawrence. It’s nice to see you again. How have you been? o B : Hi, Mr. Ellis. I’m very well, thank you. It’s good to see you too. How’s everything with you? A : OK. 4 (Daily Greetings)             o                 (Good) Morning/Afternoon/Evening.  good o o   (  )  /  Hello. Hi.   o o How are you? How are you doing?    
  • 44. How are things? How have things been? Is everything OK? Is everything all right? o o o o         How was your holiday/vacation/trip/etc.? How was the party/concert/etc. last night? How did the meeting go? Did the presentation turn out all right? o o o o    Very well, thanks. Not too bad. Fine, thank you. All right. o o o o     How have things been with you? How about you/yourself? Is everything going /OK./all right/ for you? o o o         (Very) good. (Very) interesting. (Very) well. OK. Boring. o o o o o etc.  o  A: Hi. How are things? B: Very well, thanks. How about you? A: Not too bad. o A: Hi. How are you?    
  • 45. B: Fine, thanks. How was your vacation? A: Relaxing. o A : Hi. How was the party last night? B : Boring. o A : Hi. How did the presentation go this morning? B : All right, I guess.
  • 46.  | 5    (Suggest Using First Names)         o o o o o o   I am Christopher Russell. My name is Jonathan Brooks. Jennifer Jensen is my name. o o o                Please call me Chris. You can call me Jon. Most people call me Jenny. Call me Dave for short. But I’m more used to Alex than Alexander. It’s easier to call me Pete, instead of Peerapol.      
  • 47. OK./All right. I’ll do that. o o                 )            2.  “ ”      “ ” “ ”   “ ” (shit                           “  ” porn “ shit )    A : My name is Katherine. B : Will it be all right for me to call you Kathy? A : Sure. I’m more used to Kathy than Katherine. B : All right. o A : I am Warawut. You can call me Willy. It’s easier to pronounce. B : OK. I’ll do that. 6 (Introducing Third Parties)                    ”   “ ”    “ ” “      o (  Can I call you Dave (for short)? Will it be all right (for me) to call you Kathy (instead of Katherine)? o o 1.                 ”   
  • 48.            1) Mr./Mrs./Ms. . Mr./Mrs./Ms. . Mr./Mrs./Ms. . Mr./Mrs./Ms. .  , let me introduce Mr./Mrs./Ms. , I'd like to introduce Mr./Mrs./Ms. , allow me to introduce Mr./Mrs./Ms. , may I introduce Mr./Mrs./Ms.  2)   He/She is our /marketing manager/sale supervisor/. He/She is a colleague of mine from /   1) , , , ,  2)   I want you to meet can I introduce this is . meet .   He/She works for A friend of mine. My wife/friend/etc. He/She’s with  Andrew    Andrew   o . . . .   Mrs. Brown Mrs. Brown  : Andy, I want you to meet Mrs. Brown. She is the company’s general manager. And Mrs. Brown, I’d like to introduce Andrew Morton, a friend of mine.     .
  • 49.                        (        )   A : Mrs. Brown, I’d like to introduce Mr. Levi. He is a colleague of mine from Watson & Friends. A : Mr. Carson, may I introduce Mike Levi. He is a friend of mine from the high school. A : Mr. Lawford, allow me to introdvce Jennifer Lange. She is a new Junior member of our firm. o o o     A : Kathy, I want you to meet Kevin. A friend of mine from college. A : Butch, this is Steve Ellis. He’s with Comtech. A : Doug, meet Jeff. He works for our computer graphic department. o o o 7 (Starting a Conversation)     1)                  What is the weather like in / ? What was the weather like when you left Boston? What’s the weather been like in San Francisco? How do you like today’s weather? The weather’s been great today, don’t you think? So, how was the weather in Tokyo? Is the weather always like this? Isn’t this weather terrible/wonderful? 2) / How was your flight? Did you have a good trip? Where are you travelling to? Where are you off to next? 
  • 50. Have you ever been to Taiwan? Have you ever visited Paris? 3) Is this your first visit to / ? Have you been to / before? How long have you been here? When did you arrive? How long are you staying? How long are you going to be here? How long are you planning to stay? 4)  So, where do you live? Which part of / Whereabouts in / Whereabouts is that? Do you live in ? are you from? do you live? 5) Are you married? Is/Are your wife/children with you here? Do you have any family? How many children/kids do you have? How old are they? 6) What do you do? What’s your job? Who do you work for? What do they do? Where are you based? And what exactly do you do? How long have you been (working) there? 7) / So, what do you do in your spare time? Are you interested in painting/football? Do you play golf? 8) Where are you staying?
  • 51. Is it comfortable? How is your hotel?  o   A : What is the weather like in Bangkok? B : Oh, it’s hot and humid but it’s nice in December. o A : How was your flight? B : It was a bit bumpy. Other than that it was all right. o A : When did you arrive? B : I just came in last night. o A : So, where do you live? B : I live in Los Angeles. o A : What do you do? B : I’m an computer analyst. o A : So, what do you do in your spare time? B : I like to read and play sports. A : What kind of sport? B : Tennis, basketball and bowling. o A : Where are you staying? B : At the Hilton.
  • 52.  | 8 (Inviting & Accepting)          (  (                  ) )  I was wondering if you would like to join us for a meal. We were wondering if you would like to go for dinner tonight. I/We would like to invite you for dinner tomorrow evening. Would you like to go out for lunch? Do you feel like playing golf tomorrow afternoon? What/How about a game of tennis after work? How about going to a concert next week? Why don’t you join us for a drink? Why not come for a quick lunch? o o o o o o o o o  (    )          
  • 53. That’s very kind of you. Thank you very much. Thank you for inviting me. Thank you. Thanks. o o o o o  That would be very nice. I’d like that very much. I’ll look forward to it/that. I’d love to (come). I’d be delighted to (come). That’s a good/great idea. What a good idea. That sounds good/great/fun. An excellent idea. o o o o o o o o o  o   A: I was wondering if you would like to join us for a meal. B: That’s very kind of you. I’d like that very much. o A: How about a game of golf this weekend? B: That sounds fun. o A: I’d like to invite you for lunch tomorrow if you are free. B: Thanks. I’d love to. 9 (Declining an Invitation)     o o o o o    3   That’s very kind of you. ... . Thank you for inviting me. ... . Thank you very much. ... . Thanks for the invitation. ... . Thanks. ... .      
  • 54. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o That’s very kind of you but unfortunately ... . I’d love to but ... . But I’m afraid I can’t (come/etc.). But unfortunately. But I can’t. But I can’t make it then. Well, actually ... . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  I have another engagement then. I’ve already arranged something else. I’m very busy (then). I won’t be here (tomorrow). (Sorry, but) I can’t (come/etc.) I have something else going on then. I need an early night. I’ve got a meeting/ a flight to catch/etc. tomorrow morning.  A: Would you like to go for a drink? o B: Thank you for inviting me. I’d love to, but I’m very busy at the moment. A: Why not go out for lunch? o B: Thanks, but I can’t. I’ve already arranged something else.      How about tomorrow/next week/etc.? o   What a pity. That’s too bad. Too bad. o o o    o o o  Perhaps next time. Maybe some other time. Maybe another time.  o    A: How about a drink after work?   
  • 55. B: Thanks for the invitation, but I can’t. I need an early night. Maybe next time.  o  A: Would you like to a football game tomorrow? B: No, thanks. I have lots of work that need to be done by Sunday. A: What a pity. Maybe another time. o A: Why not come out for a quick lunch with us? B: I’m afraid I can’t, I still have a lot of work left and I have to finish all of them by 4 today. A: That’s too bad. Perhaps some other time.
  • 56.  | 10 (Making Arrangements)             o o o o I thought we might go to this evening. I’ve booked/reserved a table for at . I’ve got us tickets for a concert/football game this weekend. I have tickets for a play at . o o o o o Shall I pick you up (at ) about ? I’ll pick you up about . I’ll ask ... to pick you up about . Shall I come to tomorrow morning, about I’ll come by and get you at ? o o o I’ll wait in/at . Shall I pick you up at ? Where would you like to meet? ? 
  • 57. I’ll pick you up at o  .  A: I was wondering if you would like to go to a play tomorrow night? o B: That’s very kind of you. I’d like that very much. A: I have two tickets for the Playhouse. I’ll pick you up at work about 17:30.  11  (Before a Meal-1)         -1       o o o o o How/What about a drink? How about some beer/whiskey/wine/etc.? Would you like a drink? Would you like some beer/wine/etc.? May I offer you a drink?* o o o o Good idea. That would be nice. Yes, please. That’s very kind of you.* ( o o o o No, /thanks/thank you/. I’m afraid I can’t. I’m sorry. I don’t drink. I’d love to but ... .       *)   What What What What o o o o  o o o  would you like? about you, ? What will you have? can I get you? would you like to drink?   What can I get you then? Will you have soft drink or something? What would you have for a drink then?   
  • 58. Would you like some juice/Coke/etc.? How about some juice/Coke/etc.? What would you like to have? o o o      o o o o o I’d like a whiskey. Could I have a gin and tonic (,please)? I’ll have a dry Martini, please. Mine’s a glass of white wine. A Coke, please. o o Could I/we have I’d/We’d like           /This is/These are/ on me. Let me get /this one/these/. Let me treat you. This is my treat. I’ll get the bill. Allow me to pick up the tab. o o o o o o  o , please? , please.   A: Would you like some wine? B: Yes, please. o A: Would you like a drink? B: I’m sorry. I don’t drink. A: What would you have for a drink, then? B: I’ll have a Coke.  
  • 59.  | 12  (Before a Meal-2)           -2     May I have the menu? Menu, please. o o              o o o o Would you like me to help you with the menu? Would you like me to explain some of the dishes for you? Do you want me to explain some of the dishes for you? Do you need any help with the menu?  o o o o It’s It’s It’s It’s      a bit like ... . similar to ... . the same as ... . very much like ... .        
  • 60. It’s It’s It’s It’s o o o o   made of ... . got ... in it. cooked with ... . a sort of ... .       It’s cooked with ... . It’s a sort of ... . It’s a kind of ... . That’s ... . It’s a bit like ... . o o o o o   ...   o o It’s cooked with fish/meat/soup/etc. It’s a sort of fish/meat/soup/etc. o It’s baked/boiled/roasted/steamed/grilled/stir-fried/etc. o o o It’s hot/spicy/sweet/etc. It tastes hot/sour/sweet/spicy/salty/etc. It tastes like goulash. o o o o It comes with /a sauce/a dressing/etc. It’s served with a roll/hot cake/etc. You eat it together with cream and jam. It goes well with white wine.    o o Wiener schnitzel. What’s that? What’s Wiener schnitzel? o o o What do you recommend/suggest? What would you recommend? What do you think I should get/order?  o  I’d recommend ... .  
  • 61. What about ...? You could try ... . Can I suggest ...? o o o   It’s usually good here. They serve good ... here. It’s very good/delicious. I think you’ll like it. It’s a local speciality. o o o o o       OK. I’ll have/try that.     No, I think I’ll go for ... . No, I think I’ll have ... . No, I think I’d prefer ... . o o o      A: Do you need any help with the menu? o B: Yes, please. I’m not quite familiar with Asian food. What would you recommend? A: How would you like to try Tempura? It’s made of shrimp, squid and egetables dipped in batter and deep-fried. B: And you eat them plain like that? A: It comes with a soy sauce, but it’s not salty, though.  13  (Before a Meal-3)             -3           / o o o o (Do) you like seafood? Can you eat meat? How about ...? How does/do ... sound to you?  o Yes, I really love it.   
  • 62. Yes, I love it. Yes, I like it very much. Yes, I really like it. Yes, I like it. It’s /OK/all right/. I can eat it. No, I don’t like it much.* No, I don’t really like it.* No, I don’t like it.* No, I really don’t like it.* No, I really don’t like it all.* No, I hate it.* No, I really hate it.* o o o o o o o o o o o o o *     it.)    really like it very much.            (I’m allergic to  I’m afraid I don’t              Have you ever tried ... (before)? Have you had ... (before)? o o  o    A : Do you like seafood? B : Yes, I love it. What about you? A : I can eat it. How does fried squid sound to you? B : Good. I’d like that. o A : How about some dessert? B : I’m afraid I don’t really like it very much. A : How about some fruits? B : Yes, I really like fruits. 14  (Before a Meal-4)     o o o o o  -4   I think I’ll have the ..., please. Could we have two/three/etc. ..., please? I’d like ..., please. ... for me, and ... for /my friend/the lady/etc/. I’ll have ..., please.        
  • 63. Could I have ..., please? Could you get me ..., please? May I have ..., please? ..., please. Do you have ...? o o o o o               *)          Excuse me. I need to ... . Would you excuse me? I must ... . o o   Waiter : What would you like, miss? Nora : I think I’ll have vegetables tempura, please. Waiter : How about you, sir? Nikky : I’d like pepper steak, please. Oh, could you get me a butter knife, please? Waiter : Yes, sir. o   Could you pass me ..., please? Please pass ... o o o  ( Nora : Could you pass me the salt, please? Nikky : Sure. Here you go. Nora : Oh, may I have the pepper, please? Nikky : Here. Excuse me. I need to go to the restroom for a minute. Nora : All right. 
  • 64.  | 17 (Going Out)                          o o o o o o Would you like me to show/drive you around the town? Would you like to do some sightseeing? Where in the city would you like to go? Is there any place that you’re interested in going to? Where would you like to go? Any particular place of interest that you’d like to see? o o o o o What do you think of the show/movie/play? How do you like the show/movie/play? Was it a good show/movie? Did you like/enjoy the show/play/concert/etc.? It’s such a good film/show, won’t you say?  o Which team do you think will win?   3    8   
  • 65. How is doing this season? Are they going to the playoff? Who are they playing against today? Is any good? Is   playing today? What is their record so far? o o o o o o  Would you care/like to dance? May I have the honor of this dance? Would you mind joining me in a dance? o o o 18 (Showing Appreciation)                I’m very grateful. (  Thank you very much. Thank you (very much) for ( Thank you (very much) for It was (very) kind of you to I really appreciate your hospitality. Thank you. Thanks for  1 + ing * ( Thanks for * (  dinner). Thanks  * (  Steve). *  o o o o o o o o o o o   )  your help).  1 + ing (  helping me).  1 (  invite us).  coming by).  o o o o o o o o o It’s been a very pleasant visit. The meal was delicious/excellent. I have enjoyed myself. I have had a good/great time. It was quite enjoyable. I enjoyed the show/play/game very much. It was great fun.* It was very good.* I enjoyed that.* *    o o   ( You’re (very) welcome. Don’t mention it.         )   
  • 66. That’s (quite) all right. (It is/was) my/our pleasure. Not at all. That’s OK. o o o o   A: Thank you very much for showing me around. I really appreciate it. I’ve had a great time. o B: You’re welcome. A: Thanks for dinner. It was very good. o B: My pleasure. 19 (Ending Conversation)                         I really must be going/leaving. I really should be getting back home/to work. I think I really should be going. I’ve got to be going now. I must get back to work. I’d better be moving/going/getting on my way. I guess I ought to get back. I hope you don’t mind, but I’ve got to go now. I should be on my way. o o o o o o o o o           It’s rather late, and I’ve got to get up early tomorrow. I’ve got a lot to do this afternoon/tomorrow. I have an appointment at . It’s a long drive back. It’s getting very late, and I’ve got an early morning meeting. o o o o o       Thank you for coming. It’s been (very) nice/interesting talking to you. We’ll have to get together (again) sometime. So I’ll see you again soon. I’d better let you go. I’d better not take up any more of your time. o o o o o o  o  A: I really must be going. It’s rather late, and I’ve got an early morning meeting.
  • 67. B: Thank you for coming. We’ll get together again some time. A: I guess I ought to get back to the office. I’ve got a lot to do this afternoon. o B: I’d better let you go. So I’ll see you again soon, I hope. 20  (Leave-taking)      Goodbye. Good night. ( o o        2    ) )  Bye. o     I’ll be seeing you. See you later/soon/tomorrow/etc. Take care. See you in a few days/next week/etc. Have a good day/weekend. Keep in touch. See you around. o o o o o o o   A: Goodbye. It’s been nice meeting you. B: I hope we’ll meet again. Goodbye. o   ) It’s been (very) nice meeting you. (  Thank you (very much) for ... . I hope we’ll meet again (soon). It was so nice meeting you. I’ll see you in . I hope you enjoy the rest of your trip/stay. I hope you have a good flight back. It’s been (really) nice seeing you again. It was a pleasure meeting you. (  o o o o o o o o o     o  A: See you later. Bye. B: See you around.  bye   
  • 68.  | 15  (During a Meal)                   o o o Bon apetit! (    Bon apetit!  Enjoy! (   Thank you. Thanks.) It looks good. (Hmm,) it smells good.  o o o  How is your soup/salad/meat/etc.? Was it good? (How) do you like it?  )
  • 69. Well, is it any good? o  It’s delicious. How’s yours? I’m afraid it’s too salty/over-cooked/spicy/etc. It’s good. What about yours? o o o  Can I get/order you something else? * Would you like another glass of wine? Would you like some (more) fish? Could I pour you some more wine? How about some (more) salad? Why not try some broccoli? o o o o o o *) o o o o Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, o o o o No, No, No, No,     (  please. please. That sounds delicious/good/nice. thank you. Just a little. thank you. Not too much. thank you. (I’m fine.) thank you. I’ve had plenty to eat/drink. thanks. I can’t/don’t eat/drink ... . thanks. I don’t really eat/drink ... .        Can I have ...? Could you pour me some (more) water/juice/etc.? Can/Could you get me some more ..., please? Would you please give me some (more) ...? o o o o  o   Susan : Hm, this looks good. Steve : Enjoy! How is your salad? 
  • 70. Susan : It’s delicious. How’s yours? Steve : It’s good. Could I pour you some more wine? Susan : Yes, please. 16 (After a Meal)                                       (           )  Do/Would you mind if I smoke?1 Is it all right if I smoke?2 Can/May I smoke?3 o o o  Well, actually I’d rather you didn’t. No, I don’t/wouldn’t mind (at all).1 No, not at all.1 Yes, it is.2 Yes, it’s all right.2 Yes, of course.2 Yes, certainly. Yes, go ahead.3 Sure. Fine. OK. No problem. o o o o o o o o o o o o  o o o    I’m sorry, but I’m allergic to smoke.1 I’m afraid smoke will give me a headache.1 I’m afraid I’m not really used to smoke.1
  • 71. I’m sorry, but it’s not all right.2 (No,) I’m afraid not.3 o o          A : Do you mind if I smoke? o B : No, not at all. A : Do you mind if I smoke? o B : I’m sorry, but I’m quite allergic to smoke. A : Is it all right if I smoke? o B : Yes, it’s all right.       3  11   Can we have the bill, please? Check, please. o o   Do you take VISA/American Express/etc.? Can I charge it? Do you accept credit cards? Can I use VISA/Master Card/etc. here? o o o o  o   A : Waiter, check, please. B : Let me get this one. A : No, this is my treat. (Ask the waiter) Do you take VISA? Waiter : Yes, we do. 
  • 72.  | 4 (Business Presentations and Meetings) 1  (Introduction)                     4                       
  • 73. Good morning/afternoon/evening, ladies and gentlemen, I’m (from / ). o /  Today, I’d like to explain/talk about ... Today, I’m going to talk about ... In my presentation I’ll be proposing/talking about ... In my presentation today I’m going to explain ... This morning/afternoon I’d like to review ... The subject/topic of my/this/today’s presentation is ... What I’d like to do this morning/afternoon is to present/review/etc. ... The aim of this presentation is to ... What I’d like to talk about is ... What I’m going to explain this afternoon/morning are ... What I’ll be proposing in my presentation are ... My presentation this morning/afternoon deals with ... Today’s presentation will be/focus on ... o o o o o o o o o o o o o  o o o o My main point is ... I’ll be developing two/three/etc. main points. My presentation will be in two/three main parts. The aim of this presentation is to ... o o o o First, I’ll give you ... Second, ... Lastly, ... In the first part I’ll ... And then I’ll ... Firstly, I’d like to ... Secondly, we can ... And I’ll finish with ... In the first part of my presentation, I’ll describe ... After that, I’ll talk about ... Finally, I’ll show you ...  o  Good morning, ladies and gentlemen, I’m Chris Makepeace from Sale Division. In my presentation I’ll be talking about our summer sale promotion. My presentation will be in two main parts. Firstly, I’d like to give you an overview of our promotion projects. And then I’ll talk about advantages and disadvantages of each project. 2 (Sequencing)
  • 74.                             o o o o First, I’d like to talk about ... I’ll begin by (v. + ing) First ... Let’s start with ...  o o o o o o o o o o o o o o    /  Now, I’d like to move on to ... I’d now like to turn to ... If I could now turn to ... Now, turning to ... Let me now move on to ... Now, what about ...? Now, let’s look at ... Then ... Next, let me describe/explain/etc. ... My next point is ... After that ... The next ... Another ... The other ...  o o o o  o o o o o o o o o First ... . Second ... . Third ... . The first ... . The second ... . the third ... . First ... . Next ... . Then ... . After that ... . Finally ... . One ... . Another ... . The other ... .   So that’s the general picture for ... In conclusion, we can say ... That completes my overview of ... So, to conclude, ... Finally, ... In conclusion, I’ve talked about ... In summary, I’ve explained ... My main point was ... I therefore recommend ...         
  • 75.   First, I’d like to talk about our production/etc. Now, turning to sale/etc. Next, let me explain about our sale promotion/etc. So that’s the general picture for our company’s performance for the first half of this year. Let’s start with our export volume for last year etc. Now, I’d like to turn to this year’s export volume etc. The next thing we’ll be looking at is the prospect for our exporting next year etc. So, to conclude, it is reasonable to assume that etc. o o  o o  First, I’d like to talk about our production. ... . Now, turning to sale. ... . Next, let me explain about our sale promotion. ... . So that’s hte general picture for our company’s performance for the first half of this year. Let’s start with our export volume for last year. ... . Now I’d like to turn to this year’s export volume. ... . The next thing we’ll be looking at is the prospect for our exporting next year. ... . So, to conclude, it’s reasonable to assume that ... .
  • 76.  | 3   (Using Visual Aids)                           o o o Now, I’ll show you the ... If we now turn to the ... If you look at the screen you can see ... o o o o o o This chart compares/contrasts/illustrates ... The graph shows ... You can see here ... In my first slide, I’d like to show you ... This diagram/graph/table shows ... The next slide shows ...  o As you can see from the graph, ...   
  • 77. The upper part of the slide gives information about ... If you look at the top/bottom you can see ... The left/right side shows ... On the left/right is ... The first row/column contains ... Now, let’s look at the position for ... Let’s move on now and look at the figures of ... o o o o o o o  As you/we can see ... This is the ... Here is the ... For example ... This clearly shows ... This is important because ... What is interesting/important is ... I’d like to draw your attention to ... Notice/Observe the ... It is important/interesting to notice that ... o o o o o o o o o o   Now, I’ll show you the slides to back up the points I’ve just made. This graph shows the amount of sale for each twelve months last year. As you can see from the graph, there is an increasing trend. This clearly shows that our product has been gaining popularity among consumers ... . o 4      (Getting the Listeners Involved)                            Production was down last quarter.             
  • 78. o o o o o o o o o o o o o How can we explain this? How will this affect ...? What can we do about it? What’s the explanation for this? What are the implications for ...? What’s behind this ...? What does that tell us? Does it imply/mean that ...? What does this mean to us? Why was that? How did it happen? What caused this? Are there reasons behind this? What are we going to do about this? What step should we take to change this?     We’ve come out with a new product. That’s why we’ve come up with this project. o o o Will it benefit us in anyway? What are its advantages? What will it do for us? o o o o o o o That’s why we’ve come up with this project. What do we stand to gain from this? How is its future prospect? Will it work? What’s the chance of success? Will it be well received? Can be we sure of its success?           o o o The chart shows a sharp decline in sale between summer months. How can we explain this? Despite our market expansion, the demand for our products was down in the last quarter. What was that? Our expensive marketing campaign did not even boost up our sale one bit. What does that tell us?
  • 79. 5 (Stating Options)                        We have considered/looked at one/two/etc. options. One way to solve this problem is .... Another is to ... There are two/three alternatives. The first one is ... The/Our first option is (to) ... But what about the second/third/other option? So, now let’s look at the second/third/other option, which is (to) ... We have two/three/etc. courses of action. The first one is (to) ... The options/alternatives we have are (to) ... or (to) ... There are two/three/etc. ways to handle/solve this problem, which are (to) ... or (to) ... To solve/handle this problem, we can either ... or ... o o o o o o o o o o                   What are the benefits/advantages? The advantages/benefits of this option are ... By choosing this option, we’ll be able to ... This option/alternative will enable us to ... We’ll benefit by ... o o o o o  There are, however, (some) disadvantages, which are ... But there are some problems too. On the other hand, ... By choosing this option, we/the company, however, will have to ... The disadvantages/shortcomings/etc. of this option are ... Unfortunately, we will not be able to ... o o o o o o  o  The options we have are to acquire more machinery or to hire more labor. The advantages of the first option are ... . On the
  • 80. o other hand ... . By choosing the second option, we’ll be able to ... . Unfortunately, we will not be able to ... . All these late deliveries and backup orders make us fall back almost two months in our schedule. What can we do about it? There are two ways to handle this problem, which are to revamp our operation, a costly choice but worthwhile in the long run, or to contract out production and delivery, a less cost choice but would not be economical in the long run.
  • 81.  | 6 (Concluding)              In conclusion/summary, I’ve explained ... . In conclusion/summary, I’ve talked about ... . So, to /summarize/sum up/ ... . So, as we’ve seen in this presentation today ... . As I’ve explained, ... . At this stage I’d like to /go over/run through/ ... . My main point was ... . So, to conclude ... . In conclusion, we can say ... . o o o o o o o o o       (  )       
  • 82. I have some documents/folders/handouts/copies of ..., which I’ll be passing round now. I’ll be distributing you folders/handouts/copies of ... . For some of you who’d like to have a copy of ..., I’ll be handing them out to you now. I’ll be handing out copies of ... to you now. I’ve prepared some handouts/copies of ... which I’d like to pass round now. In the handouts being distributed now, you’ll see/find ... . o o o o o  o  In conclusion. I’ve talked about the prospect of opening foreign market for our products. The survey indicated that it is possible for us to do so, but under the present circumstances we have only two options, to do it ourselves or to let the local middleman do it for us. In the handout being distributed, you’ll find all relevant information about the market situations in those countries in which we are thinking of opening markets. 7   (Making Recommendation)        I propose I'd like to suggest We (would) recommend   o o    My suggestion is My/Our proposal would be The/My recommendation o o     to v.1 ... . v.1 + ing ... . n. I (would) propose/suggest/recommend that ... be + v.3 ... . It is advisable to ... .   I suggest we + v.1 ... . We should + v.1 ... .   
  • 83. We ought to + v.1 ... . In future we plan to + v.1 ... . o o          o o o I suggest you v.1 ... . (I think) you should v.1 ... . I (would) advise/recommend n. o o o o o o o o o o o My suggestion would be to reduce our production. Our proposal is to increase our operation. The recommendation would be to expand our service. I propose a price hike. I’d like to suggest reducing our prices. We recommend laying off 5 percent of our workers. We propose the company shut down foreign operation. I would suggest that new price structure be adopted. It is advisable to split our stocks. We should reengineer our management. I think you should shift your personnel around.    ... . Considering the present economic situation and the company’s present financial status, I’d recommend the first option for the time being. But I’d like to suggest that we move to the second option in the future if the circumstances are more favorable than the present. ... . In the future, we plan to step up our production before summers start in order to cater to the demand of these young customers. o o 8  (Handling Questions)                            
  • 84. If you have any questions during my talk, please stop me and ask. If there is any questions, please feel free to (stop me and) ask. Please stop me at any time if you have any questions. I’ll be happy to answer any questions that you may have during the talk/presentation. o o o o   If you have any questions (during my talk), please ask me at the end of the presentation. I’ll be happy to answer any questions at the end of my presentation. If you have any questions, I’d be pleased to answer them after the presentation. Can I ask you to hold any questions you may have until the end of my presentation? Please hold any questions you may have until the end of my presentation. I would welcome any questions/comments at the end of the presentation. o o o o o o  Now, I’d be happy to answer any questions (you may have about my presentation). If you have any questions, I’d be pleased to answer them (now). I would welcome any comments/questions. Are there any questions? o o o o  o o o o o    I’m sorry, could you speak a little slower, please? Could you repeat your question, please? Let me make sure I get/understand your questions (correctly), are you asking (that/about) ...? I’m sorry, I’m not sure I understand. Is your question ...? I’m sorry, could you speak a little louder, please?   o o o   I’m glad you asked that questions. That’s a good question. Thanks for asking me about that.   
  • 85. Are there any other questions? Does that answer your question? I hope that answers your question. o o o     I’m sorry, I don’t have that information with me. I can try and get it to you later, if you like. I’m sorry, I don’t know the answer to that question at this time. I’m sorry, I don’t think we have enough time to get into that now, can we discuss/talk about it later? I’m sorry, that information is confidential. I’m sorry, I’m not in a position to discuss that issue/problem/etc. I’m sorry, I’m not permitted to give you that information. o o o o o o   o o If you have no questions. I’ll finish there. If there are no questions, I’ll finish there. o o I’m afraid that’s all the time we have. I’m sorry (to say) that we’ve run out of time.      o o o Thank you (very much). Thank you for listening. Thank you for your attention.   
  • 86.  | F 9 F   (Opening the Meeting)  5 (        )            o o o o o o o o o Well, ladies and gentlemen, I think we should begin. Perhaps we’d better get started/ down to business. I think it’s about time we got started/going. I think we should begin. Let’s begin, shall we? Let’s get going/down to business, shall we? Shall we start/get started? Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. If we are all here, shall we start/get started/make a start? 
  • 87. o o o If everybody is here, let’s start/get started/make a start. If we are all here, I think we should start/get started/make a start. It is time to start our meeting.  o o o o o   First of all, I like to introduce ... . First of all, let me introduce ... . First of all, I have the pleasure to introduce/welcome ... . Would you like to say a few words about yourselves? Would you introduce yourselves?  o o o o o o o o o o o o o The purpose of this meeting is, first, to ... and secondly to ... . The main objective of our/today’s meeting is ... . We are here today to consider ... . I’ve called this meeting first to ..., secondly to ... . I’d like to make several points, firstly ... . I’d like to begin by v.1 + ing. Have you all got a copy of the agenda? Would someone move that the minutes of the last meeting be accepted? Has everyone received a copy of the agenda? The first item (on the/today’s agenda) is ... Let’s look at the agenda in detail. As you can see there are five main items/points. I propose/suggest that we take them in that order.  o o o o Can we have agreement on the ground rules? I propose the following: I think we will need/spend about ... minutes for item/point ..., ... minutes for item/point ... As/Since we have a lot to cover/get through this morning, I suggest/propose ... Can we now agree on the overall procedure?
  • 88.   10 -1 (Conducting the Meeting-1)                                                 o o o o o o  Now let’s move onto the first item/point. Let’s look at the first item/point. Has anyone anything else they wish to add before we move on to the next item/point? Can we go on now to ...? Has anyone anything further to add? Could we move onto item 4 on the agenda?   o o o  Richard, over to you. John, would you care to carry on from here? I’d like to turn it over to David.   o o o   Would you like to begin/open the discussion, Mike? Would you like to add/suggest anything, Grace? What do you think about ..., Paul?
  • 89. Anything to add, Peter? What about you, Kathy? We haven’t heard from you yet, Michael. What do you think about this? Would you like to comment here? Mr. ..., would you like to say something about this? o o o o o    (I’m) sorry. I didn’t hear what you said. Would you mind repeating it, please? (I’m) sorry. I didn’t quite catch what you’ve just said. Would you please say it again? (I’m) sorry. I don’t quite follow you. Could you go over that again, please? What exactly do you mean by ...? I’m not sure I follow you. Am I right in saying that ...? o o o o o   In other words, ... . If I understand you correctly, ... . So you mean ... . So what you’re saying is ... . o o o o 11 -2 (Conducting the Meeting-2)                  o o o o o o o              I think we’d better keep to the scope of the meeting. I’m afraid that’s outside the scope of this meeting. (Let’s) keep to the point, please. I think we’re beginning to lose sight of our main point. I don’t think that is relevant to what we’re now discussing. Let’s not get side-tracked. Could you stick to the subject, please?
  • 90. We’re running out/short of time. There’s not much time left. We’d better get moving. There are other points to be discussed. o o o  So, to summarize what has been said/suggested so far ... . What we’ve discussed so far is/are ... . o o  o o o o o o  ( )  Shall we continue then? Let’s move on (to the next point). Mitch, would you like to introduce the next point? Well, I think we pretty well cover everything on that point. Let’s move on. Onto item 2. Who’s going to open this one? Can we go on now to ... .
  • 91.  | 12 -3 (Conducting the Meeting-3)         o o o o                       One at a time, please. We can’t listen to everybody speaking at once. Why don’t we let Diane give us her views first, followed by Jay and then Jeff? We can’t all speak at once. Michael first, then Lisa, then Stuart. Let’s listen to Vivian first, then Mark.  o Well, thank you, Doris. I think that’s quite clear. Could we have some other opinions?
  • 92. You’ve made that very clear, Charlie. Thank you. Anybody else? Thank you, John. I think we’ve all got the point now. Let’s move on. I think all of us here now have a clear idea of what Chris has just told us. Thanks, Chris. Shall we move on? o o o     I’m afraid there seems to be some misunderstanding here. If I may just interrupt you for a moment here, I think ... . I don’t want to interrupt, but can I just say that ... . Could I come in there for a moment, please? Could I just make a few comments, please? o o o o o  / I think it’s a good idea to take a break now. Why don’t we just take a break now? Each/Both side(s) has/have a point. Why don’t we ...? Maybe we could come to some sorts of solution by combining each side’s idea/suggestion. The ideas/suggestions are all very good and deserve our attention. o o o o o 13     -1 (Participating-1)   /           o o I’m sure/convinced that ... . I feel quite/very sure that ... . o o o I believe/think that ... . As I see it ... . The way I see it is that ... .  o o o It seems to me that ... . I tend to favor the idea/view/approach that ... . I’m inclined to think that ... . 
  • 93.     o o o o I’m in complete agreement (with ...). I quite agree (with ...). I couldn’t agree more (with ...). I agree. o o I think you’re right. That’s right/true.       o o I disagree completely (with ...). That’s out of the question. o o o o I don’t agree (with ...). I think you’re wrong. I disagree (with ...). That’s not how I see it.   o o o o o    I’m convinced that the deal will fall through. As I see it, expension will be costly during this time. It seems to me that the drop in sale does not result from the lack of promotion campaign.  o   I agree (with Ken) up to a point but ... . I (can/do) see your point but ... . I suppose you’re right but ... . That’s (quite) true. However, ... . Yes, but ... .  o o o   I’m in complete agreement with what Jeff’s just said.
  • 94. I quite agree with Jon’s suggestion. I couldn’t agree more with the plan we have. o o  o o o   I disagree completely with the merger plan. I don’t agree with your suggestion. I disagree with what you’ve just proposed.  o o o      I agree with Scott up to a point, but I think there are some issues that need to be discussed fouther. I do see your point, but I am not quite certain that the result will be as we expect. Yes, but will that be the only option we have.
  • 95.  | 14  -2 (Participating-2)      o o o o o o o o o o       Has anybody any comments to make? What’s the general view on that? I’d like to know the general feeling about that? Any reaction to that? What’s the meeting’s opinion/view on that? Do you think we should ...? Do any of you have any suggestions? How do you think we should do this? What would you suggest? Any suggestions?  
  • 96.  What are your opinion about views on ...? What do you think about ...? What are your feelings about ...? What’s your position on ...? I’d like to have your opinions about/views on ... . I’d like to hear your ideas on this. How do you see this? o o o o o o o             3              /  We must ... . Our only solution is to ... .  1 + ing is our only solution. There is/I see no alternative but to ... . o o o o / (I think) we should/ought to ... . I would suggest that we ... . I recommend that we (should) ... . My recommendation/suggestion is that ... . o o o o /  It might be a good idea to/if we ... . We could ... . How/What about ... . o o o      )     o o      (  2   (   o      )  I’m (completely) in favor of that (suggestion/recommendation/etc.). I have (absolutely) no objection. That’s a (very) good idea.    
  • 97.    Great/Good idea. Excellent. Sounds good/fine. OK/Fine by me. o o o o    o o o I accept your point/reasoning but ... . I appreciate your views/reasoning but ... . That’s a good idea but ... . o o o I’m afraid. I can’t accept that. I’m sorry, but that (idea/suggestion) is not quite practical. I’m sorry. I have reservations about that.     I can’t/don’t accept that. I’m against that (idea/suggestuib/etc.) That’s out of the question. o o o    o o  Jack, what are your views on our plan to reduce production? What do you think about our new TV ads? / o o   We must hedge and halt investment for the next three months. Reducing prices is our only solution in a time like this. / o o  + I think we should get rid of our existing inventory. + I would suggest that we maintain the present status. / o o  + It might be a good idea to sell off some stocks. + We could put our production on hold for a week.
  • 98.    I accept your point, but I don’t think we could wait that long. That’s a good idea but we can’t afford it at the moment. o o 15  -3 (Participating-3)                         Going back to what I said before, ... . To go back to what I was just saying, ... . As I was saying, ... . To return to the point I was making, ... . o o o o        o o o o   o o o    o o o o o o          I take your point but can we please stick to the main subject in hand. I see what you mean but I think you’re losing track of the main point. That’s not the point. We’re here to discuss ... . That’s all very well. Now, let’s get back to the point. I know what you mean, but I don’t see what it’s got to do with what we’re talking about here. o           It’s very difficult (for me) to say (at the moment). I’m afraid I can’t comment on that at this stage. I’ll need some more time before I can give any comment. Let me think it over for a few minutes. I don’t have any comment at the moment. I’d like to have a few more minutes to consider this matter before I can give any comment. There won’t be any comment from me at the moment. I’d rather comment later, if that’s all right. Please give me a few more minutes. I’m organizing my thoughts.
  • 99. 16  -4 (Participating-4)                                                      o o o o  Right. Hmm. OK. Ah. Yes./Yes? Uh huh. Really?    o o o o o o o I see (what you mean). I see your point. I understand. I’ve got it. That’s interesting. That sounds good. I follow you. o o o o o Right, I see. Yes, I understand. Really? That sounds good. Hmm, that’s interesting. Uh huh, I’ve got it.    
  • 100.  | 17 (Summarizing)          o o o o o o o o o o o o o                 To summarize, there seem to be one/two/etc. main issues/points/problems. So far, we’ve discussed the issue/problem of ... . Today, we’ve covered ... . It seems that we are in agreement that ... . We’ve agreed with some reservations that ... . We’ve agreed unanimously that ... . The agreement we reach today concerning ... is that ... . To sum up, today we’ve considered ... . Generally, the meeting is of the opinion that ... . We generally agree that ... . It is our general agreement that ... . In sum, we talked about ... . In sum, the question(s)/problem(s)/issue(s) about ... was/were raised.
  • 101.                      / Can we now try to reach a decision? We’ve got to decide on ... Now, we have to make a decision on ... The meeting’s decision is needed for ... The issue(s)/problem(s) is/are now waiting for this meeting’s decision. o o o o o   So far, we’ve discussed the problem of producton delay. Today, we’ve covered the new marketing campaign. It seems that we are in agreement that we should cut back on our fuel consumption. o o o  / We’ve got to decide on our new market strategies for next year. The meeting’s decision is needed for termination of deal with Star Corp. Now, we have to make a decision on whether to accept IBM’s or Hewlett Packard’s bid. o o o 18 (Voting)                   o o  I’d like to (formally) propose that ... . I’d like to propose the following ... .  o    Would anyone like to second that?   
  • 102. (Do we have) anyone in favor of that? Who would (like to) second that proposal/motion? o o   o o o o o o    o o   Could we take a vote on that? Can I ask for a show of hands? Those in favor of ..., please (raise your hands). Those against? All those in favor. All those against. (Do we have) any abstentions?  o o o o      We’ve agreed with some reservations that ... . We’ve agreed unanimously that ... . It seems that we are in agreement that ... . Mr./Mrs.?Miss ...’s motion is carried by ( ) votes to votes. Mr./Mrs./Miss ...’s motion is rejected by ( ) votes to votes. Mr./Mrs./Miss ...’s motion/proposal/etc. is carried/rejected unanimously/overwhelmingly.     o o o        Are we all agreed on that? Can I take it that everyone is /against/in favor of/ that? Do we have a general agreement then that ...? 19 (Concluding)       o o  We’ve decided to/that ... . We’ve agreed to/that ... .     
  • 103. Do we/you all agree to/that ...? If everyone’s in agreement/favor, I propose/suggest that ... . So, we’ve agreed to/that ... . o o o              , , , , , , o o o o o o would you please see to it that ...? do you think you could ...? how about  1 + ing ...? would it be possible to ...? could you take care of ...? would it be possible to ...?   Martha, would you please to it if our salesclerk know about the prices change? Mr. Ellis, do you think you could inform our local branches of the policy changes? Marc, could you take care of recruiting new personnel for our branch in Phuket? o o o        Is there anything else we ought to consider now? Is there any other business? Does anyone have anything else to add? Anything anyone wants to bring up? Anything we need to cover for today? Have we covered everything? Anybody wants to bring up anything? Is there anything else to be discussed? o o o o o o o o 20  (Closing)               I believe we’ve covered everything.         
  • 104. That seems to be everything. That just about covers everything. If no one has anything else to add ... . If nobody has anything to add, then we can draw the meeting to a close. If nobody has anything to add, then I think we can end the meeting at this point. If that’s all/everything then (I think) we can stop here. I guess that wraps things up for today. I’d like to suggest that we stop here then. That’s all for today. Let’s stop here. o o o o o o o o o o        o o o   I suggest we adjourn. Let’s adjourn this meeting. Let’s meet again (to discuss the rest of the matters) on               at   Thank you everybody. o o o I’d like to thank ... for ... I’d like to thank everybody for ... Thank you (all) for your participation.   o I declare the meeting closed.   
  • 105.  1 | (NOUNS)    (  (    )        )      8   (  boy, Alex, dolphin, tree, guitar, Boston      -age -al -ation -(e)ry -hood -ing -ment  " " " " " " postage arrival transportation fishery childhood living employment    ) 
  • 106. -ness -ship -ee -er, -or -ist -ity -ism -ion " " " " " " " " thankfulness scholarship employee player guitarist facility skepticism admission CONVERSATION 1 A: John likes New York. B: The weather is kind of nice. A: He's thinking of looking for an employment1 there. B: Good for him! 1 an employment - a job CONVERSATION 2 A: Scott loves Boston. B: It's a good place to live in. A: He's seeking for an admission to a college there. B: That's good!
  • 107.  1.2   music ) " ..."    |  (UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS) (  bread, water, coffee, wood )   (  hope, love, beauty,    " ..."  creation, development, goodliness, swimming (   )  • • •                    1 kilogram of sugar, a glass of milk, a loaf of bread, a packet of tea  a an      the    The love I have for her.         plenty of, a lot of, lots of, much, some, any, (a) little, a great deal of, a great amount of  plenty of rest, lots of sleep
  • 108. CONVERSATION 1 A: Would you like some more tea? B: Yes, please. A: Cream or sugar? B: Lots of cream, please. CONVERSATION 2 A: How about a little more coffee? B: I'd love some, thanks. A: How about some cream and sugar? B: I like mine with plenty of sugar.
  • 109.  1.3 | /   (SINGULAR/PLURAL)             a boy, a bus, a baby, a mango      a an    • • • •   s cars          books, girls, tables, es     s, ss, ch, sh, o, x z  buses, glasses, churches, tomatoes, boxes y    ies  baby  babies, library  libraries, activity  activities f fe    ves  life  lives, wife  wives, shelf  shelves CONVERSATION 1 A: Where are the kids? B: They're off to schools. A: Did they do the dishes? B: They did.
  • 110. CONVERSATION 2 A: Where are the boys off to? B: They left for the libraries. A: Did they take those empty boxes outside? B: They said they would do it when they get back.
  • 111.  | 1.4 CASE)        (POSSESSIVE      • • •  roof   's     '   s 's        John, boy, child boys, players men, children, people  John's, boy's, child's boys', players' men's, children's, people's   of   the roof of the house   the keys of my car  my car's keys   the house roof, my car keys CONVERSATION 1 A: Have you seen John's sweaters?  the house's 
  • 112. B: I think they're in Mark's car. A: By the way, are these your ties? B: They're Eric's. CONVERSATION 2 A: Did you see dad's pants? B: They might be in Keith's room. A: Anyway, do these pajamas belong to you? B: They belong to Jeff.
  • 113.  2 | (PRONOUNS)  (PERSONAL PRONOUNS)                         I you he, she, it  ( )    personal pronouns    • • •    we you they  3 (   )      me you him, her, it   us you them   my your his, her, its  our your their *  mine yours his, hers, its  ours yours theirs
  • 114. *   )  "     ) Mine is not here. (        )  )  This is mine. ( (   ) (   "I like her very much."     "She doesn't like me. She likes my dog."   (   " CONVERSATION 1 A: Who is your history teacher? B: I have Mr. Mathis. A: He taught me last year. I now have Ms. Shafran. CONVERSATION 2 A: Whom do you have for English? B: Mr. Jones is teaching me this semester. A: I had him last semester. Mine is Mrs. Lowe. 
  • 115.  | 2.1 PRONOUNS) (DEMONSTRATIVE         • •  • • •  this these        that those one ones this, these    These are good apples. He likes this. These are hers. that, those    What is that? Whose are those? one, ones    one ones   Which one is your car? Mine is the blue one. (one  ) These apples are cheap, but the ones inside are expensive. (ones  ) CONVERSATION 1 A: These apples look crispy.
  • 116. B: I'm going to get a few myself. A: Oh, no. This one is bad. B: Don't get it then. Get that big one in the corner. CONVERSATION 2 A: Look at these apples. B: I think I'll buy some. A: This is not a good one. B: Leave it. Look at the ones in the next box.
  • 117.  | 2.2  PRONOUNS (1))  (1) (INDEFINITE                  -one -thing -where someone ( ) anyone ( )  no one (  ) everyone ( ) something ( ) anything ( )  nothing (  ) everything ( ) somewhere ( ) anywhere ( )  nowhere (  ) everywhere ( )  -body • • • •   some- somebody ( ) any- anybody ( )  nonobody (  ) everyeverybody ( )        
  • 118. someany   (yes)  Somebody (        Someone) is waiting for you. (     )    Is anybody ( anyone) home? (    )     Nobody ( No one) likes hot weather. (   ) Everyone ( Everybody) likes Jim. ( )  Can you do something for me? (    )  Get me anything. (  )     He wants nothing from her. (   David likes everything that we gave him. ( He has nowhere to go. (  ) They'd like to go somewhere. ( CONVERSATION 1 A: Are you doing anything this weekend? B: I don't know yet. I'll think of something, though. A: I'm going home. Are you going anywhere? B: I'm not going anywhere. CONVERSATION 2 A: Will you be doing anything tomorrow? B: Nothing, I guess. A: I'll go to San Diego. Will you be going somewhere? B: I've nowhere to go to.       )   )  )
  • 119.  |  PRONOUNS (2))   (2) (INDEFINITE             *  all      both         )         ones (  She likes a new car, but I like an old one. Jill likes red apples, but Joe likes green ones. One must not be late.   + of +    He has five houses. Each costs at least $ 50,000. The members each have their own lockers.   )  I have two brothers. Both are baseball players. "Which of these two do you like?" "Both!"  neither    either    one all All you need is love. I have five books. All have blue covers.  each (    either  "Which one would you like?" "Either is fine." Either of these cars is hers.  neither + of +      I am waiting for Steve and Scott, but neither has shown up yet. "Which one do you like, the blue or the red?" "Neither."
  • 120. some      any       (   a few        Many tried but very few succeeded. Few were at the party.  (     /  I don't have much to tell.    Is there much to do here?        The test was difficult and many failed. Mitch said a lot of people went to the party but I didn't see that many.  few     )  I won three prizes yesterday but none today. Jane wants some milk but there is none left.  much "  )  Which screwdriver do you want?" "Any will do." Are there any of those left in the refrigerator?  (  any + of +   many  I'm going to have ice-cream. Do you want some? If you've got no money, I will give you some.  none   few   a few    )       *  all of them    There are a few, aren't there? "You should quit smoking." "But I only smoke a few a day." (   )  CONVERSATION 1 A: Do you have a red pen? B: I don't have one. A: Which of these blue pens is yours? B: Neither is mine. CONVERSATION 2 A: Can I borrow a red pen? B: I haven't got any. A: Are both of these blue pens yours? B: Neither of them is mine. + of + /  all of the books
  • 121.  |  PRONOUNS (3))  (3) (INDEFINITE (    ) *  a lot lots (  )  many  a little little (   )    lots + of +  a lot + of +    "How much milk do you want in your cereal?" "I want a lot." Lots of people went to the concert last night.   a lot + of +  much lots + of +    (a) little + of +        a little little 
  • 122.  other the other others  ( , I knew a little about the economy. (   ) For half a day Jay did little but sleep. (  other others  ( ,      the other     )  , I have three balls; Chris has the others. Only a few people remain; all the others have already left.   *   ) She has two sons. One is a doctor. The other is a dentist. He never thinks of others, only himself all the time. I've bought all that you wanted. Let me know if you want any others.  (the) most  )  the others      all of them      most + of +  the   most /  /    At least you tried your best. That's the most anybody can do. We know which girl can sell the most. + of + / CONVERSATION 1 A: I put a lot of milk in my coffee. B: Most of the people I know drink black coffee. A: Put a little in your coffee. You might like it. B: OK. A little won't hurt. CONVERSATION 2 A: I like lots of milk in my coffee. B: Others prefer black coffee. A: A little in your coffee will make it taste even better. B: All right, just a little.  all of the books 
  • 123.  | 2.3  (INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS)      3    1.    who ( ) whom ( ) who ( ) whose (  )  Who called? Who took my book? Who has it? Whom did she talk to? Whom did he see? Who did he see? Whose is that? Whose are these?
  • 124. 2.    which ( what ( which ( what ( )   ) Which came in first? Which goes to the beach? What made you think so? What happened to you? ) Which should we take? Which of these do you like? ) What are you reading? What did you have for lunch? CONVERSATION 1 A: Who called? B: Jane. A: What did she want? B: She'd like to know whom Brad took to the dance last night. CONVERSATION 2 A: Who was it on the phone? B: It was Lisa. A: What was it about? B: She wanted to know which classes I plan to take next year.
  • 125.  | 2.4   (RELATIVE PRONOUNS (1))   (  2    (    )   )         (1)   
  • 126. 1.    who (  ) that ( ) whom (  ) that ( ) whose ( )  2. The man who's just walked in wants to speak to you. The girls that work there are mostly homeless. The lady whom you helped is the Mayor's wife. The man that the manager hired used to work here. This is a book about a boy whose brother is a boxer.      which that which that whose of which   Any house which is in this area will be quite expensive. The dog that won the prize is hers. The motorcycle which we've just rent broke down. The pen that I just bought was stolen. The horse whose trainer is one of the best will win the race. His essay of which the introduction is superb will receive an A. CONVERSATION 1 A: Who is that girl? B: She's the one who used to be in our French class. A: Oh, yeah, that's right. She lives in an area which is very expensive. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you know that girl? B: She's the one whose brother works in the store next to school. A: Oh, I remember now. She works in a store which is next to the mall.
  • 127.  |    ((RELATIVE PRONOUNS (2))   (,)        (2)       1.    who whom whose  2.  David, who is in our math class, likes to play football. Tracy, whom everyone likes, is a bright student. Chris, whose brother is my friend, would like to know you.      which which of which whose   That BMW, which runs very fast, belongs to Mike. The 1976 yearbook, which I wanted to check out, was gone. Your new chemistry book, of which a few pages are missing, can be refunded. This painting, whose owner is a friend of mine, won first prize.
  • 128. CONVERSATION 1 A: David, who is in our math class, doesn't feel well today. B: Is he all right? A: He should be OK. His dad, who is a doctor, will take a good care of him. CONVERSATION 2 A: Ken, who lives next door from us, is sick today. B: Is he doing OK? A: Oh, he will be all right. His mom, who is a nurse, should look after him very well.
  • 129.  2.5 (  |  (REFLEXIVE/EMPHATIC PRONOUNS)   )  " reflexive pronoun  " " emphatic pronoun    • • •     myself yourself himself, herself, itself     He himself said that. (  ) pronoun   ourselves yourselves themselves   emphatic pronoun   " 
  • 130. I cooked dinner myself. ( )     pronoun   )    reflexive pronoun (   She hurt herself during a fall. (  ) You will cut yourself if you are not careful. (   ) CONVERSATION 1 A: Be careful, Danny. You're going to hurt yourself with that knife! B: OK, mom. Who made this soup, anyway? A: I myself made it. CONVERSATION 2 A: Careful, Jeff, otherwise you will cut yourself. B: I'll be careful, mom. Did you make this salad yourself? A: I made it myself, of course.
  • 131.  1 | (VERBS)   (past tense, present tense, future tense)    
  • 132. CONVERSATION 1 A: Alex likes to swim. B: Does he play cricket? A: Yes, he does. B: What other sports can he play? A: He can play badminton. CONVERSATION 2 A: Paul can ski very well. B: Does he know how to play volleyball? A: He sure does. B: Can he play other sports? A: Table tennis.
  • 133.  1.1  (  ) | (MAIN VERBS)       2       run ( ), walk ( ), play
  • 134. CONVERSATION 1 A: You look tired. What happened? B: I just cleaned the whole house. A: Oh, that's right. I saw you do that. CONVERSATION 2 A: What happened to you? You seem to be exhausted. B: I just mowed the lawn. A: I thought you would do that tomorrow.
  • 135.  1.2    (AUXILIARY VERBS)      (can), (should)   (  verb to be, verb to have   (will),   |   1  be (  have ( ) do ( ) can (  2 3 Past Participle Infinitive ) ) may ( ) must (  ) need (  ) will ( ) shall ( ) ought ( ) dare (  ) used ( ) Present Tense Past Tense to be to have to do to be able to is, am, are has, have do, does can, is/am/are able to may must need will shall ought dare - was, were had did could, was/were able to might had to need would should ought dare used -   verb to do ) been had done been able -
  • 136. CONVERSATION 1 A: Do you speak Spanish? B: No. A: You should learn it, then. B: I don't think I can. A: Of course, you can. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you speak French? B: No, I don't. A: I think you ought to learn it. B: Do you think I can? A: You can do it.
  • 137.  1.2.1  , | ,  • , (VERB TO BE) verb to be         Marc is my friend. She is beautiful.     verb to be (   )  They are playing football. (  ) John is talking to Mary. (  )  not  verb to be  I am not in your class. He is not doing his homework. o o • 
  • 138.   : isnžt, aren't, wasn't am not)  verb to be Are they here? Is John talking to Mary? CONVERSATION 1 A: Isn't Julie here? B: She was here a few minutes ago. A: Is she coming with us? B: Yes, she is. CONVERSATION 2 A: Where is Ann? B: She was here a moment ago. A: Is she going with you? B: No, she is not. weren't (    
  • 139.  1.2.2 , | (VERB TO HAVE) • •   verb to have    He has a younger brother. I usually have my breakfast at 8:00.    1.  verb to have    3       We have been here since noon. He has worked here for three years.
  • 140. 2. • •  has, have, had + to +  1 (v.  I have to go. 1)   ( ) We have to do our homework.   verb to do do, does did    not (  don't, doesn't didn't)  I don't have seafood. She didn't have class yesterday.   verb to do     Do you have a pencil? Did she have lunch already? CONVERSATION 1 A: Marc has one brother. B: Does he have any sister? A: No, he does not have any sister. B: I learned from Jane that he had two sisters. CONVERSATION 2 A: Scott has two brothers. B: Does he have sisters? A: He doesn't have any sister. B: Someone told me he had two sisters.
  • 141.  1.2.3 | (VERB TO DO) • •   verb to do  I do my homework. He does his job.    
  • 142. 1. • •   (  verb to be)  We don't go to school on Sunday. She didn't have your number. 2.    Do you play football every Sunday? Did you have dinner?   verb to do    She doesn't do her job. We didn't do our assignment.   verb to do     Did you do your homework? Does she do that every day? CONVERSATION 1 A: I did not do anything yesterday. B: Didn't you go to work? A: I did, but I don't have that much work these days. CONVERSATION 2 A: I didn't do anything at all the past few days. B: Didn't you go to the office? A: I did, but I don't have to work hard nowadays.
  • 143.  1.2.4 | (CAN) 1  can *  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle to be able to* can*, is/am/ are able to could*, was/ were able to been able*     can • •   Alex can swim very well.    Can I use your pen? You can use my  could • • •   Steve could beat Chris in tennis last year.   (   can)  Could you give me a hand?  could have +  3    
  • 144. • • car.    Can you tell me where the post office is?     We can go to the beach after work. o o  cannot)  you play?  You could have told me.  ( )  We could go to the movies. •  not  can't can CONVERSATION 1 A: Last year, Panus couldn't get a driver's license. B: He's eighteen now. He can get one, can't he? A: If he can pass the driving test. CONVERSATION 2 A: Panus didn't have a driver's license last year. B: He can get one now. He is eighteen. A: Yes, he can, if he passes the test.  can (    Can
  • 145.  1.2.5 | (MAY) 1  may *  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - may* might* -     may • • • •   May I borrow your pen?   (  might)  It may rain in the afternoon.     She may still be at the office.   May you succeed.  might • • •    You might like to try my racket.   (   may)  He might quit the job soon.  might + have +  3    You might have left your bag in Jayžs car.
  • 146. o o  not  may might (  mightn't)  may might    May I come in? Might she be coming with you tonight? CONVERSATION 1 A: Have you seen Tracy? B: She might be in the xerox room. A: May I use your phone? B: You may. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you know where Nina is? B: She might have gone upstairs. A: May I call her from your phone? B: Be my guest.
  • 147.  1.2.6  | (MUST) 1  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - must* had to* - must *     o       Nolan must be in his office by now. Everything must come to pass. o o o     We must finish this job today.   You must follow the instruction carefully.    You mustn't talk to your elder brother like that.
  • 148. o o o o     I must take this class next year.  must + have +  3        That's Eric's card. He must have been here while we were out.  not  must (  mustn't)  must    Must he do it? CONVERSATION 1 A: I had to stay up late the past few weeks. B: You must not work too hard. A: I'm so tired now. I must get some sleep. CONVERSATION 2 A: I had to go to bed late the past few days. B: You must get some sleep then. A: I'm so exhausted. I must take a nap.
  • 149.  , 1.2.7  |  (NEED) 1 2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle need - need* need - s he, she  * it    o  need    He needs you. They need a vacation. need      need + infinitive need + (  1 + ing) needs to talk to you. She needs talking to him. o  He    need not (  needn't) +  1 do not need to ( don't need to), does not need to ( doesn't need to) did not need to ( didn't need to) +  1     ... (   )  You 
  • 150. need not go with them. ( to quit. (     ) She didn't need )   needn't have +    ...    They needn't have done that. (  3    ) o o not  need (  verb to do  need  She doesn't need you.  need   Need you do that now?  verb to do  need   Does she need you?  needn't) CONVERSATION 1 A: Richard needs to talk to you. B: Is it necessary for him to see me now? A: He said it's urgent and he needs your approval now. CONVERSATION 2 A: Phil needs to have a word with you. B: Does he need to see me now? A: It's about something that needs to be done right away.    
  • 151.  1.2.8 | (WILL) 1  will *   2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - will* would* -    will • • •  (will +  1)  I will see you tomorrow.    I will take care of it for you.    Will you turn down the radio? Will you come in?  would • • • • will ( " )  She said she would come.  would + like + infinitive  "     I would like to ask a question.    Would you like to go with us?  would + rather    I'd rather
  • 152. walk than run.  not   won't, wouldn't)  will  Will it rain? o o will would ( would    CONVERSATION 1 A: I will take a vacation next week. B: What will you be doing then? A: I will be vacationing in San Francisco. CONVERSATION 2 A: I will definitely take a few days off next week. B: Where will you be going? A: I will go fishing and canoeing in the Rockies1. 1the Rockies - The Rocky Mountains in the USA  1.2.9 | (SHALL)  1 Infinitive 2 3 Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
  • 153. shall - shall should  shall • • • -  should   Shall I let the dog in?   What shall I give Kathy on her birthday?    I shall return.  •   •   •   (  ) It's late. You should get some sleep.   He should be here any minute. should + have +  3    You should have told me yesterday.  not   shan't shouldn't)  shall  Shall we go now? o o shall should CONVERSATION 1 A: Shall we give Chris a congratulations party for his promotion? B: We should. A: Should we also give him a present? B: We should think about that later. CONVERSATION 2 A: Shall we throw a party for Chris on his graduation? B: Yes, we should. A: What shall we give him as a present? B: I'm thinking of giving him a pen.  | should (   
  • 154. 1.2.10 (OUGHT TO) 1  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - ought to ought to - ought to o o o o o o  (  )  should         You are very sick. You ought to go and see a doctor.     We ought to begin our work.     Mitch ought to be home by now.  ought to + have +  3    You ought to have asked the teacher's permission before leaving class.  not  ought (  oughtn't)  We oughtn't to go to the party tonight.  ought     Ought they to come with us? CONVERSATION 1 A: You ought to ask dad first before you take the car.
  • 155. B: I'll call him when I get to Bobby's house. A: But I think you ought to ask him first. CONVERSATION 2 A: You ought to ask dad for his permission before using the car. B: I'll give him a call from Bobby's house. A: I still think you ought to tell him first.  1.2.11  , |  (DARE) 1  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - dare* dare - dare * s  he, she, it o  guys. dare       infinitive   dare    He dares to fight bigger
  • 156. o     infinitive bigger guys.   to do    dare  dare (  daren't) daredn't do it. o  alone?  verb to do   dare   to  He dare not fight    verb  He doesn't dare to fight bigger guys.  o     not    He dared not do it. He    Does John dare fight David?  dare     Dare Jeff sleep CONVERSATION 1 A: I bought these earings for $100, and I dare not tell my husband how much they cost. He would kill1 me. B: Would he dare do a thing like that? 1to kill (v.) - (slang) to scold, to nag CONVERSATION 2 A: I dare not tell my husband how much I paid for this pair of shoes. He'll keep on nagging for weeks if he knows. B: A nice guy like him wouldn't dare do a thing like that.  |
  • 157. 1.2.12 (USED TO) 1  2 3 Infinitive Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle - - used - used o o o o  used to +  1 (  )  We used to live in that house.    verb to be verb to be + used to +  1    They are used to city life.  used to +  1  didn't    Tom didn't use to drink.  never ( )     used to  I never used to be late for class. (  ) verb to be + used to +  1  not  verb to be  She is not (isn't) used to hot food. (   )  did   ( used to +  1)  Did you use to go there quite often? verb to be   ( verb to be + used to +  1)    Is he used to hot food? CONVERSATION 1 A: Steve and Scott used to fight each other a lot when they were kids. B: Kids are always like that.
  • 158. A: Did you use to fight when you were a kid? B: All the time. CONVERSATION 2 A: Scott and David never used to get along when they were young. B: Boys are like that. A: Did you use to get into a fight when you were young? B: Sometimes.
  • 159.  1.3  |  (NON-FINITE VERBS)
  • 160. CONVERSATION 1 A: Would you like to go downtown with me? B: Why do you want to go there? A: I've got to pick up some colored tiles for my living room. CONVERSATION 2 A: I'd like you to go downtown with me. B: What do you want to do there? A: I'm going to look at some stained glass for the dining room.  |
  • 161. 1.3.1   (INFINITIVES) Infinitive  o o 1     infinitive      3    To swim is a good exercise.   I want to borrow your book.    I have no time to talk to you.    Steve came to watch the match.   This movie is good to see. Infinitive 3 Infinitive to (    ) Infinitive  to  I feel the earth move. I made them go. Infinitive perfect tense  Kenny wished to have come. Infinitive  to    please, have, hear, help, see, feel, make, let, bid, watch, behold, know, need, dare (not), notice, observe, smell  He helped me move the table. I watched them go.  better, sooner   had better... (than), had sooner... (than), had rather...
  • 162. (than)  I had sooner run than walk. CONVERSATION 1 A: It would be nice to go to the beach today. B: It's two o'clock. Isn't it too late to go now? A: It's never too late. Help me put our stuff into the car. CONVERSATION 2 A: I'd like to go to the beach today. B: But I think to go there now is a bit too late. A: Could you help me put our things into the car? We're going.  | 1.3.2 Gerund   1 + ing    your health.  (GERUNDS)   Running is good for  Panus enjoys travelling.
  • 163.  o  gerund     after, before, by, of, on, up, without  He has given up smoking.     admit, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, discuss, finish, enjoy, mention, remember, practice, stop, suggest, try, understand  She avoids seeing his face. Let's finish eating before going out.   Would/Do you mind, How/What about, have difficulty, look forward to, can't/couldn't help/stand, feel like, have a hard time, take turns  I don't feel like going out tonight. I can't help falling in love with you. I have difficulty driving in the dark. CONVERSATION 1 A: Sarah enjoys cooking. B: But I thought she hated doing that. A: Not really. What she likes to do most is sleeping. CONVERSATION 2 A: Leslie likes shopping. B: I heard she didn't enjoy doing that very much. A: She likes sleeping most of all.  |
  • 164. 1.3.3 (PARTICIPLES) Participle  3(   1 + ing (  past participle)     present participle)   colored pens o o  interesting movies,  people concerned  present participle      Seeing the cat, the bird flew away. ( The bird flew away, seeing the cat.) Being seen by the cat, the bird is startled. We see him walking down the hallway. It was an exciting football game last night. The bird, seeing the cat, flew away.  past participle      Frightened by the alarm, the burglar ran away. ( The burglar ran away, frightened by the alarm.) The doctor looked at Jeffžs arms bruised in a fight with Ken. The committees concerned will look into these matters. The exhausted horse stopped running at last. CONVERSATION 1 A: Was the movie interesting? B: No, I thought it was boring. A: It was a remade movie. B: That's why I found it boring. CONVERSATION 2 A: Was it an interesting movie? B: It wasn't that interesting. A: With many scenes censored, it confused the audience. B: Oh, that was what made it uninteresting.
  • 165.  2 | (TENSES) Tense    (verb to be, verb to have, will   3     4    (Past) 1. (past simple) 2. (past continuous)  (past perfect)  3. 4. (past perfect continuous)    1 + ing   1     (Present)   (Future)  (present simple)  (present continuous)   (present perfect)   (past perfect continuous)  tense  (simple) will, shall + shall) 1 (future simple) (future continuous)  (future perfect)  (future perfect continuous)   1 2 2   is, am, are + 1 + ing)   ,  (continuous) (  1 + ing)  , was, were + (  will, shall + be + (  1 + ing) (  1 + ing) 3   3   (perfect) has, have +  3  , had +  3 will, shall + have +  3 4  been + (  1 + ing)   (perfect continuous) has, have + been + (  1 + ing)  , had + been + (  1 + ing) will, shall + have + been + (  1 + ing) CONVERSATION 1 A: We went to San Diego for our vacation. B: How is the city? A: It's a nice place to visit. B: Will you go back there again? A: I definitely will. CONVERSATION 2 A: We were in San Francisco last week.
  • 166. B: What's it like over there? A: It's an exciting city to live in. B: Do you think you'll go back again? A: Of course, I will.
  • 167.  2.1  | (PRESENT TENSE) /  o  1.    ) ice-cream.        (  ,  The sun rises in the east. John likes 2. sun is rising. ( ) 3.       Look, the   They have just arrived. The sun has risen. 4.  o'clock.    He has been sleeping since eight  o  6 1. 2. 3. 4. 123 ( 6 30 4      The sun rises in the east.     6 6 30 The sun is rising.    6 30   The sun has just risen.    6    6 30 The sun has been rising for ten minutes now. )
  • 168. CONVERSATION 1 A: What time do you usually get up? B: I usually get up at 06:00. Have you had any breakfast? A: I've just eaten. And you? B: I'm having it now. CONVERSATION 2 A: What time do you get up? B: I normally get out of bed around 06:30. Have you eaten? A: I've had my breakfast. How about you? B: I'm cooking some now.  | 2.1.1  TENSE) (PRESENT SIMPLE present simple tense: 1. 2. 3. o   1 he, she, it   es  1  1   o, s, ch, sh, x, z  es   y y  i  es   present simple tense   The sun rises in the east. s
  • 169.   I like this restaurant. We don't think she will come.   They leave early tomorrow. station. CONVERSATION 1 A: John always wants to be a sport commentator. B: That's why he studies so hard at Syracuse University. A: Yes. He also works for the university's newspapers. CONVERSATION 2 A: It is John's dream to become a sport commentator. B: It's no wonder he tries to do well at Syracuse. A: Right. He also holds a part time job at a local radio  | 2.1.2  (PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) present continuous tense: is, am, are + (  1 + ing)
  • 170.   i ing   y   e ing    ie e  e  present continuous tense  John is talking on the phone. It is raining.         They are working hard nowadays.     Dave is going to college next year.   He is always saying stupid things. o   CONVERSATION 1 A: What is Lisa doing? B: She is taking a shower. A: Isn't she going shopping today? B: She's going. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you happen to know if Lisa is doing something at the moment? B: She's cooking dinner. A: Is she going to work today? B: I think she's going.  |
  • 171. 2.1.3  TENSE)  (PRESENT PERFECT present perfect tense: has, have + o   3  present perfect tense       I've bought you something to eat.   just, already    We've just got back.       for since  They have worked here since 1975. They have been here for ten years. CONVERSATION 1 A: How long have you known her? B: Only a day. A: You've just met her? B: That's right. CONVERSATION 2 A: Have you known her for a long time? B: A few hours.
  • 172. A: Do you mean you two have just met? B: I have just told you.  | 2.1.4   (PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) present perfect continuous tense: has, have + been + ( 1 + ing)  o   present perfect continuous tense  since for   since he was a boy. CONVERSATION 1 A: The weather is awful! B: It has been raining all week.        Paul has been singing
  • 173. A: You think it will clear up soon? B: I sure hope so. I really hate the kind of weather we have been having. CONVERSATION 2 A: Such a horrible weather! B: It has been snowing all day. A: Do you think it will get better soon? B: With the way it has been going, I don't really know.
  • 174.  2.2 | (PAST TENSE) present perfect continuous tense: has, have + been + ( 1 + ing) /  o   1. from high school. 2. 3. 4. o  1. 2. 3. 4.     Dave graduated   I was sleeping when you called last night.       They had lived in Los Angeles for seven years.        The kids had been sleeping when dad got home.    ( 05:40 06:40) 123 4      06:40    The sun rose at 05:40 a.m. this morning.  06:40     05:40 06:40  The sun was rising at 6 o'clock this morning.   06:40  (05:40-06:40)  (05:40) (06:40)   By 06:50 a.m. this morning, the sun had already risen.   06:40    (05:4006:40)  The sun had been rising since 05:40 a.m. CONVERSATION 1 A: Mike called while you were sleeping. B: What did he say?
  • 175. A: He said he had finished fixing his car and would be ready to fix yours tomorrow. CONVERSATION 2 A: Grant came by when you were taking shower. B: Did he say anything? A: He said he had gone down to the park and the guys all asked about you.  2.2.1 | (PAST SIMPLE TENSE) past simple tense: o  2  past simple tense     Scott called this morning. Kathy came and left yesterday.     John liked ice-cream when he was young.  
  • 176. He was a football player while going to high school. CONVERSATION 1 A: Kathy left for New York last month. B: Did she say when she would be back? A: She didn't. CONVERSATION 2 A: Susan went to New Orleans last year. B: Did she take her daughter with her? A: She did.  2.2.2 TENSE) | (PAST CONTINUOUS past continuous tense: was, were + ( o  1 + ing)  past continuous tense
  • 177.   It was raining very hard all day yesterday. They were having a party here last night.    John was playing while his mom was cooking. They were working while their boss was vacationing.     We were watching television when the phone rang. CONVERSATION 1 A: Scott got hurt while we were playing football. B: What happened? A: Mitch kneed him in the leg. CONVERSATION 2 A: Steve was injured while he was wrestling with Mitch. B: How did it happened? A: Mitch accidentally elbowed him in the stomach.  | 
  • 178. 2.2.3  (PAST PERFECT TENSE) past perfect tense: had +  3  past perfect tense   o  John had finished his work when we got home. It had stopped raining as we arrived the airport.     By four o'clock yesterday, we had returned from our trip. They had lived in Brisbane for ten years. CONVERSATION 1 A: Had Jay left when you arrived? B: Yes, he had. A: When did you get in? B: Around 10:00, after I had finished my job. CONVERSATION 2 A: Had Jon gone out when you got back? B: No, he hadn't. 
  • 179. A: What time did you get back then? B: I got back around 08:00 after I had dropped Bob off at his house.  | 2.2.4  CONTINUOUS TENSE) (PAST PERFECT past perfect continuous tense: had + been + ( o    past perfect continuous    1 + ing)  Marc and Scott had been going to the same school for many years.    We had been watching the television before the phone rang. CONVERSATION 1 A: Where were you all last week? B: I had been studying for my exams at the library.
  • 180. CONVERSATION 2 A: How come I'd never seen you around last week? B: I had been working part time at the record store.
  • 181.  2.3 | (FUTURE TENSE) o  1. 2. 3. 4. o  06:30  1.    ( )  We will go to  San Francisco next week. (   )   They will be playing football tomorrow afternoon.   ( )  We will have graduated by next spring.    By next year, I shall have been living in Los Angeles for two years.    ( 05:50 ) 123 4    05:50 a.m. 2.  /    Tomorrow, the sun will rise at   05:50-06:30   At 06:00 a.m. tomorrow, the sun will be rising. 3.     05:50 06:30  By 06:31 tomorrow, the sun will have risen. 4.   05:50
  • 182.   By 06:00 a.m. tomorrow, the sun will have been rising for ten minutes. CONVERSATION 1 A: Greg will be coming here next week. B: Will he be here until the tenth? A: I don't think so. He will have left by then. CONVERSATION 2 A: Ken will be staying with us when he comes out for a visit next week. B: Do you think he will be able to stay here for our wedding anniversary? A: He will have gone back to New York by then.  2.3.1 | (FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE) future simple tense: shall, will + o  future simple tense   We will play football soon. I will go to the US next year.  1 
  • 183. CONVERSATION 1 A: I will go to the US next week. B: How long will you be gone? A: I'll be gone for a week. B: Will you please give my regards to Leslie? A: I will. CONVERSATION 2 A: Tomorrow, I'll leave for the US. B: How many days will you spend there? A: I'll be there only four or five days. B: Please give my best to Anne. A: I sure will.  | 2.3.2 (FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) future continuous tense: shall, will + be + (  1 + ing)
  • 184.  future continuous tense   They will be having dinner by the time we get home. She will be sleeping by nine o'clock. o CONVERSATION 1 A: This street will be beautiful during Christmas. B: What will the people be doing then? A: They will be decorating it with lights and streamers. CONVERSATION 2 A: During New Year, this part of town will look so pretty. B: What will be going on? A: People will be decking it up1 with all sorts of decorations. 1to deck up (v.) - to decorate  2.3.3 TENSE) |  (FUTURE PERFECT
  • 185. future perfect tense: shall, will + have + o    future perfect tense  3  The movie will have started by the time we get there. They will have finished their lunch before one o'clock. CONVERSATION 1 A: How many more semesters do you have left before graduating? B: I have only one more semester left. A: So by June, you'll have graduated. B: Yes. CONVERSATION 2 A: How long will it be before you graduate? B: Just one more semester. A: You'll have graduated by June then. B: If I pass the rest of my classes.  |
  • 186. 2.3.4  (FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) future perfect continuous tense: shall, will + have + been + (  1 + ing) o  future perfect continuous tense    By next year, I shall have been living here for seven years. They will have been working for ten straight hours if they don't stop at midnight. CONVERSATION 1 A: How long have you been working here? B: By next year, I shall have been working here for ten years. A: That's quite a long time!
  • 187. CONVERSATION 2 A: How many years have you been with us here? B: Ten years, by the end of next month. A: It's been a long time, won't you say?
  • 188.  3  (VOICE (1)) (   touch, throw sleep, play |   2  1.1)         (1)  2  3 (transitive verb)  eat, (intransitive verb)  walk,  2 1. active voice   ( )   I threw a football. They are playing baseball. 2. passive voice   ( )   A football was thrown. Baseball is being played.  90)    active voice passive voice         (      John Lennon 
  • 189. was shot. (        ) CONVERSATION 1 A: The window is broken. B: Who did that? A: Jack probably did it. CONVERSATION 2 A: Many pages in this book have been torn off. B: I wonder who did it? A: It was probably Jack. 
  • 190.  | 3  (VOICE (2)) voice)     TENSE   (active voice) (tense)   (2)   ACTIVE (passive PASSIVE  past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous We ate ice-cream. We were eating icecream. We had eaten ice-cream. We had been eating icecream. Ice-cream Ice-cream Ice-cream Ice-cream eaten2. was eaten (by us)1. was being eaten. had been eaten. had been being present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous We eat ice-cream. We are eating ice-cream. We have eaten ice-cream. We have been eating icecream. Ice-cream Ice-cream Ice-cream Ice-cream eaten2. is eaten. is being eaten. has been eaten. have been being future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect continuous We will eat ice-cream. We will be eating icecream. We will have eaten icecream. We will have been eating ice-cream. Ice-cream Ice-cream Ice-cream eaten. Ice-cream eaten2. will be eaten. will be being eaten. will have been 1. 2. 3. will have been being  (by ...)  perfect continuous tense      passive voice  be, being been simple, continuous perfect tense  He might finish the work. > The work might be finished. ( simple tense) You should be doing the job. > The job should be being done. ( continuous tense) They could have finished it. > It could have been finished. ( perfect tense)  
  • 191. CONVERSATION 1 A: Don't go into that room now. It's being fumigated. B: Where can we go now? The other room has already been taken. CONVERSATION 2 A: There are lots of mosquitoes in this room, so it has been fumigated just now. B: We can't go to the other room. It is already occupied.
  • 192.  | 4 (1) (CONDITION (1)) condition                 tense  1. 2.     2          (open condition)   condition)  (hypothetical * (conditional sentence) (if clause), (main clause) • +   3   1 OPEN CONDITION If clause Main clause 1. If I'm right, 2. If what you say is right, 3. If I get this right, then you are wrong. then what I said was wrong. I'll have finished my job. 1. If I said I apologize.   if clause  (present simple)  main clause  1 present simple  main clause  2 past simple  main clause 3 future perfect  main clause  if clause
  • 193. that, I was mistaken. 2. If I said I'll try to remedy it. that, 3. If I made a mistake, 1. If we've finished our work, 2. If I've made a mistake, we may go to the cinema. I'll try to correct it. CONVERSATION 1 A: You said I was stupid. B: If I said that, I apologize. A: If you think you are wrong, I forgive you. CONVERSATION 2 A: You told Bob that I was an idiot. B: If I said that, I was wrong. A: I forgive you if you realize that you were wrong.  | (past simple)  main clause  1 present simple  main clause  2 past simple  main clause 3 future simple  main clause  if clause  main clause  1 present simple  main clause    2 future simple  main clause   
  • 194. 4 (2) (CONDITION (2))   2 HYPOTHETICAL CONDITION If clause If she asks, Main clause  she doesn't know the  if clause answer. (present simple) clause  If you work hard, you'll pass the exam. If I had time,   if clause (present simple) clause  I would go with you.  I would have told her. CONVERSATION 1 A: Don't you want to go with me?   main  main  main clause        if clause clause main if clause  past  clause      clause  If I had seen her,    if    main 
  • 195. B: If I go, there is no one to look after my kid brother.1 Sorry. A: That's OK. If you went, you might get into trouble. 1kid brother (n.) - a younger brother CONVERSATION 2 A: Why don't you go with me? B: If I go with you, I won't have time to finish my homework. Sorry. A: That's all right. You might get into trouble if you went.
  • 196.  1 |  (ADJECTIVES)     (physical) (mental)           -ous -al -able -en -ful -ish -ic -y -less                  CONVERSATION 1 A: Kathy is beautiful. B: She's also very intelligent. A: What a perfect woman! CONVERSATION 2 A: Lisa looks cute.    joyous, luxurious national, proportional portable, breakable wooden, golden beautiful, plentiful childish, English chronic, economic fatty, cranky careless, aimless    
  • 197. B: She's quite smart too. A: She's a wonderful woman.  | 1.1  (TYPES OF ADJECTIVE)   10 ADJECTIVE  descriptive  demonstrative    indefinite  clean, tall, wise, blue     this, a, the, such, other all, some, any, either  proper   Thai, American, Japanese
  • 198. interrogative  numerical  quantitative  what, whose, which  two, fifth, first  some, little, much  relative     whose, which, that  ( possessive )   distributive     his, her, your, their each, either, every CONVERSATION 1 A: What does she look like? B: She's an American. She's slim and tall. She has blonde hair and blue eyes. A: It seems like she's pretty. B: Yes. Absolutely. CONVERSATION 2 A: What's she like, physically? B: She's a Thai, with black hair, brown eyes and light skin. She's not tall, though. A: She must be beautiful. B: She is.  |
  • 199. 1.2 SEQUENCE)    (ADJECTIVES   1 2  1  3 Article Demonstrative Possessive a an the this that these those my your his ... 4 5 6 Ordinal number Cardinal number Quantitative first second third ... one two three ... 7 8 9 10 Descriptive Size Color Proper good modern beautiful kind ... small big tall ... blue white red ... Thai American Japanese ... few little many some ... 11 Material ( wooden steel plastic ...  )
  • 200.   • • • the first three beautiful tall white wooden houses my second interesting English class a few small American children CONVERSATION 1 A: Have you seen my two modern medium-size black Dunlop tennis rackets? B: Look in my white wooden box. CONVERSATION 2 A: Did you happen to see John's beautiful blue and red silk tie around here? B: Try that first steel closet to your right.  1.3 OF ADJECTIVE) |  (COMPARISON   3   /   (in) equality (not) as + adjective + as ... as quick as ...
  • 201.  * (comparative) * (superlative) adjective + er (than) adjective + est (of) quicker than ... the quickest of ... *  •   most beautiful •  2 er   est    : good better best : bad worse worst : many/much more most  : little less least : far further furthest  beautiful, important  more most  more beautiful than the  CONVERSATION 1 A: Eric used to be shorter than Scott. B: Now Eric is taller than Scott. A: Anyway, Jon used to be the shortest boy in class, but now he is the tallest boy in class. CONVERSATION 2 A: Scott used to be taller than Eric. B: Scott is shorter than Eric now. A: Anyway, Jon is still the tallest boy in class.  |
  • 202. 1.4  ADJECTIVES)    (POSITION OF  • • •   player.       verb to be  )  Marc's car is blue. This cake tastes good. She is nice.    He's cute. It's lovely.      my first bicycle, a good linking verb (   CONVERSATION 1 A: That was a good movie. B: I like the plot. It was very tricky. A: Would you say that it's better than any science-fiction movie you saw? B: I guess. CONVERSATION 2 A: The movie was excellent.  
  • 203. B: The superb acting makes it very interesting. A: Do you think that it's the best western film by far? B: I think so.
  • 204.  2 | softly. (softly  (ADVERBS)     / ( speak)    Lora is a very pretty girl. (very   pretty  Chris can play football extremely well. (extremely   well        • • •     )  She speaks )    ly     y happy  happily    le possible  possibly    ic automatically    ly  y  e y    i   ally ) ly y    automatic 
  • 205. CONVERSATION 1 A: I didn't play well today. B: You did fine. Don't worry. A: I missed the ball quite often. B: It happens when you don't play regularly. CONVERSATION 2 A: I played terribly today. B: You played all right. A: I dropped the ball many times. B: That happens sometimes when you seldom play the game.  | 2.1 ADVERB)   (TYPES OF  11 ADVERB OF...    MANNER*  quickly, hard, gently PLACE*  here, around, inside TIME*  now, today, after, till FREQUENCY*  sometimes, never, always DEGREE*  very, more, less, much QUESTION  what, where, how AFFIRMATION  yes, indeed, surely NEGATION  no, never  PROBABILITY     maybe, perhaps  RELATIVE  where, when, why
  • 206.  CONJUNCTIVE *     however, therefore    The boy gently puts a puppy back in a box. (manner) Why don't you step inside? (place) We'll leave for San Francisco today. (time) He never lives alone. (frequency) John likes to play basketball a lot. (degree) Where is Kathy? (question) They will surely come. (affirmation) She never likes pizza. (negation) This is perhaps your best writing. (probability) We'll leave when Bob gets home. (relative) I want to go; however, I've got so much work to do. (conjunctive) CONVERSATION 1 A: How was your test? B: I think I did fairly well. A: Will you know the result soon? B: Very soon. CONVERSATION 2 A: How did the test go? B: I guess I pass, barely. A: When will you find out how you did? B: Perhaps in a couple of days.  |
  • 207. 2.2 SEQUENCE)    (ADVERB         1 2 3 4 ADV. DEGREE ADV. MANNER ADV. PLACE ADV. TIME too rather quite together sincerely willingly abroad away downstairs once already lately   They'd rather like to spend time together abroad once a year. He has been looking at me rather angrily lately. They played very well there last year. She made her point quite clearly more than once. We worked very hard here yesterday. CONVERSATION 1 A: I get tired too easily. B: I doubt that you haven't been exercising much. A: Right. I've been working quite hard the past few months.
  • 208. CONVERSATION 2 A: When I exercise, I get tired very easily. B: You haven't been exercising much lately, have you? A: You're right. I've not been exercising at all.  | 2.3 (COMPARISON OF ADVERBS)   3   /   (equality/inequality)  * (comparative) * (superlative) (not) as + adverb + as more + adverb + than most + adverb ... as quickly as ... more quickly than most quickly * •  hard        fast, early,    -er + than
  • 209.  •  -est  John runs faster than Vince. Bobby runs fastest in the class.    : well better best  : badly worse worst : much more most  : little less least : far farther farthest CONVERSATION 1 A: Marc doesn't run as quickly as Scott. B: But Marc can hit the ball farther than Scott can. A: They both can play very well. B: Yes. But Steve plays better than Marc and Scott. CONVERSATION 2 A: Scott runs more quickly than Marc. B: On the other hand, Scott doesn't hit the ball as far as Marc does. A: I think they both play well. B: Yes. But of the three, Steve plays best.  |  
  • 210. 2.4  ADVERBS)   (POSITION OF    • • • • (     3  2.1)         Dark cloud slowly rolled by.    Mark is breathing heavily after the match.     Happily, they left the room.     Julie walked up to the teacher, slowly.     John is quite strong. (   Sarah sings extremely well. (       CONVERSATION 1 A: It rained awfully hard this morning. )  )    
  • 211. B: Luckily, I had an umbrella with me. A: I unknowingly left mine at home. CONVERSATION 2 A: It really poured this morning. B: I brought a raincoat with me, fortunately. A: My wife unintentionally took mine.
  • 212.  1 | (PREPOSITIONS)    Steve is in the house. in    ( o o o o o o        Steve    the house   o  )         at, on, to, into  Mark is in class. Dave is going to the park.      on, until, since, in  Chris has been gone since last week.       for, because of, at  We did it because of our love.      as, by, like, with  I came here by bus.  /          for, with, against  We're with you. /          of, with, without  Alex is a great player with natural gift.   /         except (for), apart from, as well as  I like L.A. except for the smog.      due to, cast of  by means of, on behalf of CONVERSATION 1 A: Where is David? B: He went to the park to play baseball with his friends.   in, on, at 
  • 213. A: Did he drive there? B: He went by bus. CONVERSATION 2 A: Have you seen Alex? B: He's gone to the Y1 to play basketball with some friends. A: Did he take his bike with him? B: Mike came by and picked him up. 1the Y - YMCA  | 1.1 PREPOSITIONS (1))   (1) (ONE-WORD   about , This book is about baseball. 
  • 214. above  , across  after against  ,  He works on the second floor above the shop. , She's in the bank across the street. , I think the holiday is after next Monday.  , along , among ,   ,  Jeff likes those shops along the beach. , around My guitar is leaning against the wall.  He enjoys being among friends. at , They enjoy a flight around the world. , , before   , ,  I'll see you at the party.  ,  behind ,  below beneath beside  ,  My brother's house is one house before mine.   ,  ,   Your seat is behind me.  Susan's score is below average.  What do you have beneath your seat?  ,  Our car is beside the building. besides Besides you, everyone was at her party. CONVERSATION 1 A: I just saw Mary in the bank across the street. B: Really! I met her too. She was behind that wall over there. CONVERSATION 2 A: Mary is in the bank at the corner. B: That's funny! I just ran into her on the terrace above the cafe-teria.  |
  • 215. (2) (ONE-WORD PREPOSITIONS (2))     between  I like an area between hills and the sea. beyond , but , by ,  despite  His farm is beyond that hill.  ,    , down  I like every flavor but chocolate. , ,  ( ) Marc will be here by five o'clock. Jane went out despite the rain.  , They've just gone down the steps. during  , I'll talk about that during the meeting. except  , That shop opens every day except Monday. for , from , in inside into  , ,  ,   Today is a good day for swimming. , This wine comes from California. Panus was born in 1973. ,  , Leave the bag inside the car. ,  The cake was divided into two pieces.
  • 216. less near  , , Five less one is four. ,  My house is near Keith's. CONVERSATION 1 A: Where is your bike? B: It's between the white and the yellow bikes over there. A: Why don't you keep it inside the building? B: I usually do that but not today. CONVERSATION 2 A: Which one is your bike? B: It's the one chained to the lamppost beyond that tree. A: How come you didn't leave it in the building? B: I normally do that everyday except today.  | (3) (ONE-WORD PREPOSITIONS (3))
  • 217.  of ,  on , , , , opposite , , Nolan is the captain of our team. , Barry works on the other floor.  Eric's office is opposite mine. out (of) Jodie laughs like a witch out of horror movies. outside  ,  over , past  ,  per  , plus The park is outside downtown area. ,  , Barry has complete control over the game. , It's past your bedtime, Steve. , These apples cost 50 cent per pound. , since That will be $10.75 plus tax. ,  through  We haven't seen each other since high school. , , ,  Joe went to college from 1990 through 1994.  throughout , We can feel peace and happiness throughout the world. till to towards   Mitch worked from morning till noon. , , ,  ,  It's now ten to five.  Rainclouds are moving towards the city. CONVERSATION 1 A: It's five to five. Do you still want to wait for her? B: She may be waiting for us outside this building. A: Let's wait here till ten past five. CONVERSATION 2 A: It's a quarter to five now. Do you still want to wait? B: Let's walk past these offices. She may be at the other end of the hallway. A: Why don't we wait here till a quarter past five?  |
  • 218. (4) (ONE-WORD PREPOSITIONS (4))  under ,   underneath   ,  ,   Nolan is under twenty-one. Our boat is now underneath the Golden Gate. until We will be away until next week. up ,  via , with  within ,  It's up to Jeff, not me. He got to London via Paris. , , Isn't Mark with you?  ,  , ,  without concerning considering excepting excluding   The beach is within a mile of walk from here.  Many people are without work. participle ( ( ( (  )  ) ) )   including pending regarding respecting CONVERSATION 1 A: How long will you be gone? B: I'll be gone until next week. ( ( ( (    )   )  ) )
  • 219. A: Are you going alone? B: Mary is going with me. CONVERSATION 2 A: How long will you be away? B: I'll be away until next Monday. A: Are you going by yourself? B: I'm going with Steve.  1.2 PREPOSITIONS)  2 ahead of (   ) because of | (TWO-WORD (two-word preposition)    according to (  ) next to  along with (  ) together with except for (  ) up till
  • 220. ( (  ) east of ( ) instead of ( ) regardless of (  )  ) due to ( ) prior to (   ) thanks to (  ) CONVERSATION 1 A: Where is Westwood? B: It's east of Beverly Hills. A: Do you like it there? B: I like it except for the smog. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you know where Westwood is? B: It's next to Bel-Air. A: Do you like living there? B: I like it since it's next to the ocean.  | (  ) as for ( ) away from (  ) up against ( ) ( ) up to (  ) owing to ( ) subject to (  )
  • 221. 1.3 ( ) (THREE OR FOUR-WORD PREPOSITIONS) (prepositional phrase)     by means of ( ) by reason of (   ) with regard to ( ) with respect to (   ) with the purpose of (  ) with a view to (  ) for fear of (   ) for the benefit of (  )   on behalf of ( ) on the occasion of ( ) on the part of (  ) at the cost of ( ) at the hands of ( ) as a result of (  ) in addition to ( ) in case of ( ) in comparison with ( ) in front of (   ) in regard to ( ) in return to (  ) in spite of (   ) in the event of ( ) in the course of (  ) in the middle of (  )  The program is for the benefit of the children. The gift is for you on behalf of all our friends here. We'll leave that matter at the hands of the boss. Scott parked the car in front of his house. There is a bicycle in the middle of the road. CONVERSATION 1 A: This is on behalf of all of us here. B: Oh, thank you very much. A: It should be better in comparison with the old one you're using. CONVERSATION 2 A: This is on the occasion of your birthday. B: Thank you. I really appreciate it. A: We hope you can make use of it in the course of your training.  |
  • 222. 1.4  PREPOSITIONS) (POSITION OF       Jon is going to the beach. Catalina is west of L.A. We host this dinner in return to the one you hosted for us last month.      (  What is Steve looking for? This is the book the teacher told us about. She has no one to talk to. CONVERSATION 1 A: Let's go to San Diego next week. B: Is it south of L.A.? A: Yes. It's the place I once told you about. CONVERSATION 2 A: Do you want to go to San Diego? B: It's north of Baja, isn't it? A: Right. It's where we usually hear Scott talks about.  )
  • 223.  | 1.5 + ( ) (PHRASAL VERBS OR TWO-WORD VERBS) Phrasal verb  prepositional adverb (adverb      • • • (idiom)     preposition)    preposition  verb + prepositional adverb verb + preposition look + over = inspect approve + of = confirm make + out = understand look + after = take care of verb + adverb + preposition  put up with = tolerate look forward to = anticipate verb + preposition verb + adverb + preposition     
  • 224. The committee approved of the plan. We look forward to the trip.    verb + prepositional adverb   verb prepositional adverb    He looked over the map. He looked the map over. She put on her hat. She put it on. CONVERSATION 1 A: Do you want to look over this again? B: Is there anything wrong? A: I just want you to look out for mistakes that I might have missed. B: I'll take care of it right away. CONVERSATION 2 A: Why don't you look it over again? B: What's wrong? A: I'd like you to check out spelling for some of the words. B: I'll get to it now. 
  • 225.  2 | (CONJUNCTIONS)      3         co-ordinating and, but, or, so, still, however, therefore, while     subordinating after, because, if, in case, as, as if, provided that, since   correlating  either ... or, neither ... nor, not only ... but also, whether ... or       David and John are good friends. ( ) Either he or she will go with you. ( Chris is not only tired but also moody. (  We learn not from memorizing but from doing. ( Mike told me that he had passed the test. ( He went to Keith's house but Keith wasn't at home. ( CONVERSATION 1 A: Do you want a hamburger or a cheeseburger? ) ) )  ) )
  • 226. B: I'd like a cheeseburger and a glass of Coke. A: What do you want in case they don't have Coke? B: Get me either a Sprite or iced tea. CONVERSATION 2 A: Would you like a hamburger or a cheeseburger? B: I want a hamburger and a Coke. A: If they don't have Coke, what are you going to have? B: Bring me either Pepsi or lemonade.  | 2.1  ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS)  3    (CO-              
  • 227. and, as well as, again, both ... and, not only ... but also, besides, likewise, and ... also, and ... too, furthermore, moreover  but, however, yet, still, whereas, while, nevertheless, on the other hand or, or else otherwise either ... or neither ... nor so therefore accordingly thus hence consequently  Robert, as well as his brothers, is a good football player. ( Jon took the camera but not the lenses. (  ) You can either walk or take a bus. ( ) She didn't like the job, so she quitted. ( )  CONVERSATION 1 A: I've finished my job, so I'm going home. B: Have you finished writing as well as typing your memo? A: I finished the writing but not the typing. B: You'd better do it today, or else the boss would be upset. CONVERSATION 2 A: My job is finished here, so I'm leaving. B: Do you mean you've not only written but also typed your report? A: I've done the writing, but I haven't done the typing. B: You should finish it today, otherwise the boss would get upset.  | )
  • 228. 2.2  (1) (SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS (1))     as long as after, before as soon as till, until when whenever while as by the time where wherever whereat as far as in place of although, though eventhough despite, in spite of nevertheless notwithstanding that (not) as ... as more ... than (adj. + er) ... than the (adj. + er) ... the (adj. + er)  (    )
  • 229. I will love you as long as I live. ( ) You can choose wherever you want to live. ( ) We are going fishing in spite of the bad weather. ( Craig is not as good a swimmer as Alex. ( )  ) CONVERSATION 1 A: I'll be at this university until I finish my degree. B: Will you be here eventhough they don't give you a scholarship? A: I like the atmosphere here. I don't think I'll find anything like it wherever I go. CONVERSATION 2 A: I'll study at this college until I get my degree. B: Will you stay here despite the fact that they won't give you financial aid? A: It's the place where I feel comfortable with.  |  (SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS (2)) (    ) (2)
  • 230.  as because now (that) seeing (that) since knowing (that)   in order that in order to so as to so that for fear that in the hope that if unless provided (that) providing supposing (that) in case so ... (that) such ... (that) to the extent that  We'll leave early tomorrow because of traffic jams. ( We came here so that we could see things ourselves. ( I'm not going if you're not going with me. ( ) Tom worked hard to the extent that he became ill. ( ) )  )  CONVERSATION 1 A: What time are we leaving tomorrow? B: We'll leave at 06:00 in order to avoid traffic jams. A: That's a good time because we have to pick up a few people. B: We'll beat the traffic1 if they are not late. 1to beat the traffic - to travel before traffic jams take place CONVERSATION 2 A: When do you want to leave tomorrow? B: We'll leave at 06:00 so as to avoid traffic jams. A: It's a good time since we have to pick up Alex and Brad. B: We'll have plenty of time provided that they are not late.  |
  • 231. 2.3  (CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS)        either ... or neither ... nor whether ... or     both ... and not only ... but (also) as ... as      though ... yet so ... as if ... then  Jon is good at both playing football and studying. ( They either went to Spain or remained in Portugal. ( If Sally is here, then her car must be near the building. ( ) ) CONVERSATION 1 A: Scott is quite good at both football and basketball. B: If he's that good, then he should play for the school teams. A: Though he likes the sports, yet he doesn't like the pressure during competition. )
  • 232. CONVERSATION 2 A: Dave is not only a good football player but also a great basketball player. B: He should play for the school teams then if he's that good. A: He neither likes the pressure nor practice sessions.
  • 233.  1 | (INTERJECTIONS) Interjection  (!)              - All right! Yes! - Hush! Listen up! Hey! - Really! Unbelievable! Wow! Gee! - Oh no! Too bad! - Darn! - Ouch! - Huh! CONVERSATION 1 A: The boss gives us a day-off tomorrow. B: Great! A: But we have to work overtime next week. B: Oh, no!  
  • 234. CONVERSATION 2 A: We have a day-off tomorrow. B: All right! A: We'll have to work OT1 next week though. B: Darn! 1OT (n.) - overtime  2 | (EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES) Exclamatory sentence              what, why, how The cake was gone! I've forgotten my appointment! I'm late! What's with you! Why it always has to be me! How beautiful you look! •       
  • 235. Gee! I'm late! Ouch! You stepped on my foot! Darn! I forgot to bring your book! You don't like him, huh! CONVERSATION 1 A: What time is it? B: It's 10:30. A: I'm late! CONVERSATION 2 A: What's the time? B: It's 9:45. A: Gee! I'm late!
  • 236.     |                              at once     )     Once you know him, you’ll like him.           at   once                 I’ve met her only once.  ( Once we lived in France.          once                                  )            (     1  
  • 237. The manager wants to see you at once.    so     The weather is so hot this summer.    (   (  One can eat so much. )          then   ) One can do so much.                    He lost his wife. Then he came to live with his sister.      then  Then he was in his early forties.  You say he's been living with his sister. He never remarried, then?   then            I can't go to the police. What should I do, then?           simple  simply        This drink is made quite simply.      simply                   Simply delicious       
  • 238. simply           just was just delicious.                      simply     Dinner       just two hundred baht.              only     I have just only           only just We've only just begun.   He had only just arrived there when I met him.   miss    The two boys miss their parents a great deal.   She nearly missed her flight. It is such a good opportunity that it would be a pity to miss.                  You were missed yesterday. We missed you yesterday.                       She did not miss her dog until late in the afternoon.      (   )       
  • 239.  |  2            physician  general practitioner                          G.P.   physicist doctor                        He is a Ph.D.    troops   soldiers       doctor                He is a doctor.           The troops were heavily-armed. heavily-armed             early  late        I waited at the station for over an hour because my train arrived early.         ... (  ) early         early in the morning    early in the afternoon       early in the evening     late      late one night                              
  • 240.   Go to bed.    article     bed sleep  sleep late    Go to the bed.          late      (   ) were going to sleep late.     ( )      You didn't say you      sleep in   sleep late  I sleep late on Sunday. I sleep in on Sunday.     go to bed late        go to sleep late  It's time for you to go to bed.          Now, go to sleep darling.  I went to bed at ten, but didn't go to sleep until midnight.                 Sleep tight.  oversleep        This morning I was late for my 8 o clock class because I overslept.  8 (       sleeping policeman                  )     
  • 241.  speed   drive too fast  (  )  He was arrested and fined for speeding. When a party is over, the host speeds the parting           (   )          guests. speed      sleeping partner        sleeping     silent partner           minister                priest       alien  secretary       minister                         secretary  Defence Secretary  State Secretary Secretary of      State  State        Secretary of State     department  State Department  Treasury Department   minister      company               I'll keep you company until your husband comes back.    We are having company this evening.  (  company  guests)  
  • 242.    care for his company.                 |     streetwalker    prostitute    sporting girl          I'm a sporting girl.      pedestrian  jaywalker          favored   homebody             He        )         His wife was in a compromising situation.    hustler      3  was satisfied that his wife was murdered.      (       I don't       homely He is a homebody.         well-favored            jaywalking     cruiser       hooker      illhomely        
  • 243.   looking       sorry-looking      sorry-looking    eyesore         good    That garbage heap in her lawn is an eyesore.    inside         inside job        The bank robbery was an inside job.     outside job  His outside job is selling insurance policies.  sideline moonlighting  outside job  He is away from his school job a lot because he is moonlighting.     job    an indoor job                      an outdoor    )                       Michael Crabtree    (                              