Defination .Research is define as systematic and scientific process
to answer the question about fact and relationship .
. Meaning of Research Research is defined as the scientific
investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation,
analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s
speculation with reality.
Nursing research develops knowledge to:
Build the scientific foundation for clinical practice
Prevent disease and disability
Manage and eliminate symptom caused by illness
Enhance end-of-life and palliative care
Need of nursing research
Development a good standered of nursing care
Developed a scientific knowledge
Provide evidance based nursing care
The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific
questions by making observations and doing
experiments.The steps of the scientific method are to:
Ask a Question
Do Background Research
Construct a Hypothesis
Test Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
Analyze , Data and Draw a Conclusion
Communicate , Results
Ask a Question: The scientific method starts when ask a
question about something that you observe: How, What,
When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? And, in order for the
scientific method to answer the question it must be about
something that you can measure, preferably with a number.
Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch
in putting together a plan for answering question,want to
be a sarvy scientist using library and Internet research to
help find the best way to do things and insure that don't
repeat mistakes from the past.
Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess
about how things work:
"If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will
happen." must state hypothesis in a way that can easily
measure, and of course, hypothesis should be constructed in
a way to help answer , original question.
Test Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment: experiment tests
whether hypothesis is supported or not. It is important for
experiment to be a fair test.conduct a fair test by making
sure that change only one factor at a time while keeping all
other conditions the same.repeat experiments several times
to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.
Analyze , Data and Draw a Conclusion: Once , experiment is
complete, collect , measurements and analyze them to see if
they support , hypothesis or not.Scientists often find that
their hypothesis was not supported, and in such cases they
will construct a new hypothesis based on the information
they learned during their experiment.
Communicate , Results: To complete , science fair project
will communicate , results to others in a final report and/or
a display board. Professional scientists do almost exactly
the same thing by publishing their final report in a
scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster
at a scientific meeting. In a science fair, judges are
interested in The scientific method is a process for
experimentation that is used to explore observations and
1.Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or
observation by the researcher.
2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and
3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts
with a problem and ends with a problem.
4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures
in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive,
experimental and case study.
5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical
manner without bias using systematic method and
7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are
replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at
valid and conclusive results.
1. Basic Research. This is also called as “fundamental
research” or “pure research”. It seeks to discover basic
truths or principles. Examples: Archimedes’ Principle
Hooke’s Law Newton’s Law
2. Applied Research. This type of research involves seeking
new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a
problem, such as a development of a new system or
procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the
3. Developmental Research. This is a decision-oriented
research involving the application of the steps of the
scientific method in response to an immediate need to
improve existing practices.
Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework
Review of Related Literature
Data Processing and Statistical Treatment
Analysis and Interpretation
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
It involves the of new and existing data from new sources .
It is directed toward the solution of the problem.
It emphasizes the development of generalizations,
principles, theories that may be helpful in predicting future
It requires expertise. The researcher must be adequately
prepared to undertake such behavior.
It is empirical. It is based on direct experience and
demands accurate observation and description of what is
Itis honest and characterized patient and unhurried
It is enable the researcher to achieve valid and
The Research Problem and objectives
The Research Problem .5 factors to consider to determine that a problem
is researchable or not.
1. The problem existing in the locality or country but no known solution to
2. The solution can be answered by using statistical methods and
3. There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested.
4. The occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive
at precise solution.
5. Serious needs/problems of the people where it demands research.
Research objectives are a specification of the ultimate reason for carrying
out research in the first place. They help in developing a specific list of
information needs. Only when the researcher knows the problem that
management wants to solve can the research project be designed to
Specific. The problem should be specificallytested
Measurable. It is easy to measure by using research instruments,
Achievable. The data are achievable using correct statistical tools to arrive
Realistic. Real results are attained because they are gathered scientifically
not manipulated or maneuvered.
Time-bound. Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter
completion of the activity, the better.
Sources of Research Problem
1. Specialization of the researcher.
2. Current and past researches.
Identification of research problem is the first step in a scientific method
conducting a research. To initiate a research, there should be preoccurred
ideas that generated the necessity for the research to be carried out. The
ideas are developed while going though literatures, discourses with
and continuation of activities related to the subject matter. These ideas
develop into some specific topics that will be interesting or rewarding if
investigated. These topics generally called problems.
Some guidelines for selecting problems: The problem should be such in
which the researcher may be deeply interested.
The problem should be related with the chain of thinking. Stray
problems can mislead the whole research project.
The problem selected should not necessarily be new one. It may be old
problem or one on which work has already been done i.e., verification
of old problem may be equally useful.