ExplanationExplanation
- Describing process or activitiesDescribing process or activities
- Generic Structures:Generic Str...
Types of ExplanationTypes of Explanation
EXPLANATION
Type
Manner
why
how
common sense
technical way
1 [why/common sense] 3...
TextsTexts
howhow
When Beryl the lollypop lady sees children who want to cross the road, sheWhen Beryl the lollypop lady s...
TextsTexts
RainRain
DescriptionDescription
Rain comes from clouds. It helps us to stay alive. Animals and plants need rain...
TextsTexts
An orbit works like an object being spun around on a piece of string.An orbit works like an object being spun a...
TextsTexts
Powerhouse 3 is a powerful painting that depicts Mary Martin’s view of anPowerhouse 3 is a powerful painting th...
Types of TextTypes of Text
 The Life-Cycle of BeeThe Life-Cycle of Bee
 DescriptionDescription
 Bees are social insects...
Types of TextTypes of Text
 The Life-Cycle of BeeThe Life-Cycle of Bee
 Explanation: larvaExplanation: larva
 The egg l...
Types of TextTypes of Text
 The seasonsThe seasons
 During the year the Earth has four seasons spring, summer, autumnDur...
Lexicogrammatical RealizationsLexicogrammatical Realizations
 1 Process1 Process
 dominated by the material and relation...
Lexicogrammatical RealizationsLexicogrammatical Realizations
 How do satellites stay up in the sky?How do satellites stay...
Social ContextSocial Context
 An Explanation genre has a wide range of usesAn Explanation genre has a wide range of uses
...
 folk linguistic terms = commonsensefolk linguistic terms = commonsense
 technical terms = scientific, discipline or bra...
AssignmentAssignment
Why and How does global warming occur?Why and How does global warming occur?
in at least 1000 words o...
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Factual Writing 2

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Factual Writing 2

  1. 1. ExplanationExplanation - Describing process or activitiesDescribing process or activities - Generic Structures:Generic Structures: a. General Statementa. General Statement ∧∧ [Explanation][Explanation] n ∧∧ (Evaluative) Comment(Evaluative) Comment b. General Descriptionb. General Description ∧∧ [Explanation][Explanation] nn ∧∧ (Evaluative) Comment(Evaluative) Comment The stage of General Statement positions the readers.The stage of General Statement positions the readers. The stage of explanation clarifies why and how a processThe stage of explanation clarifies why and how a process occurs.occurs. The stage of Evaluative Comment specifies the readers’ feelingThe stage of Evaluative Comment specifies the readers’ feeling and aspirations.and aspirations.
  2. 2. Types of ExplanationTypes of Explanation EXPLANATION Type Manner why how common sense technical way 1 [why/common sense] 3. [how/common sense] 2. [why/technical way] 4. [how/technical way]
  3. 3. TextsTexts howhow When Beryl the lollypop lady sees children who want to cross the road, sheWhen Beryl the lollypop lady sees children who want to cross the road, she holds up her STOP sign and then walks to the middle of the crossing andholds up her STOP sign and then walks to the middle of the crossing and stands there until all the children have crossed.stands there until all the children have crossed. whywhy Beryl is a lollypop lady who stops the traffic when children want to cross. WBeryl is a lollypop lady who stops the traffic when children want to cross. W hen drivers see Beryl with STOP sign, they know they must stop and allowhen drivers see Beryl with STOP sign, they know they must stop and allow the children to cross.the children to cross. why and howwhy and how When children want to cross the road, the lollypop lady holds up her STOPWhen children want to cross the road, the lollypop lady holds up her STOP sign and drivers know that they must stop and allow the children to cross.sign and drivers know that they must stop and allow the children to cross. In terms of its manner or way, that is how an item is coded, an ExplanationIn terms of its manner or way, that is how an item is coded, an Explanation genre may be in the form of common sense or technical way as showngenre may be in the form of common sense or technical way as shown below. When the two criteria are intersected, four types of Explanationbelow. When the two criteria are intersected, four types of Explanation
  4. 4. TextsTexts RainRain DescriptionDescription Rain comes from clouds. It helps us to stay alive. Animals and plants need rain.Rain comes from clouds. It helps us to stay alive. Animals and plants need rain. ExplanationExplanation When rain falls it goes into the ground and rivers.When rain falls it goes into the ground and rivers. Then it goes into plants and animals drink it.Then it goes into plants and animals drink it. The rivers go into the sea and the sun makes the rain go back to the clouds.The rivers go into the sea and the sun makes the rain go back to the clouds. EvaluationEvaluation I like the rain. Rain is good for you.I like the rain. Rain is good for you. FlotationFlotation DescriptionDescription Flotation is a technical term that deals with the degree of objects stay on the surface or sink inFlotation is a technical term that deals with the degree of objects stay on the surface or sink in liquids. Objects that float are said to be buoyant.liquids. Objects that float are said to be buoyant. ExplanationExplanation When a solid object is placed in a liquid it is forced up by the density ofWhen a solid object is placed in a liquid it is forced up by the density of the liquid. If the density of the solid is greater than the density of the liquid, then the solid willthe liquid. If the density of the solid is greater than the density of the liquid, then the solid will sink. However, if the density of the solid is less than that of the liquid, the object will float.sink. However, if the density of the solid is less than that of the liquid, the object will float. EvaluationEvaluation That is why objects, like rocks will sink in water.That is why objects, like rocks will sink in water.
  5. 5. TextsTexts An orbit works like an object being spun around on a piece of string.An orbit works like an object being spun around on a piece of string. Because of the force of use spinning the string, it pushes the objectBecause of the force of use spinning the string, it pushes the object out. However, the string stops the object from flying away because itout. However, the string stops the object from flying away because it holds it back. The two forces, one pulling and one pushing, make theholds it back. The two forces, one pulling and one pushing, make the stone go around in a circle.stone go around in a circle. A day is the amount of time a planet takes to complete a full rotation.A day is the amount of time a planet takes to complete a full rotation. The Earth’s day is 24 hours long. Day and night are formed as theThe Earth’s day is 24 hours long. Day and night are formed as the Earth rotates on its axis around the Sun. When the Sun’s rays hit theEarth rotates on its axis around the Sun. When the Sun’s rays hit the area of the Earth, that is facing it, this area is experiencing day. Thearea of the Earth, that is facing it, this area is experiencing day. The area that is not facing the Sun is in darkness and is experiencingarea that is not facing the Sun is in darkness and is experiencing night.night. Television cameraTelevision camera The television camera is a complex piece of photographic machineryThe television camera is a complex piece of photographic machinery that converts images into picture signals. It is a key element in thethat converts images into picture signals. It is a key element in the process of communicating pictures and sound through the air via radioprocess of communicating pictures and sound through the air via radio waves, known as television. The light reflected from an image in frontwaves, known as television. The light reflected from an image in front of the camera passes through the camera lens. The light is thenof the camera passes through the camera lens. The light is then focused onto special computer chip called a CCD or charge coupledfocused onto special computer chip called a CCD or charge coupled device. The CCD converts the light into electricity. Bright areas of thedevice. The CCD converts the light into electricity. Bright areas of the image create more electricity than dark areas which the camera thenimage create more electricity than dark areas which the camera then breaks down into small parts and reads as separate bits of information.breaks down into small parts and reads as separate bits of information.
  6. 6. TextsTexts Powerhouse 3 is a powerful painting that depicts Mary Martin’s view of anPowerhouse 3 is a powerful painting that depicts Mary Martin’s view of an industrial landscape. Martin manipulates the visual elements of colour,industrial landscape. Martin manipulates the visual elements of colour, shape, texture, tone and composition to project her rather bleak view ofshape, texture, tone and composition to project her rather bleak view of industry. She uses colours such as dark blues, grey and red to suggest theindustry. She uses colours such as dark blues, grey and red to suggest the effects of pollutions. While these colours dominate the work, she also useseffects of pollutions. While these colours dominate the work, she also uses yellow and orange to symbolize the heat and energy of molten metal.yellow and orange to symbolize the heat and energy of molten metal. Martin presents the scene as a series of monumental block-like structuresMartin presents the scene as a series of monumental block-like structures which reflect the dominance of industry over nature. This use of hard-which reflect the dominance of industry over nature. This use of hard- edged three-dimensional forms further emphasizes the destructive nature ofedged three-dimensional forms further emphasizes the destructive nature of industry that seemingly cannot be changed or improved.industry that seemingly cannot be changed or improved. How do satellites stay in the sky?How do satellites stay in the sky? The Earth’s gravity works like the string. When a satellite is launched, theThe Earth’s gravity works like the string. When a satellite is launched, the force of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’s gravity thenforce of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’s gravity then pulls it back and creates a tension like the string. These two forces makepulls it back and creates a tension like the string. These two forces make the satellite stay in orbitthe satellite stay in orbit
  7. 7. Types of TextTypes of Text  The Life-Cycle of BeeThe Life-Cycle of Bee  DescriptionDescription  Bees are social insects that live in large groups called colonies. Of allBees are social insects that live in large groups called colonies. Of all insects, only bees, ants, wasps and termites take care of their families.insects, only bees, ants, wasps and termites take care of their families. All bees in a colony have special jobs and social responsibility.All bees in a colony have special jobs and social responsibility. Colonies of bees live in well-organized places called hives.Colonies of bees live in well-organized places called hives.  There are three types of bees in a colony: a queen, the female workersThere are three types of bees in a colony: a queen, the female workers and the male drones. The queen bee produces eggs which are caredand the male drones. The queen bee produces eggs which are cared for by the female workers bees. In a hive there are thousands offor by the female workers bees. In a hive there are thousands of worker bees, a few dozen drones and only one queen. The maleworker bees, a few dozen drones and only one queen. The male drones have only one job in a hive—to mate with the queen.drones have only one job in a hive—to mate with the queen.  Explanation: matingExplanation: mating  When a new queen hatches from her queen cell, she must mate with aWhen a new queen hatches from her queen cell, she must mate with a drone that provides millions of tiny sperm cells that the queen beedrone that provides millions of tiny sperm cells that the queen bee stores in a special pouch in her body. Just before she lays new eggs,stores in a special pouch in her body. Just before she lays new eggs, she fertilizes each one with a sperm cell, so that it can develop into ashe fertilizes each one with a sperm cell, so that it can develop into a new worker.new worker.
  8. 8. Types of TextTypes of Text  The Life-Cycle of BeeThe Life-Cycle of Bee  Explanation: larvaExplanation: larva  The egg laid by the queen is so small that it is barely visible. ThreeThe egg laid by the queen is so small that it is barely visible. Three days after it is laid it hatches into a white larva. A few minutes after thedays after it is laid it hatches into a white larva. A few minutes after the larva has hatched, a worker appears at the cell to feed it a special foodlarva has hatched, a worker appears at the cell to feed it a special food called ‘royal jelly’. This feeding process goes on continuously. Aboutcalled ‘royal jelly’. This feeding process goes on continuously. About once a minute a worker arrives to feed the larva. For the first two daysonce a minute a worker arrives to feed the larva. For the first two days the larva is fed royal jelly and the following four days it is fed ‘beethe larva is fed royal jelly and the following four days it is fed ‘bee bread’—a mixture of flower pollen and honey. Over this period the larvabread’—a mixture of flower pollen and honey. Over this period the larva grows so quickly, it fills the entire cell. (grows so quickly, it fills the entire cell. (  Explanation: incubation and pupaExplanation: incubation and pupa  It now begins to produces a sticky silk from glands near its mouth.It now begins to produces a sticky silk from glands near its mouth. Weaving back and forth, it spins the silk into a lacy cocoon. At thisWeaving back and forth, it spins the silk into a lacy cocoon. At this stage the workers stop feeding the larva and seal the cell with wax.stage the workers stop feeding the larva and seal the cell with wax. Inside the cocoon, the soft, legless body of the grub stiffens. OutlinesInside the cocoon, the soft, legless body of the grub stiffens. Outlines of legs, wings, eyes, antennae, begin to form. The larva is changingof legs, wings, eyes, antennae, begin to form. The larva is changing into a pupa.into a pupa.  Explanation: emergence from cocoonExplanation: emergence from cocoon  Twelve days later, a sharp new pair of jaws begins to cut away at theTwelve days later, a sharp new pair of jaws begins to cut away at the wax sealing the cell. The cell opens and the new worker bee appears.wax sealing the cell. The cell opens and the new worker bee appears. After abut one day, this new bee is busy at work in the organization ofAfter abut one day, this new bee is busy at work in the organization of the hive.the hive.
  9. 9. Types of TextTypes of Text  The seasonsThe seasons  During the year the Earth has four seasons spring, summer, autumnDuring the year the Earth has four seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter. A year is approximately 365 days in length. This is theand winter. A year is approximately 365 days in length. This is the amount of time the Earth takes to complete its orbit around the Sun.amount of time the Earth takes to complete its orbit around the Sun.  When the Earth orbits around the Sun it is tilted on an axis. Because ofWhen the Earth orbits around the Sun it is tilted on an axis. Because of this the Earth is in different positions during the year. On the 21 st ofthis the Earth is in different positions during the year. On the 21 st of March and 23 rd of September the Sun’s rays shine straight down onMarch and 23 rd of September the Sun’s rays shine straight down on the Equator. On these days the length of day and night are equalthe Equator. On these days the length of day and night are equal everywhere. When the Earth is in this position the seasons are autumneverywhere. When the Earth is in this position the seasons are autumn and spring. Autumn starts in the southern hemisphere on the 21 st ofand spring. Autumn starts in the southern hemisphere on the 21 st of March and spring starts in the northern hemisphere on the same day.March and spring starts in the northern hemisphere on the same day. Accordingly, the seasons are reversed in the hemispheres on the 23 rdAccordingly, the seasons are reversed in the hemispheres on the 23 rd of September.of September.  On the 21 st of June the Sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. ThisOn the 21 st of June the Sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. This means the northern hemisphere is experiencing summer and themeans the northern hemisphere is experiencing summer and the southern hemisphere winter. On the 21 st December the Sun issouthern hemisphere winter. On the 21 st December the Sun is overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn and so the southern hemisphere isoverhead at the Tropic of Capricorn and so the southern hemisphere is experiencing summer and the northern hemisphere is in winter.experiencing summer and the northern hemisphere is in winter.  Each stage of the generic structures may be realized by more than oneEach stage of the generic structures may be realized by more than one clause. An Explanation text may be one or more than one page. Theclause. An Explanation text may be one or more than one page. The genre may occupy one hundred pages. The following text indicates thegenre may occupy one hundred pages. The following text indicates the Explanation types which is coded by longer clauses as shown in (8k)Explanation types which is coded by longer clauses as shown in (8k)
  10. 10. Lexicogrammatical RealizationsLexicogrammatical Realizations  1 Process1 Process  dominated by the material and relational processesdominated by the material and relational processes  mental process at the Evaluative stagemental process at the Evaluative stage  How do rockets work?How do rockets work?  RocketsRockets workwork like balloons.like balloons. Material ProcessMaterial Process  When rocketsWhen rockets are firedare fired,, Material ProcessMaterial Process  theythey burnburn vast quantities of fuel.vast quantities of fuel. Material ProcessMaterial Process  The exhaust gasesThe exhaust gases createdcreated Material ProcessMaterial Process  byby burningburning fuel Material Processfuel Material Process  areare thenthen forcedforced out of the nozzle at the end of the rocket Material Processout of the nozzle at the end of the rocket Material Process  whichwhich pushespushes the rocket forward.the rocket forward. Material ProcessMaterial Process  2. Conjunction and Conjunctive2. Conjunction and Conjunctive  dominated by relations of location, cause and mannerdominated by relations of location, cause and manner  How do satellites stay up in the sky?How do satellites stay up in the sky?  The earth’s gravity works like the string.The earth’s gravity works like the string. WhenWhen a satellite is launched,a satellite is launched, Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  the force of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’sthe force of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’s  gravitygravity thenthen pulls it back and creates a tension like the string.pulls it back and creates a tension like the string. Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  These two forces make the satellite stay in orbit.These two forces make the satellite stay in orbit. 
  11. 11. Lexicogrammatical RealizationsLexicogrammatical Realizations  How do satellites stay up in the sky?How do satellites stay up in the sky?  The earth’s gravity works like the string.The earth’s gravity works like the string. WhenWhen a satellite is launched,a satellite is launched, Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  the force of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’sthe force of the rocket pushes it away from the earth. The earth’s  gravitygravity thenthen pulls it back and creates a tension like the string.pulls it back and creates a tension like the string. Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  These two forces make the satellite stay in orbit.These two forces make the satellite stay in orbit.  How do rockets work?How do rockets work?  Rockets work like balloons.Rockets work like balloons. WhenWhen rockets are fired, they burnrockets are fired, they burn Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  vast quantities of fuel. The exhaust gases created by burningvast quantities of fuel. The exhaust gases created by burning  fuels arefuels are thethen forced out of the nozzle at the end of the rocket,n forced out of the nozzle at the end of the rocket, Location: TemporalLocation: Temporal  which pushes the rocket forward.which pushes the rocket forward.  Why do orbits work?Why do orbits work?  An orbit works like an object being spun around on a piece of string.An orbit works like an object being spun around on a piece of string.  BecauseBecause of the force of use spinning the string, it pushes theof the force of use spinning the string, it pushes the CausalCausal  object out.object out. HoweverHowever, the string stops the object from flying away, the string stops the object from flying away CausalCausal  becausebecause it holds it back. The two forces, one pulling and oneit holds it back. The two forces, one pulling and one CausalCausal  pushing, make the stone go around in a circle.pushing, make the stone go around in a circle.  In addition to the use of conjunctions, the genre of Description is normally coded by the use ofIn addition to the use of conjunctions, the genre of Description is normally coded by the use of conjunctions ofconjunctions of also, in addition, besides, as well as,also, in addition, besides, as well as, andand furthermorefurthermore. All these conjunctions serve. All these conjunctions serve to add information and create unity in text of Description.to add information and create unity in text of Description.  3. Tense3. Tense  Typically the text of Explanation is coded in the simple present tense. However, when a pastTypically the text of Explanation is coded in the simple present tense. However, when a past process is explained it may involve the simple past tense. The use of passive construction isprocess is explained it may involve the simple past tense. The use of passive construction is preferred in technical or scientific explanationspreferred in technical or scientific explanations
  12. 12. Social ContextSocial Context  An Explanation genre has a wide range of usesAn Explanation genre has a wide range of uses in the society. Almost in any aspect of life onein the society. Almost in any aspect of life one is required to explain the how and why of ais required to explain the how and why of a process or event. In the market one may beprocess or event. In the market one may be asked why the prices go up, how the computerasked why the prices go up, how the computer is sold. In academic contexts students areis sold. In academic contexts students are asked to explain why oxygen is needed byasked to explain why oxygen is needed by living creatures, how bean seeds germinates,living creatures, how bean seeds germinates, why political situation is warming up, etc.why political situation is warming up, etc.
  13. 13.  folk linguistic terms = commonsensefolk linguistic terms = commonsense  technical terms = scientific, discipline or branchtechnical terms = scientific, discipline or branch of knowledgeof knowledge  literary expression = artistic ways codingliterary expression = artistic ways coding  George lives in Medan (commonsense/literal)George lives in Medan (commonsense/literal)  George’s house is in Medan (commonsense)George’s house is in Medan (commonsense)  George’s poor shelter or hut is in Medan…George’s poor shelter or hut is in Medan… (literal)(literal)  George resides in Medan (technical)George resides in Medan (technical)
  14. 14. AssignmentAssignment Why and How does global warming occur?Why and How does global warming occur? in at least 1000 words of Englishin at least 1000 words of English

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