Food Utilization
and Nutrition Security
Binayak Sen, Purnima Menon, Akhter U. Ahmed, and Fatema Parveen Chowdhury




    ...
Figure 1—The link between the UNICEF conceptual framework and direct/indirect interven ons

                              ...
Figure 2—The window of opportunity for addressing undernutri on
      – prepregnancy and the first two years of life.

 HEI...
Figure 3—Prevalence of anemia and undernutri on (anthropometric
        indicators) among children and women in Bangladesh...
70
                                  1996      2004
                                  2000      2007
60

50

40

30

20

1...
Status of keydirect interven ons for child nutri on
 100
  90                                                   Early ini ...
Real price of brinjal (Taka/kg)                                            Real price of rice (Taka/kg)                   ...
This paper has been commissioned by the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
for the Bangladesh Food Security...
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
Food utilization and nutrition security
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Food utilization and nutrition security

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The economic consequences of high maternal and child undernutrition cannot be overstated. A combination of high maternal undernutrition and postnatal factors cause child undernutrition, which in turn can influence children’s school performance and their future occupational choices, and can undermine the future productivity of nations. Notwithstanding rapid economic growth in a number of South Asian countries (including Bangladesh and India), the pace of improvements in maternal and child undernutrition in the region remains deeply unsatisfactory. Bangladesh has made considerable progress in addressing the non-income poverty indicators for the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1)—that is, reducing the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age—but improvements are slowing, which raises questions about whether the target will be achieved or not. Furthermore, the overall levels of maternal and child undernutrition are still high in Bangladesh, and further investments are needed to accelerate improvements and prevent the negative impact of maternal and child undernutrition on long-term development. This paper is, therefore, about the
policy focus that is needed to greatly improve the current status of maternal and children nutrition. Although overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Bangladesh, this paper will not address this aspect of undernutrition. However, it is a potential concern in the future, and this trend should be monitored.

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Transcript of "Food utilization and nutrition security"

  1. 1. Food Utilization and Nutrition Security Binayak Sen, Purnima Menon, Akhter U. Ahmed, and Fatema Parveen Chowdhury Bangladesh Food Security Investment Forum, 26–27 May 2010, Dhaka
  2. 2. Figure 1—The link between the UNICEF conceptual framework and direct/indirect interven ons S Interven ons Child Nutri on H O R T Breas eeding R Complimentary feeding O Food/nutrient intake Health Immediate Vitamin A U causes T Zinc Hygiene E S Maternal Underlying - Agriculture Access Water/Sanita on and child-care causes - Poverty Reduc on to food health services prac ces L - Educa on O - Health Systems Strengthening N - Income genera on G - Women’s empowerment R O INSTITUTIONS Basic U causes T POLITICAL & IDEOLOGICAL E FRAMEWORK S ECONOMIC STRUCTURE RESOURCES Adapted from UNICEF 1990 ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Source: Ruel, SCN News 2008
  3. 3. Figure 2—The window of opportunity for addressing undernutri on – prepregnancy and the first two years of life. HEIGHT-FOR-AGE Z-SCORES BY CHILD AGE, BANGLADESH, 2007 Child age (months) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 0 - 0.5 Intervening with evidence- -1 based interven ons to prevent irreversible growth HAZ faltering and brain damage is also cri cal - 1.5 -2 Addressing maternal health and - 2.5 nutri on prior to and during pregnancy and childbirth is crucial
  4. 4. Figure 3—Prevalence of anemia and undernutri on (anthropometric indicators) among children and women in Bangladesh Prevalence of maternal and child undernutri on Childhood anemia (HKI, NSP 2006) Anthropometric indicators (BDHS 2007) 100 90 50 80 45 40 70 6–11 mo 35 60 Stun ng 12–23 mo 30 50 Underweight 40 24–35 mo 25 20 Was ng 30 35–47 mo 15 Women with low BMI 20 48–59 mo 10 Women <145 cms tall 10 5 0 0 Child age groups Anthropometric indicators
  5. 5. 70 1996 2004 2000 2007 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Stun ng Was ng Underweight Maternal BMI
  6. 6. Status of keydirect interven ons for child nutri on 100 90 Early ini a on of BF 80 Exclusive BF (0–6 mo) Introduc on of CF at 6–9 mo 70 3 expected IYCF prac ces 60 Iron-rich food % 50 All basic immuniza ons 40 Vitamin A suppl (<3s) Access to improved sanita on 30 Women - > 3 ANC visits 20 Women - normal BMI 10 HH - access to improved water 0 Inputs for ensuring good child nutri on BF = breast feeding ANC = antenatal care CF = complementary feeding IYCF = infant and young child feeding Source: BDHS (2007)
  7. 7. Real price of brinjal (Taka/kg) Real price of rice (Taka/kg) Share of daily per capita protein consump on % 0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20 25 10 12 14 16 18 0 20 40 60 80 0 5 1983 1983 Rice 1985 1986 51.6 51.3 1987 1989 1989 Fish 13.6 13.9 2005 1991 1992 1993 eggs Meat & 7.0 4.7 1995 1995 Fiscal Year Fiscal Year 1997 1998 5.6 5.4 1999 2001 1995–96 2001 2003 1.2 3.2 2004 2005 2007 2007 products foods Pulses Milk & milk Other 21.0 21.6 2009 2009 Real price of Hilsha fish (Taka/kg) Real price of len l (Taka/kg) 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 1983 1983 1985 1987 1986 1989 1989 1991 1992 1993 1995 1995 Fiscal Year 1997 Fiscal Year 1998 1999 2001 2001 2003 2004 2005 2007 2007 2009 2009
  8. 8. This paper has been commissioned by the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for the Bangladesh Food Security Investment Forum, 26–27 May 2010. The Forum is organized by the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management with technical support from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN-FAO). Financial support has been extended by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), and the European Commission (EC). The views and opinions contained in this paper are those of the authors. Cover graphics adapted from photography by © 2010 Hand Crank Films/IFPRI, © 2009 Pradeep Kumar Saxena/iStockphoto, and © 2006 G.M.B Akash/Panos.

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