Community Development & Capacity Building   First Nations & Inuit Health Branch              September 2012
COPYRIGHT/PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE• The material in the Indigenous Community Development Curriculum (“Curriculum”) is cover...
CDCB Framework approach• Indigenous community development is dependent on the combined capacities of the community’s indiv...
Theory of Change• Previous policies to implement community-centred approaches have resulted in momentary shifts, but polic...
Healthy Community is the VisionKrawl, 1994, Indicators of healthy         • Adapted from Whanāu Ora, New  community       ...
Working Definition: Community Development• The foundational value and belief of community development is that the people t...
Community development is not new• This increasing level of health in Aboriginal communities must be built on three pillars...
Commitment to Community Development• Community development is a priority of the Health Canada Executive Committee workplan...
CommunityDevelopment                   Community                               Capacityand CapacityBuilding               ...
Pillars of the CDCB Framework• Pillars or entry points to support  Indigenous Community  Development (ICD) in  communities...
Principles of the Framework                         ©FNIHB-HC   11
Community Capacity – What is it?• Capacity of individuals + capacity of community organizations = building blocks for  com...
Community Capacity definitions• What community insiders need to have, to know, to do, and to be, in order  to effectively ...
Community CapacitiesIndividual                 Public Service Capacity                     GovernanceCapacity             ...
Indigenous Knowledge & Culture - WHAT is it?• Culture (traditional and cultural activities, indigenous intelligence) is an...
Indigenous Culture & Knowledge• Culture     The commonalities around which a group of people have developed      values, ...
Strength-based - WHAT is it?• A strengths-based or assets-based approach balances risk and protective  factors, and respec...
Community-Centred - WHAT is it?• Community-based: The majority of health risk and protective factors are local.  Capacity ...
Leadership in Community - WHAT is it?• Leaders create vision for the future: “The ultimate task of a leader is to take his...
WHAT is it?• First Nations, Inuit and Métis define health as holistic (physical, emotional, mental and spiritual), and act...
Cultural Competence            • Important enough to spend much of              the afternoon on this foundation of       ...
FNIHB & AANDCCDCB Framework Goals                                                                  Communities            ...
For more information:Rose Sones LeMayBranch Lead, Community Development and Capacity BuildingFNIHB, Health CanadaRose.sone...
Draft Workplan 2012-13• Community Capacity     Review options for FNIHB to actively support capacity in communities      ...
Lessons Learned in CDCB PilotsInternal Organizational Change                               Indigenous• Takes time in focus...
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Community Development and Capacity Building

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By Rhonda Laboucan

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  • Introduce Rhonda.This is a longer deck, but I’m only going to touch on the relevant pieces for you. The whole deck is available from the conference.
  • 10 secondsCopyrighted because this is material developed for the Indigenous Community Development course for FNIHB employees.
  • 1 minuteWe know that communities function well together, when individuals have skills, when organizations have the competencies to fulfill their mandates. But we also know that communities do well with the support of others, such as governments and innovative partners like corporations, non-profits. Based on my experience, these partnerships need partners who understand each other, and uphold the value of communities making decisions for themselves. Community development happens within community – external partners cannot “do” community development to a community. So we are undertaking an extensive training approach within FNIHB to build the competencies of our employees, so that they define their roles as supporters and facilitators of what happens in community. We all share the vision of strong vibrant healthy community.
  • 1minuteHere are two different ways to consider what healthy community could look like. Each community defines this for themselves, but here’s some options. The first written by Marcia Krawll a number of years ago, talks a lot about social connections, social networks, and individuals supporting each other. The second comes from our Maori friends in New Zealand. If it were adapted to our world, this is what it would look like: healthy individuals, contributing to community, knowing their own culture, working together. The reason why we always start with the vision, is that it reminds us that we actually are working on something together. So let’s define it – community development.
  • 1 minuteThis is the Framework in one image. See the three pillars on the outside, the principles in red in the inside, all founded on cultural competence. This will be available in the future in a text format.
  • First, the pillars: Community Capacity, Government Partners…., and Partnerships for Well-being. These are entry points into doing the work of community development. How do communities continue to build their own capacity, so that self-determination and excellence in service delivery is achieved? But the way we do the work, is almost more important than the work itself. Process is product?
  • Then, the principles. Many of these will be familiar to you. Let me focus on just a few of them, as you know what many of them are already. I’m going to focus on Indigenous Knowledge and Culture, and Leadership in Community. These are only 2 of the five principles, the rest you can review on your own. I’ll also talk about how we describe Cultural Competence.But first, what’s the point again of community development?
  • 3 minutesThe point is to build capacities in communities, so that you can build on your own assets and address your own issues. Capacities are those in individuals, in organizations too. We describe capacities in the widest possible way, whatever is needed for individuals to be ready-to-learn, ready-to-work. And capacities for organizations too, whatever your health centre needs to be excellent at fulfilling its mandate. The key message here for us as external partners and supporters of the work that you do in community, is “first do no harm”. We should not be compromising community capacities, decision-making and planning. Every interaction with community should build its strengths, build towards a hopeful future. [Rhonda, can you insert a story of your own, on how to do that?]
  • 10 secondsI’m going to skip these slides too, because I want to talk about leadership.
  • Finally, cultural competence. The Community Development Framework is based in cultural competence. Because it’s an expectation that FNIHB should be culturally competent, and because all the evidence says that culturally competent approaches are the ones that are going to be most sustainable. Lifelong learning….let me just touch on this a bit. Cultural competence as we see it, it’s not a checkbox approach, it’s not a one-time course. It is a lifelong journey, as we all have experiences to learn more about other cultures, to learn how to build more effective relationships across cultures.
  • Community Development and Capacity Building

    1. 1. Community Development & Capacity Building First Nations & Inuit Health Branch September 2012
    2. 2. COPYRIGHT/PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE• The material in the Indigenous Community Development Curriculum (“Curriculum”) is covered by the provisions of the Copyright Act, by Canadian laws, policies, regulations and international agreements. Such provisions serve to identify the information source and, in specific instances, to prohibit reproduction of materials without copyright clearance.• Unless otherwise specified, this authorization is also applicable to all published information regardless of its format.Non-commercial Reproduction• Personal or public non-commercial use and may be reproduced, in part or in whole, and by any means, without charge or further permission, is permissible unless otherwise specified.• Users are required to:  Exercise due diligence in ensuring the accuracy of the materials reproduced;  Indicate both the complete title of the materials reproduced, as well as the author organization (“First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada”); and  Indicate that the reproduction is a copy of an official work that is published by the Government of Canada and that the reproduction has not been produced in affiliation with, or with the endorsement of the Government of Canada.Commercial Reproduction• Reproduction of multiple copies of materials of the Curriculum, in whole or in part, for the purposes of commercial redistribution is prohibited except with written permission from the Government of Canadas copyright administrator, Public Works and Government Services Canada. Through the permission granting process, Public Works and Government Services Canada helps ensure individuals/organizations wishing to reproduce Government of Canada materials for commercial purposes have access to the most accurate, up- to-date versions. To obtain permission to reproduce materials on this site for commercial purposes please contact Crown Copyright and Licensing. ©FNIHB-HC 2
    3. 3. CDCB Framework approach• Indigenous community development is dependent on the combined capacities of the community’s individuals, public service and governance – community development happens from within.  Role and opportunity for governments and partners - to support the capacity of community individuals, organizations and governance excellence.  By supporting capacity which leads to community development, First Nations and Inuit communities will address their own social determinants of health, based on their own assets, including Indigenous knowledge and culture. • This is the game-changer to improve health outcomes.• For governments and partners - Strengthened knowledge and competencies in effectively partnering with communities (including cultural competence), and strengthened community partnerships are necessary elements for success. ©FNIHB-HC 3
    4. 4. Theory of Change• Previous policies to implement community-centred approaches have resulted in momentary shifts, but policy alone does not result in transformative change.• CDCB is using an organizational change approach to increase the likelihood of transformative change:  Empower community members, FNIHB employees and external partners with knowledge and competencies – “to know more is to do better” (Elder Paul Skanks).  Encourage natural networks of people that provide supports and opportunities for discussion on how to implement Indigenous community development  Build champions at every level  Maintain a vision of the future that generates hope and commitment ©FNIHB-HC 4
    5. 5. Healthy Community is the VisionKrawl, 1994, Indicators of healthy • Adapted from Whanāu Ora, New community Zealand approach to Māori family health and wellbeing.• people getting involved in their community • Community and family well-being will be realised when [extended] families• greater sense of trust, caring and are: sharing among community members  Self managing• positive parenting  Living healthy lifestyles• sharing of intergenerational wisdom [and culture]  Participating fully in society• openness and communication among  Confidently participating in the community members, without blaming First Nations/Inuit world or shame  Economically secure and• clear role expectations and people successfully taking responsibility  Involved in wealth creation• sense of connectedness and sensitivity  Cohesive, resilient, nurturing to one another which promotes healthy partnerships and collective action ©FNIHB-HC 5
    6. 6. Working Definition: Community Development• The foundational value and belief of community development is that the people themselves can improve their community by working together, building consensus on priorities and actions, building on community assets, and developing individual and community capacity.• Community development is a principled, values-based approach to support better outcomes in First Nations and Inuit health, by empowering communities to manage their own services, building on their own strengths including culture.• Community development is not a program – the principle is to embed community development knowledge and expertise across the whole branch, in every policy and program. ©FNIHB-HC 6
    7. 7. Community development is not new• This increasing level of health in Aboriginal communities must be built on three pillars. The first, and most significant, is community development, both socio-economic development and cultural and spiritual development, to remove the conditions of poverty and apathy which prevent the members of the community from achieving a state of physical, mental and social well-being. (1979) ©FNIHB-HC 7
    8. 8. Commitment to Community Development• Community development is a priority of the Health Canada Executive Committee workplan.• FNIHB ADM’s speech to the AFN’s Health Policy Forum highlighted community development• Linked to FNIHB draft Strategic Plan• FNIHB Regional Directors have shown their support and commitment to the content and approach, and an RD co-chairs the National Advisory Committee• AFN and ITK both participate and are co-chairs of the National Advisory Committee. ©FNIHB-HC 8
    9. 9. CommunityDevelopment Community Capacityand CapacityBuilding Strength-Framework and Indigenous Based Knowledge &Principles Culture Holistic Community Community- Health & Development Centred Well-being Government & Partnerships for Partners Community Knowledge & Leadership in Health & Well- Competencies Community being Cultural Competence ©FNIHB-HC 9
    10. 10. Pillars of the CDCB Framework• Pillars or entry points to support Indigenous Community Development (ICD) in communities.  Building our own knowledge and competencies in ICD and cultural competence, to be better partners.  Working with innovative partners such as other governments, corporations and non-profits to support community well-being.  Always supporting ongoing development of capacities in communities. ©FNIHB-HC 10
    11. 11. Principles of the Framework ©FNIHB-HC 11
    12. 12. Community Capacity – What is it?• Capacity of individuals + capacity of community organizations = building blocks for community development.• For example: Capacities in communicating and sharing plans for the future, working together to achieve a shared plan, and evaluating progress.Why is it helpful?• Community development is built on individual and organizational capacities.• Successful communities have the capacity to identify and address their own determinants of health.In practice – how do we implement?• First do no harm – do not compromise community capacity, decision-making, self-determination and hope• Focus on opportunities to leverage partnerships to support capacity development in individuals and organizations. ©FNIHB-HC 12
    13. 13. Community Capacity definitions• What community insiders need to have, to know, to do, and to be, in order to effectively influence the primary determinants of health that are affecting them (United Nations Development Program).• Sometimes described at three levels:  Individual Level - development of conditions that allow individuals to build and enhance existing knowledge and skills, the establishment of conditions that will allow individuals to engage in the “process of learning and adapting to change”  Institutional Level - aiding and supporting institutions/organizations in forming sound policies, organizational structures, and effective methods of management and controls  Societal Level - support the establishment of a more “interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from feedback it receives from the population at large.” Capacity building must be used to develop public administrators that are responsive and accountable. ©FNIHB-HC 13
    14. 14. Community CapacitiesIndividual Public Service Capacity GovernanceCapacity Policy and decision Service Delivery Organizational Capacity making Safety Communication and Continuing education Healing for work and career negotiation Communication and Personal health Communication negotiation Organizational designpractices Project management Public administration Management &including culture E-technology Policy and decision- controls Sector-Specific making Social supports Community Capacity: health, ECD HR management Ready to learn and education, housing engagement & moral Financial mgmt & Ready for work & public fundraising authority works, PSE, lands & Strategic Planning Leadership resources, family & Information management Partnerships & community Performance Collaboration supports, social measurement Accreditation development, economic Community engagement development, policing, Partnerships & membership Collaboration 14 Accreditation ©FNIHB-HC 14
    15. 15. Indigenous Knowledge & Culture - WHAT is it?• Culture (traditional and cultural activities, indigenous intelligence) is an important, and perhaps the most important protective factor in community.• Culture acts as a buffer against crisis. Cultural discontinuity is a risk factor, particularly in mental health. Why is it helpful? • Strength of culture in community is a determinant of community wellness. • In practice, how to implement: • Culture is an essential determinant of health in communities, and an eligible expense in FNIHB health programs. • It is the responsibility of FNIHB and of FNIHB employees to be culturally competent. ©FNIHB-HC 15
    16. 16. Indigenous Culture & Knowledge• Culture  The commonalities around which a group of people have developed values, norms, family styles, social roles and behaviours, in response to the political, economic and social realities they face  Culture and identity are central to Indigenous perceptions and definitions of health and ill health.• History matters:  Colonization and residential schools discounted Indigenous cultures, churches and society labelled culture as “evil” and uncivilized, and the federal government criminalized cultural practices.  Community healing from colonization and residential schools includes the process to reclaim and revive cultural knowledge and traditions – and this is a foundation for community development.• Successful communities  Community cultural identity, esteem and strength is associated with strong social support networks, inclusive social structures, and sense of hope for the future. ©FNIHB-HC 16
    17. 17. Strength-based - WHAT is it?• A strengths-based or assets-based approach balances risk and protective factors, and respects the resilience of communities.• A recognition that every community has assets – some are just more readily identifiable. WHY is it helpful? • Builds trust • Builds individual and community esteem • Supports potential and hope In practice: • Design programs and policy starting with community strengths including culture and social connectedness. • Always look for strengths and assets. ©FNIHB-HC 17
    18. 18. Community-Centred - WHAT is it?• Community-based: The majority of health risk and protective factors are local. Capacity and activity to address them must also be local. A community builds on its own strengths and assets to address health risk factors.• Community-paced – Sustainable action builds on capacity in the community, at the stage of community development (continuum).• Community-led: The community’s sense of ownership and control over activities to address wellness is likely just as important as the activity’s outcomes. WHY is it helpful? • We all share a vision of communities self- managing with control over their own social determinants of health, with support from governments and partners. In practice: • Facilitate community initiative and ownership, and reduce prescriptive policy and programs. • Facilitate community capacity in decision- making, facilitation and strategic planning. ©FNIHB-HC 18
    19. 19. Leadership in Community - WHAT is it?• Leaders create vision for the future: “The ultimate task of a leader is to take his or her society to where it has never been.”• Community leaders include those paid to lead, and also those who have leadership roles and influence in the community. WHY is it helpful? • Formal and informal community leadership is a protective factor against crisis, and an essential factor for success. In practice: • Support short- and medium- term leadership development and emerging leaders in communities. ©FNIHB-HC 19
    20. 20. WHAT is it?• First Nations, Inuit and Métis define health as holistic (physical, emotional, mental and spiritual), and activities that have impact across the circle of health will have more impact than those which focus on only one. WHY is it helpful? • Factors contributing to health and wellness, and healthy communities, are larger than any one department or partner. • Successful communities have innovative partnerships with neighbouring communities, NGOs and additional funders. In practice: • Leverage commonalities and partnerships within FNIHB, with other departments including AANDC. • Facilitate relationships between First Nations, Inuit and Métis - and the NGO and private sectors. ©FNIHB-HC 20
    21. 21. Cultural Competence • Important enough to spend much of the afternoon on this foundation of the CDCB Framework. • An expectation held by Aboriginal communities and clients • A lens – principles are seen and interpreted through it • A process - reflected in communications. • An indicator and an outcome – evaluated by Aboriginal partners and clients • A lifelong learning opportunity. ©FNIHB-HC 21
    22. 22. FNIHB & AANDCCDCB Framework Goals Communities have the capacities to As communities plan, deliver and request, innovat evaluate their ive corporate own quality ICD and cultural and services and competence is philanthropic public implemented in partners administration, a FNIHB & AANDC support the nd negotiate daily work to develop development of effective Employees and policies and community relationships organizations have programs, and capacities, and with provinces knowledge and decision-making that contribute to and territories to competencies in ICD affects communities. improved health adapt the larger and cultural FNIHB & AANDC are and well-being. systems to competence, in order effective partners better meet their to build effective with communities to needs (ie. relationships with support their work to Health, educatio communities and develop and address n, etc) 22 clients. SDOH. ©FNIHB-HC 22
    23. 23. For more information:Rose Sones LeMayBranch Lead, Community Development and Capacity BuildingFNIHB, Health CanadaRose.sones@hc-sc.gc.caAPPENDICES Draft Workplan Lessons learned in CDCB Pilots ©FNIHB-HC 23
    24. 24. Draft Workplan 2012-13• Community Capacity  Review options for FNIHB to actively support capacity in communities including emerging leaders, and options on joint work with AANDC  Complete pilot with Public Safety on community planning, and report on outcomes• FNIHB Knowledge and Competencies  Train 20% of FNIHB in Indigenous Community Development course  Develop structures to support ongoing learning including GC- Connex, Forums  Complete resource kit for regions to support communities in crisis, perhaps with a specific workshop• Partnerships for Health  Contribute to knowledge translation on building and maintaining effective innovative partnerships  Increase corporate and philanthropic contribution to community capacity and health services delivery ©FNIHB-HC 24
    25. 25. Lessons Learned in CDCB PilotsInternal Organizational Change Indigenous• Takes time in focussed training to build champions at Community every level of organization Development curriculumCommunity Capacity is the lever Kitigan’zibi, joint• Successful communities have strong capacities in how funding with Public to do strategic planning Safety, FN Health• Communities plan to their own internal authorities first Mgrs Assoc• Community peer support networks can offer immediate and sustainable supports, and better positioned to share messages about effective management and governanceInnovative Partnerships Ahp-cii-uk• Negotiation skills, shared sense of benefit both important to community partnerships with corporations, non-profits, other governments ©FNIHB-HC 25
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