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Big era 3

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  • 1. Farming and the Emergence of Complex Societies 10,000 – 1,000 BCE. Big Era Three
  • 2. Join us for the world tour!
  • 3. STOP! I know what you’re thinking!
  • 4. Farming and complex societies? Where did they come from? I thought we were still hunting and gathering!
  • 5. Big Era 2 … and changes have always been—and still are—part of human history. Let’s look for a minute at the changes that took place in Big Era Two. You DO remember Big Era Two, don’t you? Big Era 1 Farming and complex societies are the result of CHANGE … Today 10k years ago 200k yrs ago Big Eras 3-9
  • 6. Big Era 2 Big Era Two is the era that covers the period from 200,000 to 10,000 years ago. Big Era Two was fraught with change. Shall we do a quick review? Big Era 1 Today 10k years ago 200k yrs ago Big Eras 3-9
  • 7. Homo erectus doing lunch You will probably recall that life 200,000 years ago looked something like this. 200k yrs ago Human Origins Today 10k years ago Big Era 2 Big Eras 3-9 Big Era 1
  • 8. Homo sapiens at home 10,000 years ago at the close of Big Era Two, life looked more like this: 10k years ago 200k yrs ago Human Origins Today Big Era 2 Big Eras 3-9 Big Era 1
  • 9. Homo erectus – 200,000 years ago Homo sapiens – 10,000 years ago Notice any changes? Would you say there were: (c) Lots of changes? (b) Some changes? (a) No changes?
  • 10. If you said there were “(c) Lots of changes,” you were obviously paying attention during Big Era Two. If, on the other hand, you chose “(a) No changes” or “(b) Some changes,” you must have been out with the flu during Big Era Two. (Hope you are feeling better!).
  • 11. So, we will go with “(c) Lots of changes” in Big Era Two, right? Before moving on, jot them down. Are these going to be on the test? Do you recall any of them? So, it’s antelope burgers tonight, right? Hints Americas Boomerang
  • 12. Big Era 3 Big Era 2 Check your answers below: Changes that occurred by the end of Big Era 2 (Beginning of Big Era 3) 1. Homo sapiens appear. 2. Language develops. 3. Habitats expand. 4. Technology multiplies. 5. Wall painting and sculpture are created. End of Big Era Two (Beginning of Big Era 3) 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 13. Keeping those changes in mind, let’s look at life all the way at the end of Big Era Three, that is, about 1,000 BCE. 1,000 years ago 10,000 years ago Today Big Era 3 Big Eras 4-9 Big Era 2
  • 14. 1,000 years ago 10,000 years ago Today Big Era 3 Big Eras 4-9 Big Era 2
  • 15. Quite a few, Huh? Notice any Differences?
  • 16. Jot down some notes on what events you think might have taken place between 10,000 and 1,000 BCE. HERE? HERE to So, how did we get from…
  • 17. which reflects the DOMESTICATION of… Big Era 3 Big Era 2 One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) : and plants animals 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 18. Have you ‘herd’ about pastoralism? Domestication of plants and animals was a monumental change. It resulted in the new way of living we know as FARMING (AGRICULTURE)… … which included both PASTORALISM (herding sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels), and… 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago Big Era 3 Big Era 2
  • 19. Crop-growing (cultivating domesticated plants), and… 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago Big Era 3 Big Era 2
  • 20. the development of… FARMING COMMUNITIES 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago Big Era 3 Big Era 2
  • 21. Mesoamerica Andes Amazonia Eastern North America New Guinea China Ethiopia West Africa Fertile Crescent Between about 12,000 and 1,000 BCE, farming appeared INDEPENDENTLY in a number of places, possibly in all of the places marked in red on the map. Nile valley 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago Big Era 3 Big Era 2
  • 22. Prior to farming, population size in any one area was limited by the availability of wild game, grain, berries, seeds, and nuts. Farming and the large, relatively dependable crops it provides allowed for… POPULATION INTENSIFICATION That means population increases in certain areas. Population in those areas became both larger and denser.
  • 23. At the same time, farmers in some places were, in spite of population growth, able to produce SURPLUS food. What does SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTION mean for a society?
  • 24. SURPLUS FOOD PRODUCTION … … means that not everyone has to grow food or tend animals. They can take on other tasks. They can specialize in some non-farming task.                                                                   
  • 25.
    • This is called…
    • Job Specialization.
    • Men and women may become:
    • Weavers
    • Stone Masons
    • Potters
    • Priests
    • Scribes
    • Traders
    • Army officers
  • 26. So, let’s have a quick review of that last sequence of events.
  • 27. Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Surplus Food Specialization Population Intensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION Big Era 3 Big Era 2 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 28. Hint, hint! You might want to make a note of these as we go along. Civilizations have a number of elements in common.
  • 29. Civilization Remember it. Write it down. Did you catch that term? Can you define it? Answer: A civilization is a complex society.
  • 30. Elements of civilization include: Mohenjo Daro Hammurabi’s Law Code It’s the law Pharaohs 1) Cities 2) Central governments And Law codes
  • 31. 1) Cities 2) Central governments and law codes Elements of Civilization include: Can you identify the society represented by each of these two writing samples? 3) Writing and record keeping 4) Highly organized religions
  • 32. 3) Writing and record keeping 4) Highly organized religion 5) Specialized Jobs Full-time monk Assyrian slaves In Egypt 6) Social Classes 1) Cities 2) Central Governments and law codes Elements of Civilization include:
  • 33. 7) Complex Technologies Chariot 5) Specialized jobs 6) Social classes Bronze Sword 3) Writing and record keeping 4) Highly organized religion 1) Cities 2) Central governments and law codes Elements of Civilization include:
  • 34. So, have you been paying attention or doing a bit of day dreaming? Let’s check! Can you list some of the elements of a civilization? Clue: There were 7!
  • 35. Good job, huh? Check your answers below: Good job if your list includes:
    • 1. Cities
    • 2. Central governments and law codes
    • 3. Writing and record-keeping
    • 4. Specialized jobs
    • Social classes
    • Complex technologies
    • Highly organized religions
  • 36. By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt were developing elements of complex societies. Are we supposed to be taking notes on this? Big Era 3 Big Era 2 3,000 years ago 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 37. By the end of Big Era Three, about 1000 BCE, there were several well-established civilizations in Afroeurasia. There were also two new ones in the Americas. At least two civilizations in Afroeurasia, the Minoan in the Mediterranean region and the Harappan in the Indus River valley had already come and gone.
  • 38. Now, looking back over Big Era Three, let’s review the major changes. Big Era 3 Big Era 2 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 39. Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Surplus Food Specialization Population Intensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION Big Era 3 Big Era 2 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 10,000 years ago
  • 40. That translates into: Farmers Herders Cities Central governments Armies Monumental buildings Written language Social hierarchies Complex belief systems In 10,000 BCE none of these existed in the world. By 1,000 BCE they all did.
  • 41. . Not only has life changed culturally and technologically, but also the rate of change has accelerated. 10k years ago Big Era 2 Big Era 1 Dogs, sheep. goats, horses, wheat, rice, chiles, potatoes—all domesticated Plow farming Law Codes Chariots Temple building Sailing technology Copper smelting Alphabet Wheel Writing Irrigation Regular trade routes Calendars Pottery Bow & arrow Pyramids Walled cities Letters and envelopes 360-degree circle BE3 Art 200k yrs ago Language Today Big Eras 4-9 1k years ago
  • 42. Make a few notes and discuss this question with your teacher and fellow students. What factors do you think might account for this increasing rate of change? You may have noticed that the difference between the rate of change in Big Era Two and in Big Era Three is enormous.
  • 43. Come to think of it, things changed REALLY fast In the 20th century. I wonder what the rate of change is going to be like in the 21st century? As you move on to Big Era Four (1,200 BCE to 500 AD), keep your eye on the rate of change. Does it keep increasing? Level off? Slow down? Do the factors you have identified as affecting the rate of change in Big Era Two and Big Era Three still apply?
  • 44. Well, that’s all for Big Era Three, but don’t go away. Hang on to your notes and stay tuned for…
  • 45. Big Era Four! Coming SOON to a classroom near you.