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  1. 1. Language Development<br />Supporting Language and Literacy Development<br />
  2. 2. Theoretical Views of Language Development<br />Behaviorist<br />Language is primarily influenced by external factors such as the modeling and reinforcement of parents and important others<br />Innatist<br />Language is innate, linked to the biological maturation and follows an internal clock, needing to emerge during the “critical age” for language acquisition<br />Deep structure: the underlying rules of grammar that are present is all cultures and languages. The common features of al languages<br />Surface Structure; the specific vocabulary and grammar of specific languages<br />Ineractionist<br />A compromise between both theories. The interactionist sees many factors involved in the acquisition of language<br />Cognitive: language is rooted in cognition and the ability to represent objects mentally<br />Social: language is intimately tied to social processes<br />
  3. 3. Components of Language <br />Stages of early language development<br />One word stage (around 16 months)<br />Babbling decreases<br />First words are familiar objects/people<br />Speech may be shortened versions of a phrase<br />Young toddlers may use holophrases ( a message in one word), such as “milk” for “ I want some milk”<br />Two word stage (18-30 months)<br />Telegraphic speech in which words are left out (“baby sleep” for “the baby is sleeping”)<br />Multiword stage (2-4 years)<br />Vocabulary increases dramatically<br />More complex syntax and other semantic knowledge<br />Mistakes show that chidren are working out complex grammar rules<br />
  4. 4. Language Systems and Rules<br />Phonology<br />The sounds of words<br />Semantics<br />Meaning of words<br />Syntax<br />Grammatical rules that govern sentence structure (subject-verb agreement)<br />Pragmatics<br />Social rules of language<br />Morphology<br />Word rules such as plurals, tense, etc.<br />
  5. 5. Bi-Lingualism<br />Ability of a person to speak in a language other than their native language with a degree of fluency<br />Simultaneous acquisition: when a child is exposed to two languages from birth<br />Successive acquisition: occurs as a child with one language enters a world of a second language<br />
  6. 6. What is Bi-Lingual Education?<br />For a great resource on bi-lingual education go to this website<br />Multilingualism <br />And fro information on Two Way Immersion Programs, click here…<br />CAL: Digests: Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics<br />
  7. 7. Some Guidelines for Second-Language Teaching<br />Understand how children learn a second language<br />Make a plan for the use of two languages<br />Accept individual styles/differences<br />Support children’s attempts to communicate<br />Maintain as additive philosophy<br />Provide a stimulating, active and diverse environment<br />Use informal observations to guide the planning of curriculum<br />Find out about the family<br />Provide an accepting classroom climate<br />
  8. 8. Language Skills in Early Childhood Education<br />Articulation<br />How chidren actually say the sounds and words<br />Receptive language<br />What children hear and what they gain when they listen and understand<br />Expressive language<br />What children say, including words, grammar, and elaboration<br />Graphic language<br />“talk written down”. Learning about print and the written word<br />Enjoyment<br />Knowing the power and the pleasures of language<br />
  9. 9. Child-Directed Speech<br />Almost every aspect of the early childhood environment and program facilitates language development. The knowledgeable teacher converses with the children using “child-directed” speech<br />
  10. 10. What is Child-Directed Speech?<br />Speaking…<br />With clear pronunciation<br />At a slower rate<br />In shorter sentences<br />And repeating the same utterances, when necessary<br />In a higher than usual pitch<br />With simple words<br />With an exaggerated intonation so that the speech has a sing-song quality<br />In grammatically simple sentences<br />
  11. 11. Language Activities<br />Books<br />Poetry<br />Storytelling<br />Flannel board stories<br />Lap board stories<br />Story enactment<br />Puppets<br />
  12. 12. Emergent Literacy<br />An awareness that learning to read and write is a dynamic, ongoing, emerging process. All aspects of language-listening, speaking, writing and reading-are all intertwined and develop concurrently, not necessarily sequentially<br />
  13. 13. Key Components<br />Rich teacher-talk: engaging chidren in rich conversations<br />Reading: read, read, read, and then read some more. Research continually shows us that reading aloud to children increases their reading ability, plus it’s fun!<br />Phonological awareness: an understanding that speech is made up of units, such as words, syllables, and sounds.The ability to use these when speaking. Playing with language is a way to enhance this.<br />
  14. 14. Letter and sound recognitions; association of letters with appropriate sounds<br />Awareness of print and support for emerging reading: understanding that words in print convey a message, that we read from left to right, and that printed words have a corresponding spoken word<br />Early writing development: attempts to imitate writing, such as scribbles and inventive spelling<br />
  15. 15. Promoting Literacy Development<br />Whole language Approach<br />International Reading Association : Home<br />And a lot of articles about literacy development are at this website…<br />California Preschool Instructional Networks<br />
  16. 16. Language Milestones<br />There are a lot of useful websites for you to look at that give developmental milestones for language development. I like the following one:<br />Language and Speech Development In Children<br />
  17. 17. Creating a Print Rich environment<br />Provide plenty of time for using books and other materials<br />Make a space that is quiet and comfortable<br />Have plenty of books and supporting materials<br />Display children’s literary creations<br />Foster children’s reading at home<br />Use books around the room<br />
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