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  • 1. Language Development
    Supporting Language and Literacy Development
  • 2. Theoretical Views of Language Development
    Language is primarily influenced by external factors such as the modeling and reinforcement of parents and important others
    Language is innate, linked to the biological maturation and follows an internal clock, needing to emerge during the “critical age” for language acquisition
    Deep structure: the underlying rules of grammar that are present is all cultures and languages. The common features of al languages
    Surface Structure; the specific vocabulary and grammar of specific languages
    A compromise between both theories. The interactionist sees many factors involved in the acquisition of language
    Cognitive: language is rooted in cognition and the ability to represent objects mentally
    Social: language is intimately tied to social processes
  • 3. Components of Language
    Stages of early language development
    One word stage (around 16 months)
    Babbling decreases
    First words are familiar objects/people
    Speech may be shortened versions of a phrase
    Young toddlers may use holophrases ( a message in one word), such as “milk” for “ I want some milk”
    Two word stage (18-30 months)
    Telegraphic speech in which words are left out (“baby sleep” for “the baby is sleeping”)
    Multiword stage (2-4 years)
    Vocabulary increases dramatically
    More complex syntax and other semantic knowledge
    Mistakes show that chidren are working out complex grammar rules
  • 4. Language Systems and Rules
    The sounds of words
    Meaning of words
    Grammatical rules that govern sentence structure (subject-verb agreement)
    Social rules of language
    Word rules such as plurals, tense, etc.
  • 5. Bi-Lingualism
    Ability of a person to speak in a language other than their native language with a degree of fluency
    Simultaneous acquisition: when a child is exposed to two languages from birth
    Successive acquisition: occurs as a child with one language enters a world of a second language
  • 6. What is Bi-Lingual Education?
    For a great resource on bi-lingual education go to this website
    And fro information on Two Way Immersion Programs, click here…
    CAL: Digests: Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics
  • 7. Some Guidelines for Second-Language Teaching
    Understand how children learn a second language
    Make a plan for the use of two languages
    Accept individual styles/differences
    Support children’s attempts to communicate
    Maintain as additive philosophy
    Provide a stimulating, active and diverse environment
    Use informal observations to guide the planning of curriculum
    Find out about the family
    Provide an accepting classroom climate
  • 8. Language Skills in Early Childhood Education
    How chidren actually say the sounds and words
    Receptive language
    What children hear and what they gain when they listen and understand
    Expressive language
    What children say, including words, grammar, and elaboration
    Graphic language
    “talk written down”. Learning about print and the written word
    Knowing the power and the pleasures of language
  • 9. Child-Directed Speech
    Almost every aspect of the early childhood environment and program facilitates language development. The knowledgeable teacher converses with the children using “child-directed” speech
  • 10. What is Child-Directed Speech?
    With clear pronunciation
    At a slower rate
    In shorter sentences
    And repeating the same utterances, when necessary
    In a higher than usual pitch
    With simple words
    With an exaggerated intonation so that the speech has a sing-song quality
    In grammatically simple sentences
  • 11. Language Activities
    Flannel board stories
    Lap board stories
    Story enactment
  • 12. Emergent Literacy
    An awareness that learning to read and write is a dynamic, ongoing, emerging process. All aspects of language-listening, speaking, writing and reading-are all intertwined and develop concurrently, not necessarily sequentially
  • 13. Key Components
    Rich teacher-talk: engaging chidren in rich conversations
    Reading: read, read, read, and then read some more. Research continually shows us that reading aloud to children increases their reading ability, plus it’s fun!
    Phonological awareness: an understanding that speech is made up of units, such as words, syllables, and sounds.The ability to use these when speaking. Playing with language is a way to enhance this.
  • 14. Letter and sound recognitions; association of letters with appropriate sounds
    Awareness of print and support for emerging reading: understanding that words in print convey a message, that we read from left to right, and that printed words have a corresponding spoken word
    Early writing development: attempts to imitate writing, such as scribbles and inventive spelling
  • 15. Promoting Literacy Development
    Whole language Approach
    International Reading Association : Home
    And a lot of articles about literacy development are at this website…
    California Preschool Instructional Networks
  • 16. Language Milestones
    There are a lot of useful websites for you to look at that give developmental milestones for language development. I like the following one:
    Language and Speech Development In Children
  • 17. Creating a Print Rich environment
    Provide plenty of time for using books and other materials
    Make a space that is quiet and comfortable
    Have plenty of books and supporting materials
    Display children’s literary creations
    Foster children’s reading at home
    Use books around the room