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Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
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Madagascar

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  • 1. Upper-Intermediate Instant Lesson™ Madagascar Pre-Reading Activities A: Short Discussion Find Madagascar on a map and answer these questions: a. Discuss: 1. What kind of climate do you think it has? 2. How many people do you think live there? 3. What crops do you think grow there? 4.Did you see the movie, "Madagascar"? What did you learn about Madagascar from the movie? b. Make a Guess: Now try this multiple-choice quiz: 1. Madagascar has a population of a) 3 - 6 million people. b) 8 - 11 million people. c) 13 - 15 million people. 2. One of its main exports is a) tea. b) fish. c) coffee. 3. Its staple foods are a) beef, fish and potatoes. b) fish, bananas and potatoes. c) rice, cassava and sweet potatoes. 4. Madagascar has two official languages. One of them is Malagasy, the other is a) Spanish. b) Portuguese. c) French. 5. It is in the a) Atlantic Ocean. b) Pacific Ocean. c) Indian Ocean. 6. The nearest African country to it is a) Kenya. b) Malawi. c) Mozambique. 7. One animal native to Madagascar is a) the zebra. b) the lion. c) the lemur. C. Listen for the Answers Now listen as your teacher reads aloud a short text about Madagascar and check your answers for the quiz.
  • 2. Reading Activities A: Reading Cloze Read the first four paragraphs of the article. Fill the gaps in the text with the words from the list: $179.6 million, environment, "Madagascar", rare, tourist, voices Hollywood could help save Madagascan forests By Tim Cocks ANTANANARIVO, Monday July 11, 2005 (Reuters) - The hit movie 1. _________ has raised hopes that its namesake island will benefit from higher 2. _________visits, which could encourage locals to conserve rainforests considered among the world's most pristine and 3. _________. The animated film by DreamWorks Studios, which has earned 4. _________since its May release, features the 5._________ of actors Ben Stiller, David Schwimmer and Chris Rock. More tourists dollars would give some of the island's poor an economic incentive to preserve their 6. _________, Conservation International President Russell Mittermeier said. (Continued/...) Article © 2005 Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2005 www.english-to-go.com B: Comprehension Read the questions and then find the answers in the second part of today's article. 1. What is special about Madagascar? 2. What are poor people living in Madagascar forced to do? 3. What is at risk because of farming and logging? 4. What does Mittermeier hope will happen as a result of the movie, "Madagascar"? (Look back at the first part of the article as well.) 5. What is a little strange about the animals in the movie according to Rabesahala? 6. Who does Rabesahala compare to the lemus? (Continued/...) The island, the world's fourth-largest, is home to tens of thousands of species of plant and animal life found nowhere else, including birds, insects, chameleons and lemurs -- a cuddly primate that features in the DreamWorks cartoon. But they are threatened by rampant poverty that drives poor residents Madagascar attracted 230,000 tourists in 2004, up from 160,000 in 2003. Henri Rabesahala, on a government taskforce to capitalize on the film's tourism potential, said he hoped it would encourage tourists despite the fact that all the main roles are played by animals not native to the island.
  • 3. into slash-and-burn farming, logging and hunting. As many as 300 million are expected to see the film worldwide by the time it is released on a pay-per-view basis, Mittermeier said. "If we get just 1 percent in the next 5- 10 years coming to Madagascar, that's a 10 to 20-fold increase in tourists," he said. "It was a little funny to see a lion, a giraffe and a zebra in Madagascar," Rabesahala said. "But the image is: the tourists are the lions and the zebra. We are the lemurs ... So we hope those people from New York will come to see us lemurs." Article © 2005 Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2005 www.english-to-go.com C: Reading and Note-taking Read the article below and take notes on these questions: 1. What impact did cyclones Eline and Gloria in Madagascar have on: 1. forests? 2. animals? 3. people? 2. What impact has human settlement had in Madagascar on: 1. forests? 2. land stability? Madagascar Cyclones Fell Trees, Kill Rare Animals By Kieran Murray ANTANANARIVO, Madagascar Friday March 17 (Reuters) - The cyclones that ripped through Madagascar recently almost certainly tore down areas of endangered forest and killed some of the island's rare animals and birds, wildlife experts say. Jean-Paul Paddack, head of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) in Madagascar, said cyclones Eline and Gloria packed winds of above 130 mph and would have blown down sections of Madagascar's rich rainforests. "I think the biggest impact is probably on forest cover, just the sheer force of wind blowing away trees. I suspect some species were caught in that and died, no doubt,'' Paddack told Reuters late Thursday. He said the species caught in the Paddack said the biggest impact of the cyclones had been on the human population with an estimated 150 people killed and key subsistence crops washed away. But it has not yet been possible to accurately measure the damage to the environment in the remote, almost inaccessible, interior of the island. Madagascar has thousands of endemic species of plants and trees but its rich biodiversity has been under assault for decades as forest- clearing, slash-and-burn agriculture and mining for rare minerals has decimated the forests. An estimated 80 percent of the island's original forest cover has disappeared and it continues to lose up to 200,000 hectares every year. Environmentalists say the destruction of the forests is itself
  • 4. cyclones included birds, small mammals, reptiles and amphibians. "They would have been knocked down from trees and washed away in rivers or affected by trees falling,'' Paddack said. Madagascar, which lies off the eastern coast of Africa, is home to thousands of species of animals found nowhere else on earth. They include most of the world's lemurs -- monkey-like mammals with huge eyes -- as well as hundreds of rare and unique species of birds, chameleons and brightly-colored frogs. Environmental workers say they received reports of dead lemurs floating in the flood waters of northeastern Madagascar when the cyclones ripped through in late February and earlier this month. making the country more vulnerable because the resulting soil erosion creates a growing danger of flooding and mudslides whenever heavy rains roll in from the Pacific Ocean. "The tremendous amount of forest clearing in the last years and decades, the last century, has meant that when cyclones come through, erosion will be accelerated, washing away roads and causing tremendous levels or sedimentation in rivers and other areas. On rice fields, for example,'' Paddack said. Article © 2000 Reuters Limited. Lesson © 2005 www.english-to-go.com D: Check your understanding Complete this diagram, by adding information to numbers 1 - 4, to show the effects of human settlement and cyclones on Madagascar as described in today's article: E: Drawing Conclusions 1. According to the article, how does the effect of humans on Madagascar compare with the cyclones' effect? 2. What makes Madagascar special?
  • 5. F: Language Part one: Present Simple or Present Perfect Simple? Put the verbs in brackets, in the text below into the correct tense without looking back at the article: Madagascar ______________ (have) thousands of endemic species of plants and trees but its rich biodiversity ______________ (have) under assault for decades as forest- clearing, slash-and-burn agriculture and mining for rare minerals ______________ (decimate) the forests. An estimated 80 percent of the island's original forest cover ______________ (disappear) and it ______________ (continue) to lose up to 200,000 hectares every year. Part two: used to or be used to? Choose the correct option for each of the sentences. 1. Madagascar used to/ am used to be covered in forest, but now 80 percent of its orginal forest has gone. 2. People in Madagascar used to/are used to the slash-and-burn method of farming. 3. I used to/ am used to think we could cut down trees and not damage the environment. Now I know I am wrong. 4. We used to/ are used to having one or two cyclones each year--they have a devastating effect on our environment. 5. The people used to/ are used to eating rice, so when a cyclone hit last year and crops were destroyed, there was a famine. Post-Reading Activities You may do one or more of these. A: Vocabulary Answer these questions: 1. The word 'biodiversity' is used in the second article. What does it mean? 2. How old do you think this word is? 3. What threatens Madagascar's 'rich biodiversity'? Think of some examples of activities that threaten biodiversity in your country. B: Give an Opinion "Humans need to change the natural environment in order to exist. Animals are often destructive in their behaviour (eating plants or other animals) and of course earthquakes, tidal waves and cyclones have a devastating effect on natural environments. We shouldn't
  • 6. feel guilty about the impact we have had on the natural world. What we are doing is quite natural." Work in pairs. Discuss this opinion. To what extent do you agree or disagree with it? C: Research Find out more about the island of Madagascar. Decide what you would like to know, how you are going to get this information and how you will record and present the information you obtain. You could visit a travel agent or check out the Internet or your local library.
  • 7. TEACHERS' NOTES AND ANSWER KEY Pre-Reading Activities A: Discussion - Notes Students look at a map and find the island of Madagascar. They then answer the questions. Then get them to put the map away and do the Make a Guess questions. B: Make a Guess - Text (to be read aloud by the teacher) Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean with an area of 587, 041 square kilometers (226, 658 square miles). It lies parallel to the south-east African coast and is nearest the country of Mozambique. The centre of Madagascar has a mild climate, while the south-west part of the island is quite dry. The eastern coast is wet and hot, covered in rain forest and is threatened by cyclones. Its main exports are vanilla, coffee and cloves and the chief foods are rice, cassava and sweet potatoes. It has a population of 14, 763, 000 people. The two official languages are Malagasy and French. It has a long history with boats of different countries visiting and trading and at one time was used as a base by pirates. In 2005 a movie "Madagascar' was released which has a zebra, lion, giraffe and hippo from a zoo in New York coming to the island and learning that life for animals on the island like the native lemurs is tougher than they think. B: Make a Guess - Notes After students have answered the questions, read aloud the text above about Madagascar while they check their answers for the quiz. (Read it at a normal speed, and do it two times if necessary.) B: Make a Guess - Answers The answer for each question is (c). Reading Activities A: Reading Cloze - Answers 1. "Madagascar", 2. tourist, 3. rare, 4. $179.6 million, 5. voices, 6. environment. B: Comprehension - Answers 1. It's the world's fourth largest island and is home to tens of thousands of species of animals and plants found nowhere else. 2. Slash and burn style farming, logging and hunting. 3. Animal and plant species. 4. The number of tourists visiting Madagascar increasing. This might give the residents of the island an economic incentive to preserve its forests. 5. They aren't native to the island. 6. The people of Madagascar. C: Reading and Note-taking - Notes This article describes what cyclones and humans have done in Madagascar. You may wish to point out to students that these pressures continue. In January 2005 southwest Madagascar was hit by Cyclone Ernest which had winds of 100 km/hr (60 mph). In 2004 two cyclones hit crops, causing prices for rice to shoot up--this led to severe problems with inflation and very high food prices. D: Check your understanding - Answers (1) cyclones; (2) humans; (3) soil erosion; (4) sedimentation
  • 8. E: Drawing Conclusions - Suggested Answers 1. Humans have been responsible for much of the removal of the forests on the island (because of agriculture and mining). This has led to severe erosion and many trees are now endangered. Presumably, although this is not stated, the animal and bird population would also be at increased risk because of what humans have done in the past. The cyclones are also responsible for destruction of forests and Paddack of WWF notes that animal and bird species would have died as a result. However, humans are responsible for the disappearance of 80% of the island's forest cover and the continuing disappearance of 200, 000 hectares every year. Students may therefore decide that humans have had more of a devastating effect on Madagascar's plant and animal life than cyclones. 2.Madagascar, according to the article, has thousands of species of plants and trees and birds and animals that are found nowhere else on earth. (Students may already know that Madagascar became separated from Africa during the period of Continental Drift: this is why so many of its animal and plant species are found nowhere else.) E: Language - Notes (You may wish to revise these rules with students before or after they do the activity.) Part one: Some uses of the Present Simple and Present Perfect Simple: The present simple can be used for habitual actions and facts which are always true. The present perfect simple can be used to describe actions that happened some time ago but have a connection with the present, actions that could be repeated and actions that began in the past and continue to the present. Part two: 'Used to' expresses a past habit or state. (Used + to + base form of verb.) It is used for something that often happened but doesn't happen now. If you are used to something, you are accustomed to it. It isn't strange or unusual for you. F: Language - Answers Part one: Madagascar has thousands of endemic species of plants and trees but its rich biodiversity has been under assault for decades as forest-clearing, slash-and-burn agriculture and mining for rare minerals has decimated the forests. An estimated 80 percent of the island's original forest cover has disappeared and it continues to lose up to 200,000 hectares every year. Part two: Madagascar used to be covered in forest, but now 80 percent of its orginal forest has gone. People in Madagascar are used to the slash-and-burn method of farming. I used to think we could cut down trees and not damage the environment. Now I know I am wrong. We are used to having one or two cyclones each year--they have a devastating effect on our environment. The people are used to eating rice, so when a cyclone hit last year and crops were destroyed, there was a famine. Post-Reading Activities A: Vocabulary - Notes This is a short activity which provides a good introduction to Activity B. A: Vocabulary - Answers 1. It means a diversity of plant and animal life. 2. It came into common use in the mid 1980s. 3. Activities like forest-clearing, slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing land for farming cattle and mining are all possibilities.

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