Land transportation

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  • 1. LAND TRANSPORTATION ELBANAR BADR CHTAINI IDRISSE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Transportation simply means movement of goods or people. It is a major part of our life, which makes life easier for people. In the past, people faced numerous problems while traveling to far destinations. In this case, transporting goods and helping people travel was very hard and was time consuming to transfer one item from one place to another because there were no vehicles or transport equipments;which we have today; mostly the transportation of goods was done by animals. It is transportation, which made it easier to explore incredible places, to assure more accurate time in relation to supply of goods and other demands and to keep goods preserved on its natural life spans. Nowadays, people are able to discover space by transportation. Therefore, transportation has very essential roles in our life.  the subject will be limited to ground transportation only thus excluding aviation and maritime transportation
  • 3. HISTORY  Land transportation is the first category, which is the most common method of transport. In the past, animals and humans were carrying goods but as the technology progressed and businesses improved all over the world, people invented cars which transporting things become very convenient for people and cars replaced animals for transporting goods or helping people travel. Land transportation is classified vehicles moving on wheels like bikes, motorcycles, cars, trucks, vans and trains. There are two categories of land transportation: people traveling and goods transportation. Recently, land transportation is the most helpful and common method of transportation and people mostly prefer to use it for short distances. People use cars for various reasons of activities. For instance, go out with friends, work, university or any others place. Vehicles have become part of our life and we are heavily dependent in it.
  • 4. PROBLEMATIC  What are the different kinds of land transportation?  What kind of land transport is more advantageous?
  • 5. PLAN  PART 1 : road transport  PART 2 : inland waterway transport  PART 3 : railway transport CONCLUSION
  • 6. ROAD TRANSPORT  Road word refers to both a driver specializing in truck driving over long distances and all that is on roads.
  • 7. ADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORT:  Door to door service: (road transport provides door to door service. It can collect and transport the goods from seller’s ware house and deliver it right at the door step of the buyer. Such service cannot be provided by other form of transport. )  Economical for short distance: (road transport is economical for short distance. Again, the loading and unloading charges are reduced due to direct transportation. Where the distance is short, road transport is not only economical, but also quicker.)  Less overhead cost: The money spend on the maintenance of roads is comparatively less as compare to maintenance of tracks along the railway lines.
  • 8.  Flexibility: The road transport can operate any time as per the convenience of the client. The Vehicle can be diverted to different routes, in case of blockage or accident.  Low investment: road transport requires low investment. The vehicles such as trucks and tempos cost lesser than trains, ships and aero planes.
  • 9. DISAVANTAGE OF ROAD TRANSPORT:  Not suitable for bulky goods: road transport is not suitable to carry bulky and heavy goods, such as heavy machinery. It also not suitable to carry items of low grades because of the cost involves in transporting such good.  Uneconomical for long distance: the road transport is not economical for long distance. If the distance is more than 1000 Kms the vehicle reached to destination after three days.  Breakdowns and delays: because of the conditions of Moroccan roads, there are often breakdowns. This causes unnecessary delays in transportation.
  • 10.  Lack of informative in rates: there is no informative in transport rates. This is because; road transport is operated by private parties. Different rates are charged by different operators.  Limited protection to goods: road transport provides limited production to goods from rain, sun, dust and wind. Many times the good get damage due to limited production.
  • 11. INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT  Inland water transport is a viable alternative or addition to road and rail transport on European corridors. Though environmentally-friendly and, frequently, the most economical mode of inland transport, it remains largely under-exploited in Europe. Its current infrastructure and legal and technical barriers hinder use and call for pro-active Government and international policies.  Inland Water Transport (IWT) Systems have been used for centuries in countries including India, China, Egypt, the Netherlands, the United States, Germany, China, and Bangladesh. In the Netherlands, IWT handles 46% of the nation's inland freight; 32% in Bangladesh, 14% in the United States, and 9% in China.
  • 12. ADVANTAGES OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS  Waterways provide enormous advantages as a mode of transport compared to land and air modes of transports.  Cheaper capital cost - Nature has already done the initial engineering work for the transportation infrastructure. Thanks to this gift of nature, the cost of developing an inland waterway is 5- 10% of the cost developing an equivalent railway or a four-lane expressway.  This varies a lot, the waterway might be ready naturally, only ports are needed, or if a canal and locks are needed might be very expensive.
  • 13.  Cheaper maintenance cost - The maintenance cost of an inland waterway is only 20% of the maintenance cost of an equivalent roadway.  Cheaper maintenance cost - The maintenance cost of an inland waterway is only 20% of the maintenance cost of an equivalent roadway.  Easy integration with sea transport - Inland water transport can easily integrated with Sea transport and hence it reduces the extra cost required for land-sea or air-sea transport interface infrastructure development. It also reduces the time taken to transfer the goods to and from sea transport vessels.
  • 14. DISADVANTAGES OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS  Low availability of inland waterways - As mentioned above, there are numerous criteria for a water body to be navigable. Out of the total inland water body available in the world, only a very low percentage of it is potentially navigable.  Low speed - Water transport as a whole is much slower than its road, rail, or air competitors.
  • 15. RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION  Railway transport occupies a significant role in the transport system of a country because the development of trade, industry and commerce of a country largely depends on the development of railways.
  • 16. ADVANTAGES OF RAILWAY:  Safety: The chances of accidents and breakdown of railways are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the traffic can be protected from the exposure to sun, rain snow etc.  Speed: It is a quick and more regular form of transport because it helps in the transportation of goods with speed and certainty. And is being continuously improved by increasing train speeds, reducing the length of their routes, etc.  Capacity: The carrying capacity of the railways is extremely large. Moreover, its capacity is elastic which can easily be increased by adding more wagons.
  • 17.  Comfort: Trains offer passengers more comfort and freedom of movement inside the trains’ cars.  Environmental protection: Trains are considered one of the most energy-efficient means of transportation. To transport one passenger one kilometer, a car needs twice to five times the energy consumed by a train. This average increases from four to eight times in the case of an aircraft.  Traffic jam reduction: Utilizing trains to convey such big numbers of passengers and high volumes of goods means less cars and trucks on the roads, i.e., less accidents, less pollution and less time wasted.
  • 18. DISADVANTAGES OF RAILWAY:  a large investment of capital: The cost of construction, maintenance and overhead expenses are very high as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the investments are specific and immobile. In case the traffic is not sufficient, the investments may mean wastage of huge resources.  Inflexibility: It routes and timings cannot be adjusted to individual requirements.  Not providing door to door service: Intermediate loading or unloading involves greater cost, more wear and tear and wastage of time.  The time cost : It involves much time and labor in booking and taking delivery of goods through railways as compared to motor transport.
  • 19. CONCLUSION  Transport is an important part of the nation's economy.It has progressed at a rapid pace, and today there is a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. Public transport still remains the primary mode of transport for most of the population. Despite improvements, several aspects of transport are still riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure and growing population, and demand for transport infrastructure and services has been rising by around 10% a year.Its quite often to think that how rapidly we had advanced from slow bullock carts to high speed Bullet trains.