1. Open Source Software forimplementation of Union Cataloguefor KenyaBeatrice Adera AmolloHead Librarian, Australian Studies Institute (AUSI), Nairobi, KenyaPaper presented at a Workshop on‘Modalities of Establishing a Union Catalogue for Kenya and theStandardized Integration of Local Content into a UnionCatalogueVenue: United Kenya Club, Nairobi, KenyaDate: 4th – 5th May, 2011
2. Contents  Union Catalogue - Definition  Desirable features of a good library catalog  Prerequisite for a good union catalogue  Cataloguing software used in libraries found in Kenya  Open source solutions and their suitability  Selecting software for catalogue  OSS recommendations ◦ Koha ◦ Evergreen  Conclusion  References  Questions/Disscusion
3. Union CatalogueA union catalog comprises of listing of information materials, of more than one library accessed online from a single point of access. It aggregates the bibliographic details of the collections of a number of libraries.
4. Advantages of union catalogueFor the LibraryProvides facilities for cataloguing and improvements in speedQuality recordsMutually acceptable standardsDocument supply serviceJoint collections and shared resourcesLinks to document suppliers and electronic journalsOngoing discussion, planning and programming among librariesNational bibliographic networkReduction in acquisition and cataloguing expenses
5. Advantages of union catalogueFor the usersconfirmation of the existence of an itemaccurate known locations for an itemavailability at those known locationstimeframe for user needlicensing controls and authorization
6. Desirable features of a goodlibrary catalogSingle point of entry for all library informationWeb interfaceEnriched contentCategorized searchingRelevancyRecommendations or related materialsUser contributionRSS feedsIntegration with social network sitesPersistent links
7. Prerequisite for a good unioncatalogueBibliographic Database Standards ◦ Patron access to all the libraries’ resources ◦ Enhanced circulation services to patrons ◦ Resource sharing ◦ Item conversion and maintenanceCataloguingstandardsCommunications formatLanguage and script of cataloguing
8. Cataloguing software used inlibraries found in KenyaKCAInstitution Not online as at 25 March, 2011 SoftwareKCAAUSI Not online as at 25 March, 2011 KohaKenyatta University education KohaCommission of Higher KohaKIMEgerton University Koha AMLIBKNLS UniversityGretsa Not sure KohaMoi UniversityILRI In progress InMagicSt. Paul’sUniversityInoorero University Koha MandarinStrathmoreJomo Kenyatta University of Koha KohaAgriculture and TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi VUBISUSIU Polytechnic UniversityKenya Custom made by Polytechnic IT SymphonyWorld Agroforestry Centre department. This is currently down. InMagic(ICRAF)
9. Some of the reasons whylibraries migrate to opensource softwareDisillusionmentwith current vendorsOpen source is seen as a solution to: ◦ Allow libraries to have more flexible systems ◦ Lower costsNot be vulnerable to disruptions that come with mergers and acquisitionsOpen source is beginning to emerge as a mainstream option.No vendor lock in.
10. Infrastructural and costrequirements: Proprietaryversus OpenCosts shifted from traditional software licensing models. There is no initial purchase of license or annual license feesHardware costs are the same for bothVendor support costs. This is optional for open source but almost mandatory for proprietaryHosting and Conversion services same in bothLocal technical support may be higher in the open source option
11. Selecting software for thecatalogue
12. Recommended software forthe union catalogues
13. KohaIt was the first Open Source Library Management System and is widely used all over the world by all types of libraries. It is a fully featured library system with all the common modules you would expect from a modern ILS. It includes Searching, Circulation, Cataloguing, Acquisitions and Serials.
16. Koha’s key CataloguingfeaturesKohasMARC frameworksAuthority Control & Authorized valuesMigrating data to Koha  To import the data into Koha, one has to first convert the source MARC File into a Koha- compatible file using MARCEdit—a free MARC editor.  The converted file is then imported using one of Kohas imports tools: ◦ bulkmarckimport.pl: A Linux command-line tool usually used to import large MARC files ◦ GUI import tool: A more flexible import tool available in Kohas staff client
17. EvergreenPines library search page, gateway to 275 libraries
19. Features suitable for localizationServer side of Evergreen runs on LinuxEvergreen fully supports Unicode Transformation Format 8 (UTF-8)Evergreen leverages the Tsearch2 for indexing and searchingEvergreen stores records in MARC XML format.
20. Migrating data to EvergreenRequired ◦ Advanced ILS Administration experience ◦ Knowledge of Evergreen data structures ◦ Knowledge of how to export data from the current system or access to data export files from the current system is necessary.Several tools for importing bibliographic records into Evergreen can be found in the Evergreen installation folder
21. Other reasons for recommendingKoha and Evergreen ◦ Sustainable communities ◦ Networking and sharingFor cataloguing and OPAC ◦ Both have effective utilities for  Authority control  record import  record creation and record export  duplicate checking  thesaurus management  search capability  documentation  web-based visibility  saved search capability
22. Conclusion Adapting open source for a union catalogue in Kenya is not impossible. Of importance, is the agreement between the participating libraries. This is the hurdle that must be overcome before any progress is realized in this direction. There are libraries in Kenya that have implemented open source ILS for long enough to provide the necessary expertise or input to help in the actual implementation. Koha seems to have gained much mileage in Kenya as observed earlier on. The experiences with it by the different libraries will come in handy when deciding on which software to adapt for the union catalogue.  Evergreen has blazed a new trail and as a result of its design, its development philosophy, and developments in information technology, it has spread rapidly and others are in the process of emulating it. That is for the good, because more consortial software and more cooperation among members of the open source communities in the library world will make libraries stronger and give them more choices in available software to run their libraries.
23. References Chand, P. & Chauhan, S. K. (2008). The union catalogue of academic libraries in India: an initiative by INFLIBNET. Interlending & Document Supply, 36(3), 142-148.  Chelak, Fereydoon Azadeh, A. M. & Azadeh, F. (2010). The development of union catalogues in Iran: the need for a web based catalogue. Interlending & Document Supply, 38(2), 118-125.  Evergreen Community, (2011). Evergreen 2.0 Documentation. (Draft Version). Retrieved Mar. 16, 2011, from http://docs.evergreen- ils.org/2.0/draft/html/index.html  Georgia Public Library Service, (2011). Evergreen Project web site Retrieved from http://www.open-ils.org/  Kipaan, L. & Rhea, J. N. (2010). An Internet Miniguide compilation to the graduate program in education (Saint Loius University, Baguio City). Master Thesis,   Master in Library & Information technology  LibLime & the Koha Development Team, (2011). Koha web site Retrieved from http://www.koha.org/  Liu, G. & Zheng, H. (2011). Access to serials: integrating SFX with Evergreen
24.   Molyneux, R. E. & Rylande R, M. (2010). The state of Evergreen: Evergreen at three. Library Review, 59(9), 667-676.  Müller, T. (2011). How to Choose an Free and Open Source Integrated Library System. OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, 27(1), 57-78.  Payne, A. & Singh, V. (2010). Open source software use in libraries. Library Review, 59(9), 708-717.  RSA database management committee, (1999). In Bibliographic Database Standards. Retrieved Feb. 16, 2011, from http://www.alliancelibrarysystem.com/RSADocuments/file...  Resource Sharing Alliance of the Alliance Library System Sirohi, S. & Gupta, A. (2010). Koha 3 Library Management System. New Delhi: Packt.  Walls, I. (2011). Migrating from Innovative Interfaces’ Millennium to Koha: The NYU Health Sciences Libraries’ experiences. OCLC Systems & Services, 27(1), 51-56.  Yang, S., Hofmann, M. A., & Weeks, M. (2009). Koha, Evergreen, and Voyager: A comparison of their OPACs. CUS Tenth Annual Users’ conference.
25.   Zico, M. (2009). Developing an Integrated Library System (ILS) using open source (School of Engineering and Computer Science of BRAC University) Masters Thesis  Zou, Q. & Liu, G. (2009). Chinese localisation of Evergreen: an open source integrated library system. Program: electronic library and information systems, 43(1), 49-61.