Gamification - defining, designing and using itZachary Fitz-WalterMobile Innovation Lab, QUThttp://www.flickr.com/people/8...
Today’s missions >>1. What is gamification?2. Designing gamification
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ramblingtraveler/3544734138/Let’s say you caught the train this morning towork...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/5463240793/...and you know you should take the stairs,but the escalator is just so ...
How can we encourage people to take thestairs and get a little more exercise?
Odenplan, Stockholm, Swedenhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseHere’s an interesting idea...
Piano Stairshttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseTurn them into a piano?
Using play to motivatehttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase
Gamificationhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseGamification is similar...
Gamificationhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/danieltack/2013/01/02/world-of-warcraft-gearing-up-at-level-90...but it draws more...
1. What is gamification?
Gamification is a special word
It hasn’t been around for very long...
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Web search interest in gamificationtrends.google.com
Foursquare really took off in 2011...
Text...and was well known for the gameelements it added
“By 2015, More than 50 percent of organizations thatmanage innovation processes will gamify those processes”Gartner Press ...
Gamification became a buzzword
http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtmlAnd it’s made a bit of a name for itself bothgood... and not so g...
http://www.flickr.com/people/14516334@N00It’s become a bit of a cure all forengagement problems...
“80 Percent of Current Gamified Applications Will Fail toMeet Business Objectives Primarily Due to Poor Design”Gartner Pre...
http://www.redherring.com/internet/gamification-platform-badgeville-raises-25m/Yet still there is a lot of money in it...
Mixed Messages?
GamificationTo understand it...
Games...we have to go back to it’s roots.
http://laportecreative.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/nerdyrevenge.jpgThe average gamer?Is a young, nerdy male who pl...
Not really...
Video games have become mainstream
92% of Australians live in a household withat least one device used for playing gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Ass...
The average age of a gamer is 32Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/...
Genderof Australian gamers53%Male47%FemaleInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-conten...
Video games have become big business
The video game industry in Australianetted $1.161 billion in revenue last yearInteractive Games & Entertainment Associatio...
In the US consumers spent $24.75 billion onvideo games, hardware and accessories in 2011.Entertainment Software Associatio...
Video games have become mobile
Mobile phones are used to play games in 43%of game households, tablet computers in 13%Interactive Games & Entertainment As...
Video games have become social
1 in 5 gamers play social network games1 in 10 play massively multiplayer gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Associati...
Games are incredibly engaging
World of WarcraftOne of the most engaging games out thereis this one.
You create a character...
...and then embark on quests andadventures in the world with other players.
You get quests.
Kill 3 boarsLike this one.
You go off and complete them.
And then get a reward.
Wait... this is just like workAfter playing for 8 hours straight it hit me...
But it was really fun work
12 million subscribers in 2010Others think it’s fun as well, even many yearsafter it was released.
So what is a game?
Most games boil down to solving a problem...
• Find a way to kill 3 boars• Find a way to get more points than the otherteam• Find a way to get to the finish line befor...
It’s how this activity is presented that plays animportant part in creating a fun experience
"Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun...
Hang on, if games are so engaging...
...could we use them to make otherthings engaging?
GamificationNow we’re seeing where this concept ofgamification comes from...
Serious games...but wait, the concept of serious games hasbeen around long before gamification.
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/photos/uncategorized/2009/02/09/oregontrail.jpgOregon Trail - 1971
http://www.whatisthe2gs.apple2.org.za/files/ReaderRabbit/ScreenGrab_1/reader_rabbit_shot.gifReader Rabbit - 1986
Where in the World is Carmen Sandiegohttp://www.abandonia.com/games/13
Why gamification? Why now?
First, video games have become reallypopular...
...and second there has been a change intechnology like no other. In particular mobiledevices, constant connection and sen...
With our powers combined...The world is our playground
Gamification
Framing real life activities like a video game, in order tomake these activities more engagingGamification
Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
Exercise Nike+
Exercise Nike+
Lifestyle Health Month
Lifestyle Health Month
Education Khan Academy
Education Khan Academy
Finance Mint
Finance Mint
Productivity Epic Win
Google GlassIf technology continues to evolve...http://pctechmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/google-glasses.jpeg
Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo, 2012, https://vimeo.com/46304267
But can it actually work?
2. Designing Gamification
Gamification Blueprint
•Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
Became popular with Foursquare
•Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
•Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels= Rewards}
Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
progresswars.comOtherwise this would be the best game outthere...
So what’s missing?
"Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun...
Where’s the puzzle? Where’s the challenge?
So how can we design engaginggamification experiences?
MotivationThere are two types...
Extrinsic Motivationhttp://2bgr8stock.deviantart.com/art/Money-Cash-113445826Motivation for an external reward
Behaviour + Rewards =ExtrinsicMotivation
Intrinsic MotivationTim Pierce http://www.flickr.com/photos/48439369@N00When an activity is performed for the internalsati...
Intrinsic Motivationhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/The act of playing a game is generallyconside...
So what makes a gamemotivating to play?
• Autonomy - choice to play and choice overactions• Competence - ability to optimally challengeplayers• Relatedness - conn...
Flowhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/Proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
• Intense and focused concentration• Merging of action and awareness• A loss of reflective self-consciousness• A sense con...
• A clear goal• Clear progress• Clear and immediate feedback• Balance of challenge and skillConditions for flow
Based off a graph proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design a game.
These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design gamification.
Designing gamification
Start with an activityhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hoteldelapaixgeneve/5726470040/
Ask, do you really need gamification?
• Have you got an engagement or motivationproblem, or is it something else? E.g., Usability• Ask yourself is this a proble...
Ask why is this activity boring?What’s missing?
• Clear and interesting goals?• Feedback?• Interesting and playful mechanics?• Challenge?• Progression and Mastery?
Determine the goalsThe goals of the activity you’re trying toencourage (e.g., getting fit)
Derive goal metricsWork out how you can measure these goals
Sensors?http://www.wired.com/reviews/2012/10/fitbit-zip/
Peoplehttp://gamingtheclassroom.wordpress.com/syllabus/
Design the gamification
Design like a gamehttp://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
Think of the playerhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/What are their demographics? What do theylike ...
http://bizfest.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/bartle.png
Test and playtest!http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
Dangers of Gamification
Games get boringWhat happens after your user gets bored ofthe gamification? Will they keep using it?
Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPGPeople cheat, it’s a challenge. How willcheating affect your un...
Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPG
Real life dangershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/ellenm1/6050529448/In games you get many lives... however inreal life you on...
A good example...
• Clear and interesting goals• Feedback• Interesting and playful mechanics• Challenge• Progression and Mastery• Aesthetics...
Wrapping it all up
Gamification is more than just badges
Design it like a good game
It’s easy, so start trying it!
•Name: Zac Fitz-Walter•Class: PhD Candidate from QUT•Abilities: Research, Teaching, iPhone Development•Weaknesses: Cats an...
Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it
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Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it

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A presentation that describes the concept of gamification, it's roots, design and application. Minimal words, lots of pics and lots of fun to present. :)

Make sure to sign up to my weekly gamification newsletter: http://gamificationweekly.com

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  1. 1. Gamification - defining, designing and using itZachary Fitz-WalterMobile Innovation Lab, QUThttp://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02http://zefcan.com
  2. 2. Today’s missions >>1. What is gamification?2. Designing gamification
  3. 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ramblingtraveler/3544734138/Let’s say you caught the train this morning towork...
  4. 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/5463240793/...and you know you should take the stairs,but the escalator is just so much easier.
  5. 5. How can we encourage people to take thestairs and get a little more exercise?
  6. 6. Odenplan, Stockholm, Swedenhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseHere’s an interesting idea...
  7. 7. Piano Stairshttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseTurn them into a piano?
  8. 8. Using play to motivatehttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase
  9. 9. Gamificationhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseGamification is similar...
  10. 10. Gamificationhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/danieltack/2013/01/02/world-of-warcraft-gearing-up-at-level-90...but it draws more specifically on videogames rather than just play.
  11. 11. 1. What is gamification?
  12. 12. Gamification is a special word
  13. 13. It hasn’t been around for very long...
  14. 14. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Web search interest in gamificationtrends.google.com
  15. 15. Foursquare really took off in 2011...
  16. 16. Text...and was well known for the gameelements it added
  17. 17. “By 2015, More than 50 percent of organizations thatmanage innovation processes will gamify those processes”Gartner Press Release - 2011http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1629214Gartner released this statement in 2011
  18. 18. Gamification became a buzzword
  19. 19. http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtmlAnd it’s made a bit of a name for itself bothgood... and not so good.
  20. 20. http://www.flickr.com/people/14516334@N00It’s become a bit of a cure all forengagement problems...
  21. 21. “80 Percent of Current Gamified Applications Will Fail toMeet Business Objectives Primarily Due to Poor Design”Gartner Press Release - 2012http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015And then Gartner released this statement...
  22. 22. http://www.redherring.com/internet/gamification-platform-badgeville-raises-25m/Yet still there is a lot of money in it...
  23. 23. Mixed Messages?
  24. 24. GamificationTo understand it...
  25. 25. Games...we have to go back to it’s roots.
  26. 26. http://laportecreative.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/nerdyrevenge.jpgThe average gamer?Is a young, nerdy male who plays videogames (often violent) all by themselves right?
  27. 27. Not really...
  28. 28. Video games have become mainstream
  29. 29. 92% of Australians live in a household withat least one device used for playing gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  30. 30. The average age of a gamer is 32Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf(And 43% of people aged 51 or older are also gamers)
  31. 31. Genderof Australian gamers53%Male47%FemaleInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  32. 32. Video games have become big business
  33. 33. The video game industry in Australianetted $1.161 billion in revenue last yearInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net
  34. 34. In the US consumers spent $24.75 billion onvideo games, hardware and accessories in 2011.Entertainment Software Association, 2011 - http://www.theesa.com/facts/index.aspThe Numbers, 2011 - http://www.the-numbers.com/market/
  35. 35. Video games have become mobile
  36. 36. Mobile phones are used to play games in 43%of game households, tablet computers in 13%Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  37. 37. Video games have become social
  38. 38. 1 in 5 gamers play social network games1 in 10 play massively multiplayer gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
  39. 39. Games are incredibly engaging
  40. 40. World of WarcraftOne of the most engaging games out thereis this one.
  41. 41. You create a character...
  42. 42. ...and then embark on quests andadventures in the world with other players.
  43. 43. You get quests.
  44. 44. Kill 3 boarsLike this one.
  45. 45. You go off and complete them.
  46. 46. And then get a reward.
  47. 47. Wait... this is just like workAfter playing for 8 hours straight it hit me...
  48. 48. But it was really fun work
  49. 49. 12 million subscribers in 2010Others think it’s fun as well, even many yearsafter it was released.
  50. 50. So what is a game?
  51. 51. Most games boil down to solving a problem...
  52. 52. • Find a way to kill 3 boars• Find a way to get more points than the otherteam• Find a way to get to the finish line before theother players• Find a way to complete this level• Find a way to destroy the other player beforethey destroy youLast four examples are from The Art of Game Design, Jesse Schell, 2008
  53. 53. It’s how this activity is presented that plays animportant part in creating a fun experience
  54. 54. "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug”- Raph KosterA Theory of Fun, 2005
  55. 55. Hang on, if games are so engaging...
  56. 56. ...could we use them to make otherthings engaging?
  57. 57. GamificationNow we’re seeing where this concept ofgamification comes from...
  58. 58. Serious games...but wait, the concept of serious games hasbeen around long before gamification.
  59. 59. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/photos/uncategorized/2009/02/09/oregontrail.jpgOregon Trail - 1971
  60. 60. http://www.whatisthe2gs.apple2.org.za/files/ReaderRabbit/ScreenGrab_1/reader_rabbit_shot.gifReader Rabbit - 1986
  61. 61. Where in the World is Carmen Sandiegohttp://www.abandonia.com/games/13
  62. 62. Why gamification? Why now?
  63. 63. First, video games have become reallypopular...
  64. 64. ...and second there has been a change intechnology like no other. In particular mobiledevices, constant connection and sensors.
  65. 65. With our powers combined...The world is our playground
  66. 66. Gamification
  67. 67. Framing real life activities like a video game, in order tomake these activities more engagingGamification
  68. 68. Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
  69. 69. Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
  70. 70. Exercise Nike+
  71. 71. Exercise Nike+
  72. 72. Lifestyle Health Month
  73. 73. Lifestyle Health Month
  74. 74. Education Khan Academy
  75. 75. Education Khan Academy
  76. 76. Finance Mint
  77. 77. Finance Mint
  78. 78. Productivity Epic Win
  79. 79. Google GlassIf technology continues to evolve...http://pctechmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/google-glasses.jpeg
  80. 80. Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo, 2012, https://vimeo.com/46304267
  81. 81. But can it actually work?
  82. 82. 2. Designing Gamification
  83. 83. Gamification Blueprint
  84. 84. •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
  85. 85. Became popular with Foursquare
  86. 86. •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
  87. 87. •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels= Rewards}
  88. 88. Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
  89. 89. Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
  90. 90. progresswars.comOtherwise this would be the best game outthere...
  91. 91. So what’s missing?
  92. 92. "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug”- Raph KosterA Theory of Fun, 2005
  93. 93. Where’s the puzzle? Where’s the challenge?
  94. 94. So how can we design engaginggamification experiences?
  95. 95. MotivationThere are two types...
  96. 96. Extrinsic Motivationhttp://2bgr8stock.deviantart.com/art/Money-Cash-113445826Motivation for an external reward
  97. 97. Behaviour + Rewards =ExtrinsicMotivation
  98. 98. Intrinsic MotivationTim Pierce http://www.flickr.com/photos/48439369@N00When an activity is performed for the internalsatisfaction of under the activity itself
  99. 99. Intrinsic Motivationhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/The act of playing a game is generallyconsidered an intrinsically satisfying activity
  100. 100. So what makes a gamemotivating to play?
  101. 101. • Autonomy - choice to play and choice overactions• Competence - ability to optimally challengeplayers• Relatedness - connection with others(Ryan, Rigby, and Przybylski, 2006)http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8
  102. 102. Flowhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/Proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
  103. 103. • Intense and focused concentration• Merging of action and awareness• A loss of reflective self-consciousness• A sense control or agency over the activity• A distortion of time• Experience of the activity as being intrinsicallyrewardingNakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research. In C. R. Snyder & S. J.Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 195-206). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Factors of a flow experience
  104. 104. • A clear goal• Clear progress• Clear and immediate feedback• Balance of challenge and skillConditions for flow
  105. 105. Based off a graph proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
  106. 106. These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design a game.
  107. 107. These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design gamification.
  108. 108. Designing gamification
  109. 109. Start with an activityhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hoteldelapaixgeneve/5726470040/
  110. 110. Ask, do you really need gamification?
  111. 111. • Have you got an engagement or motivationproblem, or is it something else? E.g., Usability• Ask yourself is this a problem that can’t beimproved in any other way?• If motivation is lacking... looking towards gameelements and theory might be worthwhile.
  112. 112. Ask why is this activity boring?What’s missing?
  113. 113. • Clear and interesting goals?• Feedback?• Interesting and playful mechanics?• Challenge?• Progression and Mastery?
  114. 114. Determine the goalsThe goals of the activity you’re trying toencourage (e.g., getting fit)
  115. 115. Derive goal metricsWork out how you can measure these goals
  116. 116. Sensors?http://www.wired.com/reviews/2012/10/fitbit-zip/
  117. 117. Peoplehttp://gamingtheclassroom.wordpress.com/syllabus/
  118. 118. Design the gamification
  119. 119. Design like a gamehttp://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
  120. 120. Think of the playerhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/What are their demographics? What do theylike playing?
  121. 121. http://bizfest.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/bartle.png
  122. 122. Test and playtest!http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
  123. 123. Dangers of Gamification
  124. 124. Games get boringWhat happens after your user gets bored ofthe gamification? Will they keep using it?
  125. 125. Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPGPeople cheat, it’s a challenge. How willcheating affect your underlying activity?
  126. 126. Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPG
  127. 127. Real life dangershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/ellenm1/6050529448/In games you get many lives... however inreal life you only get one. Gamify carefully.
  128. 128. A good example...
  129. 129. • Clear and interesting goals• Feedback• Interesting and playful mechanics• Challenge• Progression and Mastery• Aesthetics and Narrative•Handles potential dangersBillie Weiss, Original uploader Rschuman at en.wikipedia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zombie_Chase.jpg
  130. 130. Wrapping it all up
  131. 131. Gamification is more than just badges
  132. 132. Design it like a good game
  133. 133. It’s easy, so start trying it!
  134. 134. •Name: Zac Fitz-Walter•Class: PhD Candidate from QUT•Abilities: Research, Teaching, iPhone Development•Weaknesses: Cats and Mangoes<Replay?>Zac Fitz-Walter•Email: z.fitz-walter@qut.edu.au•www: http://zefcan.com•Newsletter: http://gamificationweekly.com•Twitter: @zefcan
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