Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it
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Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it

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A presentation that describes the concept of gamification, it's roots, design and application. Minimal words, lots of pics and lots of fun to present. :) ...

A presentation that describes the concept of gamification, it's roots, design and application. Minimal words, lots of pics and lots of fun to present. :)

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    Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it Gamification - Defining, Designing and Using it Presentation Transcript

    • Gamification - defining, designing and using itZachary Fitz-WalterMobile Innovation Lab, QUThttp://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02http://zefcan.com
    • Today’s missions >>1. What is gamification?2. Designing gamification
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ramblingtraveler/3544734138/Let’s say you caught the train this morning towork...
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/5463240793/...and you know you should take the stairs,but the escalator is just so much easier.
    • How can we encourage people to take thestairs and get a little more exercise?
    • Odenplan, Stockholm, Swedenhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseHere’s an interesting idea...
    • Piano Stairshttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseTurn them into a piano?
    • Using play to motivatehttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase
    • Gamificationhttp://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircaseGamification is similar...
    • Gamificationhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/danieltack/2013/01/02/world-of-warcraft-gearing-up-at-level-90...but it draws more specifically on videogames rather than just play.
    • 1. What is gamification?
    • Gamification is a special word
    • It hasn’t been around for very long...
    • 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Web search interest in gamificationtrends.google.com
    • Foursquare really took off in 2011...
    • Text...and was well known for the gameelements it added
    • “By 2015, More than 50 percent of organizations thatmanage innovation processes will gamify those processes”Gartner Press Release - 2011http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1629214Gartner released this statement in 2011
    • Gamification became a buzzword
    • http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullshit.shtmlAnd it’s made a bit of a name for itself bothgood... and not so good.
    • http://www.flickr.com/people/14516334@N00It’s become a bit of a cure all forengagement problems...
    • “80 Percent of Current Gamified Applications Will Fail toMeet Business Objectives Primarily Due to Poor Design”Gartner Press Release - 2012http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015And then Gartner released this statement...
    • http://www.redherring.com/internet/gamification-platform-badgeville-raises-25m/Yet still there is a lot of money in it...
    • Mixed Messages?
    • GamificationTo understand it...
    • Games...we have to go back to it’s roots.
    • http://laportecreative.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/nerdyrevenge.jpgThe average gamer?Is a young, nerdy male who plays videogames (often violent) all by themselves right?
    • Not really...
    • Video games have become mainstream
    • 92% of Australians live in a household withat least one device used for playing gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
    • The average age of a gamer is 32Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf(And 43% of people aged 51 or older are also gamers)
    • Genderof Australian gamers53%Male47%FemaleInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
    • Video games have become big business
    • The video game industry in Australianetted $1.161 billion in revenue last yearInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net
    • In the US consumers spent $24.75 billion onvideo games, hardware and accessories in 2011.Entertainment Software Association, 2011 - http://www.theesa.com/facts/index.aspThe Numbers, 2011 - http://www.the-numbers.com/market/
    • Video games have become mobile
    • Mobile phones are used to play games in 43%of game households, tablet computers in 13%Interactive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
    • Video games have become social
    • 1 in 5 gamers play social network games1 in 10 play massively multiplayer gamesInteractive Games & Entertainment Association, 2012http://www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/DA12FinalLinkVideo.pdf
    • Games are incredibly engaging
    • World of WarcraftOne of the most engaging games out thereis this one.
    • You create a character...
    • ...and then embark on quests andadventures in the world with other players.
    • You get quests.
    • Kill 3 boarsLike this one.
    • You go off and complete them.
    • And then get a reward.
    • Wait... this is just like workAfter playing for 8 hours straight it hit me...
    • But it was really fun work
    • 12 million subscribers in 2010Others think it’s fun as well, even many yearsafter it was released.
    • So what is a game?
    • Most games boil down to solving a problem...
    • • Find a way to kill 3 boars• Find a way to get more points than the otherteam• Find a way to get to the finish line before theother players• Find a way to complete this level• Find a way to destroy the other player beforethey destroy youLast four examples are from The Art of Game Design, Jesse Schell, 2008
    • It’s how this activity is presented that plays animportant part in creating a fun experience
    • "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug”- Raph KosterA Theory of Fun, 2005
    • Hang on, if games are so engaging...
    • ...could we use them to make otherthings engaging?
    • GamificationNow we’re seeing where this concept ofgamification comes from...
    • Serious games...but wait, the concept of serious games hasbeen around long before gamification.
    • http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/photos/uncategorized/2009/02/09/oregontrail.jpgOregon Trail - 1971
    • http://www.whatisthe2gs.apple2.org.za/files/ReaderRabbit/ScreenGrab_1/reader_rabbit_shot.gifReader Rabbit - 1986
    • Where in the World is Carmen Sandiegohttp://www.abandonia.com/games/13
    • Why gamification? Why now?
    • First, video games have become reallypopular...
    • ...and second there has been a change intechnology like no other. In particular mobiledevices, constant connection and sensors.
    • With our powers combined...The world is our playground
    • Gamification
    • Framing real life activities like a video game, in order tomake these activities more engagingGamification
    • Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
    • Sustainability - Nissan My LeafSustainability Nissan CARWINGS
    • Exercise Nike+
    • Exercise Nike+
    • Lifestyle Health Month
    • Lifestyle Health Month
    • Education Khan Academy
    • Education Khan Academy
    • Finance Mint
    • Finance Mint
    • Productivity Epic Win
    • Google GlassIf technology continues to evolve...http://pctechmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/google-glasses.jpeg
    • Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo, 2012, https://vimeo.com/46304267
    • But can it actually work?
    • 2. Designing Gamification
    • Gamification Blueprint
    • •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
    • Became popular with Foursquare
    • •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels
    • •Points•Badges•Leaderboards•Levels= Rewards}
    • Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
    • Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!Behaviour + Rewards = Fun!
    • progresswars.comOtherwise this would be the best game outthere...
    • So what’s missing?
    • "Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out ofcomprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makesgames fun. In other words, with games, learning is the drug”- Raph KosterA Theory of Fun, 2005
    • Where’s the puzzle? Where’s the challenge?
    • So how can we design engaginggamification experiences?
    • MotivationThere are two types...
    • Extrinsic Motivationhttp://2bgr8stock.deviantart.com/art/Money-Cash-113445826Motivation for an external reward
    • Behaviour + Rewards =ExtrinsicMotivation
    • Intrinsic MotivationTim Pierce http://www.flickr.com/photos/48439369@N00When an activity is performed for the internalsatisfaction of under the activity itself
    • Intrinsic Motivationhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/The act of playing a game is generallyconsidered an intrinsically satisfying activity
    • So what makes a gamemotivating to play?
    • • Autonomy - choice to play and choice overactions• Competence - ability to optimally challengeplayers• Relatedness - connection with others(Ryan, Rigby, and Przybylski, 2006)http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8
    • Flowhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/Proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
    • • Intense and focused concentration• Merging of action and awareness• A loss of reflective self-consciousness• A sense control or agency over the activity• A distortion of time• Experience of the activity as being intrinsicallyrewardingNakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research. In C. R. Snyder & S. J.Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 195-206). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Factors of a flow experience
    • • A clear goal• Clear progress• Clear and immediate feedback• Balance of challenge and skillConditions for flow
    • Based off a graph proposed by Csíkszentmihályi
    • These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design a game.
    • These are important factors to considerwhen trying to design gamification.
    • Designing gamification
    • Start with an activityhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hoteldelapaixgeneve/5726470040/
    • Ask, do you really need gamification?
    • • Have you got an engagement or motivationproblem, or is it something else? E.g., Usability• Ask yourself is this a problem that can’t beimproved in any other way?• If motivation is lacking... looking towards gameelements and theory might be worthwhile.
    • Ask why is this activity boring?What’s missing?
    • • Clear and interesting goals?• Feedback?• Interesting and playful mechanics?• Challenge?• Progression and Mastery?
    • Determine the goalsThe goals of the activity you’re trying toencourage (e.g., getting fit)
    • Derive goal metricsWork out how you can measure these goals
    • Sensors?http://www.wired.com/reviews/2012/10/fitbit-zip/
    • Peoplehttp://gamingtheclassroom.wordpress.com/syllabus/
    • Design the gamification
    • Design like a gamehttp://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
    • Think of the playerhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonjohnstonn/6332963681/What are their demographics? What do theylike playing?
    • http://bizfest.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/bartle.png
    • Test and playtest!http://www.flickr.com/people/8473570@N02
    • Dangers of Gamification
    • Games get boringWhat happens after your user gets bored ofthe gamification? Will they keep using it?
    • Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPGPeople cheat, it’s a challenge. How willcheating affect your underlying activity?
    • Cheatinghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheating.JPG
    • Real life dangershttp://www.flickr.com/photos/ellenm1/6050529448/In games you get many lives... however inreal life you only get one. Gamify carefully.
    • A good example...
    • • Clear and interesting goals• Feedback• Interesting and playful mechanics• Challenge• Progression and Mastery• Aesthetics and Narrative•Handles potential dangersBillie Weiss, Original uploader Rschuman at en.wikipedia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zombie_Chase.jpg
    • Wrapping it all up
    • Gamification is more than just badges
    • Design it like a good game
    • It’s easy, so start trying it!
    • •Name: Zac Fitz-Walter•Class: PhD Candidate from QUT•Abilities: Research, Teaching, iPhone Development•Weaknesses: Cats and Mangoes<Replay?>Zac Fitz-Walter•Email: z.fitz-walter@qut.edu.au•www: http://zefcan.com•Newsletter: http://gamificationweekly.com•Twitter: @zefcan