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Classroom Management 1&2
 

Classroom Management 1&2

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Classroom Management 1&2 Classroom Management 1&2 Presentation Transcript

  • Ground Rules for Presentations:
    • Be Punctual
    • Be Considerate of Others:
      • No talking
      • No cell phones, texting, Internet surfing, loud snoring, balancing checkbook, etc.
    • Remember… KARMA WILL GET YOU!!!
  • Ground Rules for Group Work:
    • The group work we do is important!
    • Everyone participates when working in small groups or teams.
    • Give everyone a chance to speak.
  • Ground Rules for Group Work:
    • Be kind with your criticism.
    • Agree to disagree when appropriate.
    • Build on each other’s ideas.
    • Get to know each other… start your network!
  • Classroom Management 1 & 2 Reinforcement in Action
  • Classroom Management 1 & 2 Mark Benthall 2007
  • All Great Teachers Have ONE Thing in Common
    • They ALL have excellent classroom management skills!
  • You can NOT become a great teacher until you develop excellent classroom management skills.
    • All your hard work and fantastic lessons will be in vain if you can’t create and maintain a proper learning environment.
  • The #1 thing most principals say beginning teachers need to work on…
    • BETTER CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT!!!
  • The #1 reason most probationary contracts are non-renewed…
    • ...NO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT!!!
  • All teachers can learn to have great classroom management!
    • Having great classroom management is a skill.
    • Like most other skills, it develops over time with practice.
  • You must practice good classroom management skills daily…
    • … even when you think it’s not working!!!
  • You can LEARN great classroom management because in humans it is a learned behavior.
    • Duh!
    • Wouldn’t it be great for that to be an INSTINCTIVE behavior for teachers?
  • Unfortunately, that is not the case…
  • The problem is that bad behavior is also learned.
    • You are a novice teacher practicing your beginning classroom management skills…
  • … up against seasoned veterans who have practiced their bad behavior for YEARS!!!
    • Joey, age 6
    • Has been practicing getting his way for 6 years.
    • Dillon, age 12
    • Has practiced being late for class for 5 years.
    • Jeff, age 14
    • Has practiced being the class clown for 7 years.
    • LaRhonda, age 17
    • Has practiced daydreaming in class for 8 years.
  • Hey, wait a minute…
    • How can kids have behavior problems that go uncorrected for years?
    • Are you saying that seasoned veteran teachers with reasonably good classroom management let these guys pass by without fixing the problem?
    • YES!!!
    • Most kids move on from one grade to the next with basically the same set of problems that never get fixed.
  • Why?
    • Because correcting bad behavior is A LOT OF HARD WORK!!!
    • It’s much easier to punish bad behavior than it is to change it.
    • Punishment alone (time out, staying after school, listening to the teacher gripe and complain, sending to the office, bad conduct grades, etc.) rarely changes bad behavior.
  • The bottom line…
    • When YOU discipline kids you will have very little success.
    • The goal is to get the kids to practice SELF DISCIPLINE.
    • “ To be productively, comfortably, and responsibly in charge of one’s own behavior is the hallmark of a mature, self actuated, productive person.”
    • Madeline Hunter
    • All discipline and all classroom management should be designed to achieve this goal, as nearly as possible, with every student.
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • When you help a student maintain control of his or her own behavior both of you are working toward the same objective.
    • When your actions cause a student to lose the dignity of being in charge of self, you and he are working at cross purposes, and all that student’s skills will be used against you!
  • When we teach self discipline we convey the following messages to the student:
    • You are in control of your behavior and therefore are accountable for it.
    • You are in control of making acceptable choices.
    • You are competent to make these choices wisely.
    • You are responsible for what happens as a result of your choices.
  • These messages shouldn’t be elaborate or complex. Keep them simple.
    • “ Let’s meet before school tomorrow to plan ways so you can get your work finished.”
    • “ You don’t seem to want to work in class today. If you prefer, you can finish during recess.”
    • “ Which consequence do you think would work best to help you remember to not talk during my lessons?”
    • “ Are your parents helpful when you have a problem? Would you like them to come to school and help us work on this one?”
  • The ideas of self-discipline are based in extensive research.
    • John B. Watson
    • B.F. Skinner
    • Ivan Pavlov
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • It is regrettable that in most teacher education there is a huge gap between what is now known about cause-effect relationships in students learning self discipline and what actually occurs in classroom practice.
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • A critical attribute of any professional is the skill of enabling the client to function without the professional.
    • Teachers are professionals!
    • A teacher is successful when the student no longer needs the help of the teacher in order to perform productively.
    • This is true in ALL AREAS, not just behavior.
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • Student behavior (for the most part) is NOT genetically based, but is LEARNED behavior.
    • Anything that is learned can be taught!
    • Teaching is our business!!!
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • Self discipline means that instead of conforming or being forced to behave, students CHOOSE to behave in a way that is productive and brings them satisfaction.
    • Productive behavior can be taught to be preferred behavior.
  • Self Discipline: Our Primary Objective
    • Let’s begin with reinforcement theory
    • DISCLAIMER: While reinforcement theories are deceptively simple to understand, they are incredibly complex to implement in high speed, artistic, actual teaching performance.
  • Another Disclaimer:
    • Teaching is an art, not a science. There is no guarantee that using correct methods of behavior modifications will produce the desired behavior, but it increases the PROBABILITY that it will occur.
  • Still Another Disclaimer:
    • We are going to get into some heavy duty stuff on practical applications of behavior mod for teachers which increases the PROBABILTY you will fall asleep.
    • Hang in there… this is the real deal.
    • I GUARANTEE that learning and using these methods will get results.
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • Teachers must use positive reinforcements often… and sincerely.
    • A positive reinforcer will strengthen the response it immediately follows.
    • It will make that response more probable or more frequent.
    • To predict what might be a positive reinforcer you must look for something a student needs or desires.
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • Reinforce means “to strengthen.”
    • We reinforce a behavior to make it stronger… which means to increase the probability or the frequency of that behavior.
    • A positive reinforcer should follow immediately to result in a positive reinforcement.
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • A positive reinforcer is defined by it’s results.
    • A positive reinforcer increases the strength of the behavior it immediately follows.
    • Therefore you can’t say, “It didn’t work!” because if it didn’t strengthen the behavior, it wasn’t a positive reinforcer.
  • Know your kids and choose the right positive reinforcement.
    • What works for one may not work for another.
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • When students are learning to behave productively, that behavior needs to be reinforced.
    • This is extremely important at the beginning of the year, but needs to continue throughout the school year .
  • Three types of positive reinforcers:
    • Positive messages from a significant other
    • Privilege reinforcers
    • Tangible reinforcers
  • Positive messages from a significant other:
    • Teachers are significant others
    • The message which has the highest probability of being a powerful reinforcer conveys three ideas:
      • You’re competent
      • You’re valued
      • You’ve put forth effort
  • Positive messages from a significant other:
    • “Lisa, you really put a lot of detail in your story, and it was terrific! I really enjoyed reading it.”
    • “Mike, you had a lot of homework last night but you got every bit done. Way to go! I wish all my kids had your hard working attitude!”
  • Examples of messages which indicate the student has put forth effort:
    • Positive comments on the student’s verbal contributions
    • Comments on quality of performance
    • Accepting contributions by smiles, nods of the head, high fives, listing on the board, etc.
  • Examples of messages which indicate the student has put forth effort:
    • Comments on following directions
    • Using the student’s work as an example
    • Private (not public) recording of a student’s productive behavior
  • Examples of messages which indicate the student has put forth effort:
    • “Wow! You sure got started on this assignment quickly!”
    • “You must have been thinking hard to come up with such a great answer!”
    • “Thank you for raising your hand and waiting to be called on.”
    • “You took your time on each problem and got every one of them right!”
  • Notice the comments are precise!
    • Specific messages link the reinforcers to the desired behavior rather than leaving it to the guesswork of “what caused what?”
    • Writing “SUPER” or “Good Job!” at the top of the paper isn’t specific.
    • Let the student know in your message what caused the positive reinforcement.
  • Use “YOU” not “I”
    • Don’t say, “I like they way you are listening!”
    • Say, “You are listening so well, I know you are going to do a great job on this assignment!”
    • It’s not the job of the student to please the teacher
    • The “YOU” message builds self-esteem
  • Reinforcing messages may also be sent non-verbally
    • The way we look or what we do can be a powerful reinforcer of student effort and behavior
    • Smiles, nods, thumbs up, pats on the back, etc. can be just as effective as words
    • Watch out! Fleeting looks of annoyance, exasperation, boredom, indifference, etc. will also send a message.
  • Anonymous reinforcers send powerful messages to all students who feel it fits their behavior
    • “Almost everyone is ready for me to give the instructions.”
    • “Good, now everyone is ready!” reinforces those kids that took the above hint.
    • “Some people have already begun to work. Way to go!”
  • Privilege Reinforcers
    • A privilege is something that is valued which is not routinely given to everybody
    • Whenever possible the privilege should be related to the behavior that earned it
    • Doing the first 10 problems on a worksheet correctly could result in skipping the last 5.
    • Working hard and finishing fast could result in free time
  • Be careful with privileges!
    • If rushing through the work, cheating, lying, flattery, bullying, making excuses, or any undesirable behavior obtains a privilege, then that “bad” behavior will be reinforced.
    • Most of the “ills” of the world today are the result of undesirable behaviors that get results for the people, groups, companies, or governments that use them!
  • Tangible reinforcers
    • Tangible reinforcers (candy, food, tokens, prizes, etc.) are those which have “physical being” and can be used, consumed, kept, or shared with others.
    • Be careful using them! Best to use them with only the VERY FEW students that do not respond to messages or privileges.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Continuous schedule of reinforcement
      • When students are learning to use a new behavior or a behavior they know but seldom use, that behavior needs to be reinforced every single time it occurs .
    • Intermittent schedule of reinforcers
      • After the new behavior is occurring on a regular basis, reinforcers are not necessary each time.
  • Intermittent reinforcers will pay off!
  • Extinction of Inappropriate Behaviors
    • Sometimes the best response is no response at all.
    • Extinction of a response means no reinforcer whatsoever.
    • Behaviors that are not reinforced tend to drop out.
  • Extinction of Inappropriate Behaviors
    • Obviously we can not ignore behavior which is a danger to others or to that student!
    • Oftentimes, you ignoring a bad behavior becomes a model for the class.
    • If the behavior is something you (or the class) can’t ignore then try saying, “I don’t have time to deal with that right now. I will see you after my lesson.”
  • Dishing out discipline on the “spur of the moment” makes you reactive to student behaviors when you should be proactive to them!
  • Answer these questions:
    • Are teachers paid to punish kids who do “wrong,” or for teaching kids to do “right”?
    • If ignoring an inappropriate response is the best way to stop a student from making one in the future, isn’t that effective teaching?
  • Extinction will eventually work.
    • Plain and simple, we don’t keep on doing something that doesn’t work!
    • If a slot machine doesn’t pay off, we walk away and find another.
    • Remember: to extinguish a response, nothing must happen as a result of it… no payoff.
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • When positive reinforcers or extinction doesn’t work you may need to use negative reinforcers or punishment.
    • Most teachers tend to quickly jump past the power of positive reinforcers and extinction and move directly to negative reinforcement and punishment… don’t be those guys!!!
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • It should be with great care that we decide to send a negative message to the student.
    • It should always be a reflective and never a reflexive act on our part.
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Students (and everybody) will change their behaviors to eliminate or avoid unpleasant situations.
    • If something unpleasant (negative reinforcer) is occurring and the student does something to remove it, the behavior that removed it is likely to be reinforced.
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Positive reinforcement results from the addition of something pleasant when a productive behavior occurs.
    • Negative reinforcement means something unpleasant has been taken away after a productive behavior occurs.
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Punishment is the addition of undesirable consequences in an attempt to suppress or to stop a behavior.
    • In negative reinforcement, the student can immediately remove the unpleasant situation by changing the behavior. Therefore the student is in control… which is what we want.
    • In punishment, only the teacher or principal can remove it. The student is no longer in control.
  • Negative Reinforcement and Punishment
    • Punishment helps a student know what NOT to do.
    • The possible side effects of punishment can be students who learn to hate the teacher and hate school.
    • Use it only as a last resort.
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers
    • A therapeutic negative reinforcer is one that has high probability of being successful, but maintains the student’s dignity and encourages him to develop self discipline.
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers:Proximity
    • The closer we are to an authority figure, the more obedient we behave.
    • Sometimes all you have to do is stand next to kids who are talking or not paying attention and they will instantly behave.
    • They know why you’re there, but no one else does so their dignity is not lost.
  • This isn’t proximity!
    • This is negative reinforcement used badly!!!
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers: Use of a Student’s Name
    • In the middle of a lesson, when you see a child misbehaving, you can oftentimes work the child’s name into the lesson and the child will hear her name and immediately stop the negative behavior.
    • Your lesson continues without missing a beat!
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers: Signaling the Student
    • A good teacher can signal a student to change behavior with no use of words.
    • A “look” accompanied by a gesture is usually all it takes.
    • Students get into habits of drumming, playing with things, doodling, daydreaming, etc. and are not aware that they are doing them.
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers: Private Reminder to the Student
    • Sometimes signals don’t work and you need immediate disciplinary verbal communication with the student.
    • Don’t do this in front of the class.
    • Give the class some short task related to the lesson and quietly talk to the student (or students).
  • Behavioral Conferences
  • Therapeutic Negative Reinforcers: Recording Student Behavior
    • Making a PRIVATE conduct record for the class lets the students know that inappropriate conduct is not going unnoticed and future consequences (i.e., their conduct grade on the next report card) will occur.
    • Do this for the more serious violations; don’t even think about it for the little things!
  • Conduct Records
    • Every teacher needs one
    • Only record the more serious offences
    • You may need to show it to an administrator
    • Never show it to a parent
    • Allow the kids to “buy back” entries by showing you improvement over time!
  • Behavioral Conferences
    • Sometimes a formal conference with the student is needed to show him a plan for correct behavior
    • This conference needs to be prepared for more carefully than a difficult lesson since the student has already “failed” in the content you want him to learn.
  • Planning Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 1- Select the behavior to be changed.
      • What ONE behavior will you work on first?
    • Step 2- Determine the REPLACEMENT behavior.
      • You can’t just expect a student to stop doing something unless you give him something else to replace the undesired behavior.
  • Planning Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 3- Determine positive reinforcers.
      • List the reinforcers you think might work for this student and choose the “smallest” one.
    • Step 4- Select negative reinforcers or consequences.
      • You must send a clear message that bad behavior will not be ignored.
  • Planning Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 5- Determine what might help the student use the desired behavior.
      • The student won’t change overnight. You need to plan for ways to prompt the behavior.
    • Step 6- Determine whether to use others in the conference.
      • Initially it’s best to just have you and the student.
      • Save the others (principal, counselor, parents, etc.) in case you need them later.
  • Conducting Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 1- Identify the unacceptable behavior.
      • Let the student do it if possible.
      • Don’t talk about past sins. Focus on future improvement.
    • Step 2- Identify the specific behavior replacement.
      • The student must know exactly what you want him to do.
      • Role playing is often helpful to see if the student actually has the skills necessary to do what you want.
  • Conducting Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 3- Indicate the future consequences of unacceptable AND replacement behaviors. The student needs to know BOTH so he can make a choice.
      • The student must learn that HE is responsible for what happens to him. If bad things happen it will be because of HIS choice.
  • Conducting Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 4- Set a time for checking the success of the plan.
      • For serious behaviors, the next day or at the end of each class may be appropriate. Move to end of week when possible.
      • Don’t let too much time lapse or you’ll lose your momentum.
    • Step 5- Record your agreements.
      • You and the student need to sign an “official” document.
  • Conducting Behavioral Conferences
    • Step 6- Put the plan in action!
      • Don’t wait for a perfect solution. Start something right away.
      • After the plan starts you may find you are expecting too much or too little. You can always redesign the strategy if necessary.
      • Expect it to work, not fail!!!
  • Sample Action Plan for Kindergartener Who Will Not Walk in a Straight Line:
  • Getting Parents Involved in Behavior Problems
    • When necessary, parents can be a HUGE help. Do NOT fear them!
    • You BOTH want what is best for the child.
    • Never start getting into the problem with the student without first letting the parent know: 1) you like the kid, and 2) you care about him.
  • Getting Parents Involved in Behavior Problems
    • All communication with parents, whether it be through letter, e-mail, phone, or in person should ALWAYS contain the following messages:
    • He can…
    • But doesn’t…
    • You Care
    • Let’s Plan
  • Your Turn… Rewrite these letters:
    • Dear Mrs. Jones,
    • Mary is constantly getting the other girls in trouble because they do whatever she tells them. I have talked to her about this but she continues to do it. When can you come to school so we can straighten this problem out?
    • Mr. Newguy
  • Your Turn… Rewrite these letters:
    • Dear Mr. And Mrs. Smith,
    • Yesterday I caught Sarah cheating on her spelling test. She will receive a 0/F and will have lunch detention tomorrow. We do not need a conference… I just wanted you to be aware of the problem.
    • Ms. Newteacher
  • Your Turn… Rewrite these letters:
    • Dear Mr. And Mrs. Smith,
    • Today I caught Sarah cheating on a test again. You would think since this happened recently she would have learned a lesson! This time I am requesting a conference with Mary, you two, and the principal so we can once and for all put a stop to this terrible habit.
    • Ms. Newteacher
  • Your Turn… Rewrite these letters:
    • Dear Mrs. Green,
    • Today in recess Reid pushed another boy to the ground and kicked him for no apparent reason. The boy that was hurt is an honor student and never gets in trouble. Reid is always bullying weaker students and this must stop. Please come to school so together we can determine the best ways to punish Reid the next time he bullies someone.
    • Mr. Blunt
  • Reinforcement Theory Quiz
  • 1. Saying, “Do your best on this quiz,” is NOT reinforcement because…
    • it is not connected to a behavior
    • it is not necessary
    • it is not positive
    • it does not follow a response
    • no one is actually going to grade this quiz
  • 1. Saying, “Do your best on this quiz,” is NOT reinforcement because…
    • it is not connected to a behavior
    • it is not necessary
    • it is not positive
    • it does not follow a response
    • no one is actually going to grade this quiz
  • 2. When you are helping children learn a new behavior, you need to
    • repeat the directions over and over
    • praise them every time the behavior occurs
    • praise them every other time the behavior occurs
    • punish those who do not respond
    • say, “One down, one million to go!”
  • 2. When you are helping children learn a new behavior, you need to
    • repeat the directions over and over
    • praise them every time the behavior occurs
    • praise them every other time the behavior occurs
    • punish those who do not respond
    • say, “One down, one million to go!”
  • 3. After the students regularly perform the new behavior you should
    • continue to praise them every time it occurs for two weeks
    • switch to another form of reward
    • praise them intermittently
    • move on to another behavior
    • no longer need to pay them every time it occurs
  • 3. After the students regularly perform the new behavior you should
    • continue to praise them every time for two weeks
    • switch to another form of reward
    • praise them intermittently
    • move on to another behavior
    • no longer need to pay them every time it occurs
  • 4. If possible you should avoid punishment because
    • a positive approach is always better
    • it is never very effective
    • it won’t extinguish a response
    • it may have undesirable side effects
    • it can reinforce your own desire to get revenge on the kids driving you crazy
  • 4. If possible you should avoid punishment because
    • a positive approach is always better
    • it is never very effective
    • it won’t extinguish a response
    • it may have undesirable side effects
    • it can reinforce your own desire to get revenge on the kids driving you crazy
  • 5. Joe is talking during the lesson and the teacher looks at him and frowns. He stops talking so the teacher stops frowning. This is an example of
    • negative reinforcement
    • punishment
    • positive reinforcement
    • extinction
    • the kind of crap that happens eight hundred times a day
  • 5. Joe is talking during the lesson and the teacher looks at him and frowns. He stops talking so the teacher stops frowning. This is an example of
    • negative reinforcement
    • punishment
    • positive reinforcement
    • extinction
    • the kind of crap that happens eight hundred times a day
  • 6. Negative reinforcement is better than punishment because
    • most children won’t respond to punishment
    • parents don’t like punishment
    • negative reinforcement allows the student to still be in control of his behavior
    • it all depends on who is holding the electric cattle prod
  • 6. Negative reinforcement is better than punishment because
    • most children won’t respond to punishment
    • parents don’t like punishment
    • negative reinforcement allows the student to still be in control of his behavior
    • it all depends on who is holding the electric cattle prod
  • 7. A teacher tells a student he must stop being a sore loser in kickball or she will punish him if the behavior continues. The teacher’s major error is:
    • using negative reinforcement
    • not using positive reinforcement
    • not identifying the desired behavior
    • using punishment too soon
    • not becoming a dental hygienist
  • 7. A teacher tells a student he must stop being a sore loser in kickball or she will punish him if the behavior continues. The teacher’s major error is:
    • using negative reinforcement
    • not using positive reinforcement
    • not identifying the desired behavior
    • using punishment too soon
    • not becoming a dental hygienist
  • 8. A student pretends to hiccup during a test. You should
    • praise the students who are not hiccupping
    • ignore the hiccups for a few minutes to see if the student stops
    • frown at the student until he stops
    • go stand next to the student and pretend to pass gas
  • 8. A student pretends to hiccup during a test. You should
    • praise the students who are not hiccupping
    • ignore the hiccups for a few minutes to see if the student stops
    • frown at the student until he stops
    • go stand next to the student and pretend to pass gas
  • 9. The student continues to hiccup. Others students begin to giggle. You should
    • continue to ignore the hiccups and wait for them to be extinguished
    • begin to frown at the student and wait for the hiccupping to stop
    • use proximity and stand next to the hiccupping student… while swinging nunchucks.
    • take up his test and immediately send him to the office
    • quietly tell the student, “I am sorry you have the hiccups, but if you can’t stop them you will need to finish the test in the principal’s office so you don’t disturb others.”
  • 9. The student continues to hiccup. Others students begin to giggle. You should
    • continue to ignore the hiccups and wait for them to be extinguished
    • begin to frown at the student and wait for the hiccups to stop
    • use proximity and stand next to the hiccupping student… without the nunchucks
    • take up his test and immediately send him to the principal’s office
    • quietly tell the student, “I am sorry you have the hiccups, but if you can’t stop them you will need to finish the test in the principal’s office so you don’t disturb others.”
  • 10. Two weeks later during the next test the student pretends to hiccup again. You should
    • always start with ignoring the negative behavior
    • plan a discipline conference
    • send him to the office and plan a discipline conference
    • give him a choice of stopping or taking his test in the office and plan a discipline conference
    • pay a bully to beat his butt
  • 10. Two weeks later during the next test the student pretends to hiccup again. You should
    • always start with ignoring the negative behavior
    • plan a discipline conference
    • send him to the office and plan a discipline conference
    • give him a choice of stopping or taking his test in the office and plan a discipline conference
    • pay a bully to beat his butt
  • The POWER of Teaching!!!
    • After the first 4-6 weeks of school…
    • For each child in your room, you must ask this question:
    • “ What can I do to help this child the most?”
  • Madeline Hunter
    • Many of the ideas in this power point were from Madeline Hunter’s Discipline that Develops Self-Discipline . The book is hard to find but look for it and buy it! Every good teacher should practice its methods daily.
    • Madeline is no longer with us, but her impact on education will last forever.