According to the Institution of ElectricalEngineers, “Embedded systems are devices used tocontrol, monitor or assist the operation ofequipment, machinery, or plant”. It consists of Hardware and software with morefunctionality to be worked on real time to do aparticular task.
Every embedded system consists ofcustom – built hardware built around aCentral Processing Unit (CPU). It’s a program that manages thehardware and masks the details of thehardware. It Controls access of other applicationprograms to the CPU. A REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEM is abackground program that controls theexecution of a number of applicationsubtasks and facilitates communicationbetween the subtasks.
INPUT DEVICES: - Many embedded systemswill have a small keypad-you pressone key to give a specific command. - They take I/Ps from sensorsor transducers & produce electricalsignals. OUTPUT DEVICES: * Light Emitting Diodes (LED) * Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) * Transducers * Any other external devices
The memory is categorized as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). RAM: - Stores firmware ROM: - After the power is switched on, the CPU reads the ROM, the program is transferred to RAM and program is executed.
The CPU is a unit that centrally fetches & processes a set of general- purpose instructions. The CPU can be of the following:- Microcontroller, microproc essor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP).
$ Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc$ Synchronous Serial Communication Interface:I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous SerialInterface).$ Universal Serial Bus (USB)$ Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc)$ Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
There are four recent technologies in the embedded systems. They are ARMS NEST MoBIES PCES
ADAPTIVE & REFLECTIVE MIDDLE WARE SYSTEMS The objective of ARMS is to create the new generation of middleware technologies for distributed real-time & embedded (DRE) combat systems.APPLICATIONS Sensor systems Command & control systems Engagement systems Weapons control systems Weapons systems
$ Model-Based Integration of Embedded Systems$ The objective of MoBIES is to develop technology to flexibly integrate the physics of the underlying domain with the embedded software design tools in order to custom-tailor the software process to the application. Complex Complex Embedded Operational but Inert Software Embedded Machine System
Program composition of embedded systems The objective of PCES is to create programming language & compiler technology that enables developers to safely & productively weave cross- cutting aspects with real-time (RT) embedded program functionality
Networked Embedded Software Technology The objective of NEST is to develop robustcoordination & synthesis services to supportnetworked embedded systems of 100 to1,000,000 nodes
• AIRCRAFT ELECTRONICS• AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS• TRAINS• TELECOMMUNICATION• MEDICAL SYSTEMS• MILITARY APPLICATIONS• CONSUMER ELECTRONICS• FABRICATION EQUIPMENTS• SMART BUILDINGS• ROBOTICS
Impossible without the computer. Meaningless without the electronics. All are custom chips. In Sewing Machines.
ATM with highsecurity introduced inforeign countries.It also checks the fingerprint of the customeralong with the card andsecret code.
The embedded system plays a vital role in all aspects which we use in day to day life….. As a Electronic Engineers, we must dedicated our knowledge to make the embedded system more advanced…..