Fossil fuels are non-renewable and conventional
sources of energy. They were formed millions of
years ago and that too in limited reserves. When we
burn them, oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur
are released which cause acid rain. This acid rain
affects our water and soil resources. Fossil fuels also
cause air pollution. Fossil fuels are also used for
generating electricity. Thermal power plants are used
to transmit electricity when fuel is burnt.
Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate
electricity or produce heat.
Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or
fermentation of biodegradable materials such as
biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green
waste, plant material and energy crops. This type of
biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a
useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to
make electricity, wind mills for mechanical
power, wind pumps for pumping water or drainage.
A windmill generates electricity by the use of
motion. When wind pushes the blades a shaft rotates
inside which builds up friction which is then
regulated to electrical current and can be used in
whatever ways are needed depending on the size of
the windmill tells you how much electrical current
can be produced.
Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered
resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity
and biomass, account for most of the available renewable
energy on earth.
A solar panel is used to generate electricity using solar
energy. A solar panel contains solar cells that play a
major role in this energy conversion.
Solar cooker is a device that uses solar energy for
cooking purpose. In a solar cooker ,adjust the cooker
in such a way that the reflecting mirror faces the sun
and the reflected rays fall on the transparent glass
lid. Tighten the position fixing hinges of the mirror in
this position. Open the glass lid of the solar
cooker, place the cooking pots inside it and close the
lid properly. Once the cooking pots have been placed
inside the cooker the lid should not be opened.
Energy that is obtained by difference in sea levels due
to high and low tides mainly due to the gravitational
pull of the moon is called tidal energy. This energy
can be converted into electrical energy.
Conversion of tidal energy into electrical energy
The kinetic energy produced by huge waves is called
wave energy. This energy can be also converted into
Conversion of wave energy into electrical energy
Ocean thermal energy:
Ocean thermal energy is obtained by the difference
created due to hot water on the surface and cold
water deep inside. Steam is created due to this and
that particular area is known as hot spring. This
energy is also used to generate electricity with the
help of the steam created.
Production of ocean
thermal energy thermal energy
Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth.
Sometimes by the pushing up of molten rocks to the
hot regions hot spots and and this am is generate
created. When underground water comes in contact
with the hot spot, steam is generated and these are
known as hot springs. With the help of the steam
generated, electricity can be produced. The cost of
generating Electricity won’t be more. Number of
power plants based on geothermal energy are
operational in New Zealand and USA.
Geo Thermal Energy
Nuclear Energy: Nuclear energy is produced in two
In nuclear fission, the nuclei of atoms are
split, causing energy to be released. The atomic bomb
and nuclear reactors work by fission. The element
uranium is the main fuel used to undergo nuclear
fission to produce energy since it has many favorable
properties. Also, once a uranium nucleus is
split, multiple neutrons are released which are used
to split other uranium nuclei. This phenomenon is
known as a chain reaction.
Nuclear fusion the nuclei of atoms are joined
together, or fused. This happens only under very hot
conditions.. The hydrogen bomb, humanity's most
powerful and destructive weapon, also works by
fusion. The heat required to start the fusion reaction
is so great that an atomic bomb is used to provide it.
Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium and in the
process release huge amount of energy thus
producing a huge explosion.