Africa Before European Domination• Divided amongst ethnic and linguistic (language) groups• Europeans colonized only on the coasts because of the threat of – Disease – dangerous travel on the rivers – African military.• Missionaries, explorers and humanitarians were the only humans to explore the interior of Africa
What was the “Scramble for Africa?” Africa Before the “Scramble”• “Rapid conquest of Africa by European powers between 1870-1918”• Africa was divided between Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Spain, & Portugal
How it all got started!• Dr. Livingstone, a missionary, sparked the scramble in the Congo. – Went on a mission trip for years. People thought he was dead. – Henry Stanley, a U.S. reporter was hired to go find him. He did. – Stanley continued to explore Africa himself. He was contacted by King Leopold II to negotiate for land. – This sparks France, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain to start claiming parts of Africa.
Forces Driving Imperialism in Africa• The industrial revolution – Looking for new markets and raw materials• European Superiority – Racism- they are better then everyone – Social Darwinism- survival of the fittest – To civilize and westernize the people• Advances in technology – Machine guns (Maxim) – steam engines – a drug created in 1829 to protect them from malaria• Africa had no Unity – Europeans used the rival groups against each other.
Imperialism• extending the rule of an empire or nation over foreign countries.• Other examples- Napoleon, Roman Empire
The Division of Africa• Berlin Conference 1884-1885 – 14 European countries met – Decided on how to divide the continent – **no African King was invited and they paid little attention to different ethnic and linguistic differences.• Demand for raw materials
African Response• Zulus fights the British – Shaka-Zulu chief created a large central state in S.A. with a good military – British and Zulu had several battles, but Britain eventually won and took power in 1887• Boers and the British Settle in the Cape – Dutch were the first to settle in S.A. (Boers=farmers) – Clash over land and slaves• Boer War – First modern “total” war due to “outsiders” invading and taking political reigns. – Black South Africans played roles in the war such as: scouts, guards, drivers, and workers. – Great Britain won
Colonial DisputesDuring the late 1800s, relations between Britain andFrance were strained by a series of disputes over Africancolonies.France and Britain both hoped to control Egypt andMorocco and this caused many bitter arguments.These were eventually settled by a “friendlyunderstanding” said that Britain should control Egypt andFrance should control Morocco.However, Germany strongly objected to this agreement…
Colonial DisputesOn two occasions, in 1905 and 1911, German claims overMorocco raised international tension.This crisis passed, but these disputes simply madeinternational relations worse.The bad feeling they created (combined with otherfactors) made the possibility of war more likely.
Africa After the “Scramble”
Effects of Imperialism in Africa• Europeans establish new borders in Africa• European states exploit Africa• European powers scramble for colonies• Africans resist• Western-educated African elite emerges• African leaders forge nationalist movements