2. Above is a stage hypnosis show that will play automatically. A little idea of what hypnosis can do. Enjoy!<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaJG4BPNa3g<br />
3. What is hypnosis?<br /><ul><li> It is a trance state characterized by extreme suggestibility, relaxation and heightened imagination
4. The person is fully aware and alert, but in a state of relaxation so intense that is allows for complete and utter focus on whatever the hypnotist is saying.
5. Violation and judgment [are] not abolished in hypnosis, for [the] subjects [are] keenly aware and [will] do nothing that was opposed to their moral sense</li></li></ul><li>Doesn’t affect free will <br />In the hypnotic state a person is highly suggestible, being that they are very likely to embrace anything that the hypnotist suggests.<br /> This does not mean that a person is not in control of what they are doing .<br />They will not perform any task asked of them that they would not normally perform in a situation not under hypnosis. <br />Compare to having a day dream or watching a really good movie<br />Consider reading a book or watching a movie…<br />Do you ever become entirely focused on the story line that is being displayed to you that you begin to tune out all that is around you ?<br />Do you become emotionally involved in the made up story presented to you?<br />Same with hypnosis:<br /> “You focus intently on the subject at hand, to the near exclusion of any other thought”<br />
6. Psychoanalytical Approach<br />Freud believes that people have no immediate access to the unconscious mind and that unconscious thoughts cannot be brought into the conscious mind<br />Freud explains hypnosis:<br />“the ego was somehow put into a suspended state during a deep hypnotic trance, which allowed the hypnotist to bypass the ego and get directly to the unconscious material.”<br />Hypnosis is believed to put the conscious mind to rest while allowing the unconscious mind to prevail on its own. <br />the subject still is aware and in control although the ego, being the most conscious state of mind, is not in control. <br />
7. “Hypnotizability is purported to be a trait-like characteristic of personality…. While many studies have reported a correlation between a given personality trait and responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions, subsequent attempts to replicate the association have generally failed” <br /><ul><li>Hypnosis is a technique that can be used to alter unwanted personality traits by putting them in a highly relaxed trance where the mind is more open to suggestion.
8. When in a hypnotic trance, the unconscious mind is no longer being controlled by the conscious, making suggestions easier received</li></ul>“The subconscious mind doesn't analyze, it simply takes in suggestions and plays them back…any behavior that is learned can be unlearned” <br />Trait Approach<br />
9. Biological Approach<br /><ul><li>Hypnosis is demonstrated by the biological approach though the technology of recoding brain activation.
10. When a person is in a hypnotic trance and susceptible to pain or suggestions, brain activity increases proving that the activity is not fake as is it showing true effects on the subjects brain. </li></ul>“Hypnotic trance has special qualities as a distinctive state of awareness with the patterns of brain activities characteristic only for the hypnotic trance, setting it aside from the waking state, relaxation, sleep and even meditation.”<br />
11. Humanistic Approach<br /><ul><li>humanistic theory believes there should be more responsibility on the actions of humans as opposed to the idea that everything happens subconsciously.
12. This refutes the idea of hypnosis which happens on a unconscious level.</li></ul>“Although we sometimes respond automatically to events and may at times be motivated by unconscious impulses, we have the power to determine our own destiny and to decide our actions at almost any given moment”<br /><ul><li> Hypnotism can be used to benefit a person and allow them to gain self-actualization, a very important part of the humanistic theory.
13. In the same way the hypnosis is used in the trait theory to eliminate unwanted personality traits or habits, hypnotism can be used for sell fulfillment purposed.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>According to the behavioral approach, people can learn new behaviors by watching other people, or observing different behaviors.
14. Hypnosis is a social interaction between the subject and the hypnotist. The person under the hypnotic state is responding to the hypnotist’s suggestions and experiencing voluntary actions </li></ul>The sociocognitive approach suggests a theory in regard to hypnosis: “hypnotized people behave as they expect hypnotized people to behave” <br /><ul><li>In society hypnosis has a stereotype that is used for basic knowledge as to how a hypnotized person acts. </li></ul>Behavioral and Social Learning Approach<br />
15. Cognitive Approach<br /><ul><li> The cognitive approach of psychology focuses on mental process of information like memory and problem solving and the different ways people of different personalities do so.
16. Hypnosis revolves around suggestion, which can be understood through the basic cognitive principles
17. Cognitive theory proposes that the suggestions being presented in hypnosis relates to the way people process information, in that the conscious mind is no longer in control and unable to clearly process and analyze what is being said and done.
18. However, people react differently to hypnosis as some people do cannot be hypnotized at all. </li></ul>“We begin by outlining a heuristic model of perception, attention, control and awareness information by contemporary cognitive theory; we then consider how it can account for the phenomenon of suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotizability” <br />
19. Discussion<br /><ul><li> I was slightly skeptical of hypnosis prior to doing my research. Always found the idea of hypnosis to be very interesting but couldn’t imagine how a person could just be in control of another person’s actions.
20. I learned, as was relieved to discover that during hypnosis the person is still in complete control over their actions and are aware of what is going on. Basically just so drowned in their state of mind that they are oblivious to everything around them.
21. Prior to this research I had no Idea hypnosis had anything to do with consciousness or unconsciousness and I am amazed to learn at what our minds are capable of.
22. The approach that I found to be the best match for discussing hypnosis was psychoanalytical theory.
23. Freud does a very thorough job of explaining hypnosis and what happens to the mind when put into the hypnotic trance. His ideas were the most relevant to the topic and supported hypnosis completely.</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li>Bliss, E.L. (1986). Multiple personality, allied disorders and hypnosis. Oxford University Press. 26,27.
25. Burger, Jerry M. (2008). Personality. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
27. Burkhard, P. (2009). Is it useful to induce a hypnotic trance? a hypnotherapist's view on recent neuroimaging results. Contemporary Hypnosis. Vol. 26 Issue 3, 132-145.
29. Cummings, E. (1990). Hypnosis offers new way to alter unwanted traits. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1990-04-13/news/li-1441_1_altered-state/2
31. Eysenck, H.J. (2006). The biological basis to personality. New Brunswick, NJ. Transaction publishers.
33. Gazzaniga, M, Heatherton, T, Halpern, D. (2009). Psychological Science, 3rd Edition. W W Norton & Co Inc.
35. Green, J.P. (2004The five factor model of personality and hypnotizability: little variance in common. Contemporary Hypnosis. Vol. 21 Issue 4, 161-168.
37. Halsband, U, Mueller, S, Hinterberger, T, Strickner, S. (2009). Plasticity changes in the brain in hypnosis and meditation. Contemporary Hypnosis. Vol. 26 Issue 4, 194-215. 10.1002/ch.386
39. Harris, T. "How hypnosis works." 07 August 2001. HowStuffWorks.com. retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/hypnosis.htm. 06 June 2010.
41. Heap, M, Brown, R.J, Oakley, D. (2004). The highly hypnotized, theoretical, clinical and experimental issues. Brunner-Routledge.
43. Hutchison, C. (2009). Hypnotize your friends. Psychology Today. Vol. 42 Issue 3, 12-12.
47. Lilienfeld, S. (2009). Altered states. Scientific American Mind. Vol. 19 Issue 6, 80-81.
49. Lynn, S.J, O’Hagen, S. (2009). The sociocognitive and conditioning and inhibition theories of hypnosis. Contempray Hypnosis. Vol. 26 Issue 2, 121-125
51. Mende M. (2009). Hypnosis: state of the art and perspectives for the twenty-first century. Contemporary Hypnosis. Vol. 26 Issue 3, p179-184.
53. Revonsuo, A, Kallio, S, Sikka, P, (2009). What is an altered state of consciousness? Philosophical Psychology. Vol. 22 Issue 2, 187-204. 10.1080/09515080902802850. </li></li></ul><li>Hypnosis<br />Nikki Ballentine<br />Personality theories<br />