Assessing the skin


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Assessing the skin

  1. 1. Assessingthe SKIN Mr. Jhessie L. Abella, RN, RM, MAN
  2. 2. PRIMARY SKIN LESIONPr i ma r y l e s i o n s a r et h o s e o b j e c t i v e l e s i o n swi t h wh i c h c o e t a n e o u so r s k i n d i s e a s e s b e g i n .Th i s t y p e o f s k i n l e s i o nma y c o n t i n u e a s s u c h o rma y u n d e r g omo d i f i c a t i o n , p a s s i n gi n t o t h e s e c o n d a r y o rc o n s e c u t i v e s k i nl e s i o n s .
  3. 3. MACULEThe lesion appears circular smalland flat spot that is less than in(1mm to 1 cm) in diameter and withthe color not the same as that ofnearby skin. It has in different shapesusually red, brown, and white. Flatmoles, measles, petechiae and frecklesare the examples of macule. Maculethat is more than in (1 cm) indiameter is called a patch; it has anirregular in shape.
  4. 4. VESICLEA raised lesion that is less than in(0.5 cm) across. Lesions are round oroval in shape with thin mass filledwith serous blood or clear fluid.Herpes simplex, burn blister andearly chicken pox are examples ofvesicle. Bullae are another exampleof vesicle that is more than in (5mm) across. Lesions are cause bychemical burn, exposure to sunlight,insect bites or viral infection.
  5. 5. PUSTULEA raised vesicle or bulla lesion filledwith pus. Infection is the primarycause. Acne vulgaris, impetigo andboils are examples.
  6. 6. PAPULEA solid elevated skin lesion less thanin (1 cm) across. Lesions are roughin texture and usually color pink, redand brown. This lesion is associatedwith psoriasis, skin cancer, actinickeratosis, and syphilis. Warts, acne,pimples and elevated moles areexamples.
  7. 7. NODULEA solid elevated lesion that has edgesand area 0.5 to 2 cm. Physiciandescribes this as "palpable," wherehard mass is felt from the tissuesurrounding it. The size of thenodule is more than 2 cm indiameter. The other term is tumorwhich is associated with lipomas,and keratinous. malignantmelanoma and hemangioma areexamples.
  8. 8. WHEALA red swelling skin itchy lesion andlocalized edema. Lesion is usuallycause by an allergic reaction, insectbites or reaction from drugs. Hives,urticaria and mosquito bites areexamples.
  9. 9. TELANGLECTASIAA dilated small blood vessels in thesurface of the skin. It is oftenmanifestation of certain diseasessuch scleroderma or rosacea.
  10. 10. PLAQUEA patch of closely grouped papulesmore than in (1 cm) across.Lesions are rough in texture andcolor brown, red, or pink. Thesize is larger than 1 cm. Rubeola andpsoriasis are examples.
  11. 11. CYSTElevated skin lesion andencapsulated filled with fluid. Thesize is 1 cm or larger. Epidermoidand sebaceous cyst and chalazion ofthe eyelid or meibomian glandlipogranuloma are examples.
  12. 12. SECONDARY SKIN LESIONSkin lesion is an alteration in the integumentary systemor skin. There are in two forms, the primary skin lesionand secondary skin lesion. Secondary skin lesions arenot initially appears; usually result from a trauma orchronic infection.
  13. 13. SCALEThickened epidermal cell that flake off
  14. 14. CRUSTDried serum or pus on the skin surface.
  15. 15. FISSUREA Linear crack.
  16. 16. EROSIONLoss of all or part of the epidermis
  17. 17. EXCORIATIONLinear or hollowed out crusted area exposing dermis
  18. 18. ATROPHYA decreased in the volume of the epidermis
  19. 19. SCARA formation of connective tissue
  20. 20. ULCERAn excavation extending into the dermis or below
  21. 21. KELOID
  22. 22. LICHENIFICATION A distinctive thickening of skin thatis characterized by accenuated skin- fold markings.
  23. 23. THE NAILS
  24. 24. A Paronychia is an infection around the nail.Many organisms can cause a paronychia. This particularcase is caused by the yeast-like organism Candida. Notethe inflammation (red, swollen area) at the base of thenail and the changes that are apparent in the nail itself.
  25. 25. Nails may exhibit many different abnormalities. In the condition known as Koilonychia, the nails are flattened and have concavities. This condition may be associated with iron deficiency.
  26. 26. In Onycholysis the nails become loose. They may even detach from the nail bed. When not held firmly in place, the nails are rapidly damaged and debris collects beneath them.
  27. 27. White nail syndrome may also be calledleukonychia. Leukonychia can occur with arsenicpoisoning, heart disease, renal failure, pneumonia, or hypoalbuminemia.
  28. 28. Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and with lymphedema.
  29. 29. Half and Half Nails
  30. 30. Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and with lymphedema.
  31. 31. CLUBBING is a condition in which the angle between the nails and the nail bed is 180 degree or greater.