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  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc This is a shot I took last year of a local cooling tower inlet. We see the same types of problems over and over to differing degrees on most every building…. Lets discuss a few common problems we see.
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc Improving building operations is the easiest, surest and most guaranteed investment in capital. The reason utilities provide such great incentives to our sector – is obvious….. That is where the power goes.
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Application Rating conditions: LCHWT = 40.0 to 80.0 °F ECWT = 65.0 to 105.0°F EDBT = 55.0 to 125.0°F EWBT = 50.0 to 80.0°F (Evaporatively-cooled condensers)
  • Application Rating conditions: LCHWT = 40.0 to 80.0 °F ECWT = 65.0 to 105.0°F EDBT = 55.0 to 125.0°F EWBT = 50.0 to 80.0°F (Evaporatively-cooled condensers)
  • At 50% Load (45% annual hours): 36% LESS consumption  Results in 16.2% Annual Savings
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc
  • Cooling Tower Basics W.G. Dockendorf, Inc

Transcript

  • 1. Presented By: Christine Lazo Vertical Systems 7113 Telegraph Rd. Montebello, CA 90640 310 451 0630 christine@vertisys.net
  • 2. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 3. Major Problem In Plants TodayINEFFICIENCY Wasted Energy Wasted Water Difficult Maintenance Hard to Service Not Sustainable
  • 4. Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Fixed Speed Keeps it Simple – and inefficient Poor Chiller compressor turndown 3:1 – old tech IGV Systems that are governed by oil management (can’t take cold cond water or low refrigerant flow) Fouled Heat Exchangers No Measurement of plant or chiller performance Mis-match for building requirements vs plant capability - Too big or Too few compressors Plant Turndown Does not match Building AC Required Turndown 4
  • 5. Causes of problems in plants today Fouled Heat Exchangers 5
  • 6. What we see when we survey plants… 6
  • 7. The Dramatic Effects of Oil• ASHRAE sampling shows average •Efficiency loss accounts forpercentages of oil present in substantial operation costschillers 7
  • 8. What is Your Building’s 8
  • 9. What ARI Standards told us then and now… % load ARI standard 1992 ARI standard 1998 100 17% 1% 75 39% 42% 50 33% 45% 25 11% 12%• Newer studies prove that PART-LOAD is of greater importance than previous studies indicated.• Building spends 87% of time in the 25-75% of max load.• ARI Standard 1998 is a NATIONAL rule of thumb based on assumptions 9
  • 10. What is California BuildingIPLV? Weighted Average Values % Load Reality 100 1% 75 12% 50 45% 25 42% Any Bin Hour Analysis Program 10
  • 11. Building Load Depends on Region/Use(Existing Trended Data) LOTS of PART LOAD HOURS! 11
  • 12. 10 Story Office Building in Los Angeles Energy Analysis conducted October 20th, 2009*Analysis conducted on System Analyzer software 12
  • 13. So-Cal Large Building Load Profile 13
  • 14. Fixed Speed Everything –FIRST COST PLANT =1.2 kw/ton 14
  • 15. SMARDT/All Variable = .5 kw/ton orbetter 15
  • 16. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 17. What can we influence? Ed Mazria – Architecture 2030 17
  • 18. K Peterson - ASHRAE 18
  • 19. K Peterson - ASHRAE 19
  • 20. Influencers to change NOW Timing is great! New Technologies = Double efficiency Essentially FREE Equipment at some sites! Usage component – up to 33 Cents Rebate per an kwh saved Increases in power costs (Power = $$$) 100% financing at low APRs for energy efficient projects (2.9% for public jobs) 20
  • 21. Improving the Central Plant Spec Learning by MEASURING Metric 1 = Wire to Water Efficiency Average Metric 2 = Water Efficiency (usage) Metric 3 = the MRS factor –maintainability, reliability, sustainability 21
  • 22. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 23. What does a Next Gen Plant NOT HAVE? Oil PID Plant Controls with fixed setpoints Chemical Treatment in Open Loop Sunlit Open Tower Basins Sand Filtration Base Mounted Pumps Across the Line and Y-Delta Starters Gears and Shaft Seals on Chillers 23
  • 24. What Does Next Gen Plant NEED? Variable Primary Pumping Variable Condenser Pumping Variable Speed Oil-Free Magnetic Chiller Variable High Turndown Cooling Tower Measure Power of all Pumps, Chillers, Towers Measure Delivered Chilled Water Flow Chemical Free Water Treatment Vertical Inline Pumps Centrifugal Separator Filtration 24
  • 25. Components of the Next Gen Plant  Smardt Oil Free Variable Speed Chiller  CPECS All Variable Controls  Ultra Quiet – Evapco UT Cooling Tower – Min. 50% Turndown and Efficient.  Pulse ~Pure - Chemical Free Water Treatment  Armstrong Vertical Inline Pumping Packages  Centrifugal Separator – Tower Filtration with solids recovery- Zero water use. 25
  • 26. What is the Aim of NextGeneration Central Plant Design?  Reduce Water Consumption by 20%  Reduce Energy Consumption by Over 50%  Reduce Maintenance by 50%  Reduce Life Cycle Cost  Reduce Size / Weight of the CP by 30%  Reduce Health Impact / Liability  Reduce Toxic Emissions  Reduce Corrosion 27
  • 27. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 28. THEBIG Combining TurbocorSECRET and All Variable Control
  • 29. The Big Secret - Next Gen PlantsCombining Turbocor and All Variable Control Use Heat Exchangers designed to stay online at part load AND lower ECWT CHANGE FROM - Capacity Based ON/OFF control/individual PID loops CHANGE TO - Speed Based Demand Control with low pressure loss valves 30
  • 30. Take Advantage of Heat Exchangersdesigned to stay online at part load Evapco Cooling Towers Advances in tower nozzle design and chiller condenser water circuit configurations allow water flow through condenser to reduce all the way down to 45% of nominal flow (10% of full load pumping power).
  • 31. Take Advantage of Heat Exchangersdesigned to stay online at part loadAND lower ECWT Smardt Oil-Free Chillers Turbocor Magnetic Bearing Compressors have built-in VFD Systems are not governed by oil management ○ can take cold cond water or low refrigerant flow
  • 32. IPLV and Condensing Temperature Ex: 400 Ton Smardt Water-Cooled Chiller 85°F ECWT 75°F ECWT 65°F ECWT kW/Ton % of Full Load Fixed LCHWT = 44°F Fixed Chilled Water and Condensing Water Flow Rate
  • 33. IPLV and Condensing Temperature 85°F ECWT 75°F ECWT 65°F ECWT kW/Ton % of Full Load Fixed LCHWT = 44°F Fixed Chilled Water and Condensing Water Flow Rate
  • 34. IPLV and Condensing Temperature 85°F ECWT 75°F ECWT 65°F ECWT kW/Ton 55°F ECWT % of Full Load But Smardt WC Chillers can operate down to 55 °F ECWT
  • 35. What difference does it make? Chiller Efficiency is both a function of Load and “Lift of the Compressor” Lift relates to the condensing temperature which is determined by the ECWT from the cooling tower or the EDBT from the condenser fans. When you reduce the condensing temperature, you reduce the work of the compressor. LESS WORK LESS ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • 36. The Impact of Load kW/To n % of Full Load For a Fixed ECWT, there is a 17% increase in efficiency between 100% load and 50% Load
  • 37. Impact of Condensing Temperature kW/Ton 0.280 kW/ton 0.180kW/ton % of Full Load At 50% Load  36% LESS Energy Consumption Considering 45% annual hours at 50% of Full Load (per AHRI 550/590)  16.2% Annual Savings
  • 38. Additional Smardt Benefits
  • 39. Implement All Variable Control 40
  • 40. Question: What do you do to make an All Variable Plant? thANSWER: My Add VFDs to all the components. All plants with VFD’s on them operate efficiently.TRUTH:Just installing drives on the equipment does notguarantee energy savings!A good example of this is putting a drive on acooling tower and applying a fixed set point.
  • 41. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 42. Water Cooled Chiller Plants - Loops Ambient Condenser Chilled Supply Refrigerant Air Water Water Air Loops Driven By Pumps Through Heat Exchangers
  • 43. HX Loops – A Closer Look Conventional Chilled Water System Constant Speed Operation Loops Driven By Pumps through heat Exchangers
  • 44. Current Control Solutions PID LOOP PID LOOP CONSTANT PID LOOP Three PID Loops, behaving independently (silos). Capacity based sequencing. Complex “reset” for strategies for light load. 45
  • 45. HX Loops - Managing Lift Conventional Chilled Water System Constant Speed Operation
  • 46. HX Loops - Managing Lift Typical Part Load Operation Reduce Approach by Reducing Flow Maximize HX Transfer Time
  • 47. All Variable Speed Plants – The Difference is Controls  A variable speed chiller that operates constant entering condenser water temperature will perform only marginally better than a much lower cost fixed speed chiller.  Centrifugal chillers gain performance when the temperature lift between the evaporator and condenser is reduced. Effect of optimized tower set point control results in a 42% performance difference on thesame Turbocor chiller
  • 48. What does All Variable Do? All Variable Systems turn down with building demand by:  Eliminating plant over pumping by controlling all pumps in system ○ Chilled and condenser water pumps, compressors, and CT fans ○ Every RPM turned that is more than necessary is wasted energy!  Using multiple compressors on single barrel to utilize surface area ○ Offers better approaches and less work for compressors  MEASURING WIRE TO WATER EFFICIENCIES (kW in/tons out)
  • 49. All Variable Speed Plants Need advanced control algorithms combining  chilled water pump,  condenser water pump,  tower fan and  chiller speeds. What proven control system can do this reliably, repeatedly, and cost effectively? CPECS Central Plant Energy Control System
  • 50. All Variable Speed Plants CPECS Central Plant Energy Control System CPECS combined with SMARDT oil free variable speed chillers provides the following:  Optimized tower water temperature control.  Load matched variable speed condenser water pump control that respects chillers minimum safe flow limits.  Optimized chiller sequencing.  Load based chilled water temperature reset  Variable primary chilled water pump control. RESULT:  Highest performance targets
  • 51. CPECS All Variable Benefits Real time NIST Certified performance Optimizes entire plant/HX loops into single system for lowest energy consumption Packaged controls solution with Smardt chiller for single source responsibility Energy trending Entire plant average 0.5kw/ton 52
  • 52. Visual Performance 53
  • 53. Measured Performance 54
  • 54. Schematic of Hartman Loop 55
  • 55. Presentation Overview Typical Problems of Chiller Plants Engineers Ability to Impact Change What is a Next Generation Central Plant? The BIG Secret! CPECS – The Difference is Controls Measuring Performance
  • 56. CPECS System Comparison
  • 57. Topics to be coveredThis presentation shall demonstrate the actual operating performancedifference between the CPECS optimized logic and two cases ofconventional logic: a) Constant speed condenser water pumping and towers attempting to achieve wet bulb plus 10F (a widely documented means for optimal control). b) Constant speed condenser water pumping and towers maintaining 78F water temperature.Chillers used for test are 2x 250Ton WA092 SMARDT chillers fitted with 3xTT300 R134a Turbocor compressors. Chiller location is Las Vegas. All datataken from an actual operating plant and only VFD speed and temperatureset points have been altered.
  • 58. CPECS Vs Conventional Logic (a)Conventional control logic: CPECS control logic: •Constant speed condenser water •CPECS VFD condenser water pumps. pumps. •Towers running to maintain Twb +10F •CPECS VFD tower fans. •Plant kW/ton = 0.97 ~ 1.06kW/Ton •Plant kW/ton = 0.54 ~ 0.57kW/ton
  • 59. CPECS Vs Conventional Logic (a)Conventional control logic: CPECS control logic: • Total power input = 47.2kW • Total power input = 26.6kW •Chiller performance improved by 8%. • System performance decreased 70% • Condenser water temperature after 25min running full speed fans only decreased 2F.
  • 60. Comparison (a) ConclusionsDespite the wet bulb temperature being 54F at the timeof test and the towers selected at 10F approach, atheoretical condenser water temperature of 64F was notreached within 25minutes. Instead many kW’s of non-effective tower fan energy were used.The net effect of the test showed that a 45% increasein condenser water pump speed and tower logic thatchases the wet bulb temperature did not deliver anincrease in chiller performance anywhere close to beingable to offset the extra pumping and fan energy whencompared with CPECS.
  • 61. Large powerComparison (a) data increase seen due to extra pumping and fan energy when logic changed.
  • 62. CPECS Vs Conventional Logic (b)Conventional control logic: CPECS control logic: •Constant speed condenser water •CPECS VFD condenser water pumps. pumps. •Towers running to maintain 78F •CPECS VFD tower fans. temperature •Plant kW/ton = 0.87 ~ 0.94kW/Ton •Plant kW/ton = 0.54 ~ 0.57kW/ton
  • 63. CPECS Vs Conventional Logic (b)Conventional control logic: CPECS control logic: • Total power input = 40.8kW • Total power input = 26.6kW • Chiller performance decrease by 14%. • System performance decreased 53%.
  • 64. Comparison (b) ConclusionsConventional plant design and controllogic decreases both chiller performanceand total plant performance at part loadwhen compared to fully optimized controllogic and VFD’S.
  • 65. Comparison (b) data Case (b) logic applied When condenser water temperature set point increased to 78F and condenser water pump forced to 60Hz both pumping and chiller energyCPECS logic are increased.operating here. Time based on chart is 6 hours
  • 66. Questions? Comments? Concerns?
  • 67. Fixed Speed Everything –FIRST COST PLANT =1.2 kw/ton 69
  • 68. SMARDT/All Variable = .5 kw/ton orbetter 70
  • 69. Measured Performance ITS ALL ABOUT PERFORMANCE! 71
  • 70. Visual Performance 72