Classification of Climate

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Brief explanation on the classification of climates.
Each of classification with details of climate elements.
The characteristics of building built in those of climate conditions.

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Classification of Climate

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OFCLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATESCLIMATES
  2. 2. 22  A tropical climate is a kind of climate typically in theA tropical climate is a kind of climate typically in the tropicstropics  Defined as non-arid climate in which allDefined as non-arid climate in which all 12 months have12 months have mean temperature above 64.4 °F (18.0 °C)mean temperature above 64.4 °F (18.0 °C)  Cover theCover the largest area of earthlargest area of earth (20% of land surface and(20% of land surface and 43% of ocean surface) - the home to almost half of the43% of ocean surface) - the home to almost half of the world ’s populationworld ’s population South Florida, The Caribbean, Central Africa, CoastalSouth Florida, The Caribbean, Central Africa, Coastal India, Southeast Asia, North Queensland, Hawaii,India, Southeast Asia, North Queensland, Hawaii, Central America, or most of Brazil.Central America, or most of Brazil. CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION
  3. 3. 33 CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION
  4. 4. 44 Can be divided intoCan be divided into 3 major3 major climatic zonesclimatic zones and 3 sub-groups :-and 3 sub-groups :- I.I. Warm-humid equatorial climateWarm-humid equatorial climate  warm-humid island or trade-wind climatewarm-humid island or trade-wind climate II.II. Hot-dry desert or semi-desert climateHot-dry desert or semi-desert climate  hot-dry maritime desert climatehot-dry maritime desert climate III.III. Composite or monsoon climate (combinationComposite or monsoon climate (combination of I & II)of I & II)  tropical upland climatetropical upland climate CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION
  5. 5. Type of Tropical Climate Warm Humid Island Climate Hot Dry Maritime Desert Climate Tropical Upland Climate Warm Humid Climate Warm Humid Climate Hot Dry Desert Climate Hot Dry Desert Climate Composite or Monsoon Climate Composite or Monsoon Climate CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION Sub-Group
  6. 6.  Found in a beltFound in a belt near the Equatornear the Equator extending toextending to aboutabout 15º North and South15º North and South  Examples:Examples: Malaysia, Jakarta, Singapore,Malaysia, Jakarta, Singapore, Hawaii, USHawaii, US WARM HUMID CLIMATEWARM HUMID CLIMATE
  7. 7. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID CLIMATEWARM HUMID CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  8. 8. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID CLIMATEWARM HUMID CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  9. 9. 99  WallWall - is still warm at night because of the- is still warm at night because of the high solar radiation during the dayhigh solar radiation during the day  Pitch roofPitch roof - is used act as a buffer to- is used act as a buffer to reduce the entering of heat into the housereduce the entering of heat into the house  GuttersGutters are builtare built  Plastered single layer wallPlastered single layer wall – to prevent– to prevent heat captured in the househeat captured in the house WARM HUMID CLIMATEWARM HUMID CLIMATE |BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC||BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|
  10. 10. 1010  WindowWindow hoods and balconyhoods and balcony - to reduce the- to reduce the entering of solar radiation and daylight intoentering of solar radiation and daylight into the housethe house  MoreMore windows and the openingwindows and the opening are wideare wide  ApronsAprons - to prevent dirt on the wall- to prevent dirt on the wall  Wide doorsWide doors – wind shaft is built to enable– wind shaft is built to enable heated air go outsideheated air go outside  Ceiling (high ceiling)Ceiling (high ceiling) – to prevent direct– to prevent direct heat into the househeat into the house WARM HUMID CLIMATEWARM HUMID CLIMATE |BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC||BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|
  11. 11. 1111
  12. 12. • IslandIsland within the Equatorial beltwithin the Equatorial belt and in theand in the trade wind zonetrade wind zone • Examples:Examples: Carribbeans, Philipines andCarribbeans, Philipines and other island groups in Pacific Oceanother island groups in Pacific Ocean WARM HUMID ISLAND CLIMATEWARM HUMID ISLAND CLIMATE
  13. 13. 1313 Caribbean Philippine
  14. 14. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ISLANDWARM HUMID ISLAND |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  15. 15. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ISLANDWARM HUMID ISLAND |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  16. 16. ◊ Occur inOccur in 2 belts at latitude 15º and 30º2 belts at latitude 15º and 30º North and South.North and South. ◊ Examples:Examples: Baghdad, Saudi Arabia,Baghdad, Saudi Arabia, India, South Afrika.India, South Afrika. HOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATEHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE
  17. 17. HOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATEHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  18. 18. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATEHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  19. 19. 1919  Flat roofFlat roof - is used because of sandstorms –- is used because of sandstorms – not obstruct the wind flownot obstruct the wind flow  Pitch roofPitch roof - should be built as double layers- should be built as double layers  Small windowsSmall windows - to prevent sand and dust- to prevent sand and dust from entering the housefrom entering the house HOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATEHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE |BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC||BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|
  20. 20. 2020  Thick wallThick wall – the entering of heat into the house– the entering of heat into the house during daytime become slower and at night theduring daytime become slower and at night the cold air push the warm air to flow outside and thecold air push the warm air to flow outside and the building is maintained cold (ie: pyramid)building is maintained cold (ie: pyramid)  ConcreteConcrete houses are builthouses are built  Colors of the buildingsColors of the buildings - light / bright- light / bright  MaterialsMaterials - crack and break up cause by high- crack and break up cause by high daytime temperature and rapid cooling at nightdaytime temperature and rapid cooling at night HOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATEHOT-DRY DESERT CLIMATE |BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC||BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|
  21. 21. 2121
  22. 22. 2222  Occur in theOccur in the same latitude beltssame latitude belts as theas the hot-dry desert climatehot-dry desert climate  Two season –Two season – hot and coolhot and cool  Example:Example: Kuwait, KarachiKuwait, Karachi HOT-DRY MARITIME DESERTHOT-DRY MARITIME DESERT
  23. 23. HOT-DRY MARITIME DESERTHOT-DRY MARITIME DESERT |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  24. 24. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSHOT-DRY MARITIME DESERTHOT-DRY MARITIME DESERT |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  25. 25. 2525  Usually occur in :Usually occur in : large land masses nearlarge land masses near the tropicsthe tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, whichof Cancer and Capricorn, which areare far from Equator.far from Equator.  Examples:Examples: Lahore, Mandalay, New DelhiLahore, Mandalay, New Delhi  Two seasonsTwo seasons – 2/3 of the year is hot dry– 2/3 of the year is hot dry and 1/3 is warm humid.and 1/3 is warm humid.  Localities further North and South oftenLocalities further North and South often have a third season,have a third season, best described asbest described as cool-dry.cool-dry. COMPOSITE / MONSOONCOMPOSITE / MONSOON CLIMATECLIMATE
  26. 26. 2626 COMPOSITE / MONSOONCOMPOSITE / MONSOON || ELEMENTS|ELEMENTS| 1 Season Hot-dry Warm-humid Cool-dry Daytime mean max 32 – 43 27-32 Up to 27 Night-time mean min 21 – 27 24 – 27 4 – 10 Diurnal mean range 11 – 22 3 – 6 11 – 22 Humidity2 • RH is low throughout the dry periods at 20 – 55% • Wet season : rises to 55 – 95%
  27. 27. COMPOSITE / MONSOONCOMPOSITE / MONSOON || ELEMENTS|ELEMENTS|
  28. 28. 2828  Courtyard typeCourtyard type buildings are very suitablebuildings are very suitable  A moderate dense, low rise developmentA moderate dense, low rise development  Large projecting eaves and wide verandahsLarge projecting eaves and wide verandahs areare needed in the warm-humid seasonneeded in the warm-humid season as out dooras out door living areasliving areas - to reduce sky glare, keep out the- to reduce sky glare, keep out the rain and provide shaderain and provide shade  Shading devicesShading devices should preferably be of lowshould preferably be of low thermal capacitythermal capacity COMPOSITE / MONSOONCOMPOSITE / MONSOON |BUILDING|BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|CHARACTERISTIC|
  29. 29. 2929  Roof and external wallsRoof and external walls - constructed of solid- constructed of solid masonry and concrete.masonry and concrete.  Resistance insulationResistance insulation - placed at the outside- placed at the outside surfaces of external walls or roofs.surfaces of external walls or roofs.  Large openings in opposite wallsLarge openings in opposite walls - preferably with- preferably with solid shutters.solid shutters. COMPOSITE / MONSOONCOMPOSITE / MONSOON |BUILDING|BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC|CHARACTERISTIC|
  30. 30. 3030  Mountainous regionsMountainous regions - more than 900 to- more than 900 to 1200 m above sea level1200 m above sea level  Examples:Examples: Bogotá, Mexico City, NairobiBogotá, Mexico City, Nairobi TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATETROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATE
  31. 31. TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATETROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS| Air temperature :
  32. 32. WARM HUMID ELEMENTSWARM HUMID ELEMENTSTROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATETROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATE |ELEMENTS||ELEMENTS|
  33. 33. TTHHAANNKK YYOOUU

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