Soil
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Soil

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Soil Soil Presentation Transcript

  • Soil
  • What we will coverTheory What is soil ? Understanding your soil Soil Food webPractical - Observations Soil sampling and analysis
  • What is Soil A mixture of mineral matter, organic matter, water,and air A thriving ecosystem Very variable from place to place and foreverundergoing change. The soil is dynamic. Under appreciated.
  • Mineral Inputs-RocksRocks break down overtime and by doing so contributethe mineral content to the soil . Physical weathering-Frost shatteringRoot growth
  • Mineral Inputs-Rocks Chemical weatheringNot only causes rocks to disintegrate, also changes thechemical nature of the mineralsWater reactionsRoot SecretionsSoil Organisms
  • Organic Inputs Primary Colonisers
  • Transformation – Minerals The disintegrated rock takes the form of three main observable particlesizes SAND – SILT – CLAY
  • Transformation –Organic Matter In healthy soil organic material inputs decompose and transform into Humusand minerals. HumusPersists in the soil providing foods and protective substances for plantsHolds incredible volume of waterCreates good soil structureCreates ideal environment for soil life
  • Texture Texture refers to the proportion of sand-silt and clay in the soil and can giveus a read on how our soil will interact with vegetation and soil life. Sand: Fast Drainage – easy to work – Low fertility – warms quickly Silt: Med fertility – easy to work – prone to crusting – poor structure – drains well Clay: High Fertility- hard to work- poor drainage- prone to compaction Loam: Equal proportions of sand-silt and clay. The ideal texture
  • Structure Structure refers to how the sand silt clay and SOM are bonded together intoaggregates. A diversity of aggregates provides a diversity of pore spacewhich is the ideal situation for plant growth and provides habitat for soilorganisms
  • Organic Matter - Soil Food Web
  • Organic Matter - Soil Life
  • Organic Matter – Benefits of Healthy Soil Food Web Increased Nutrient retention Improved crop quality Pest and disease suppression Improved soil structure Decomposition of Toxic chemicals A cleaner environment
  • Soil Profile Most of the fertility is present in the top 10cms (The Rhizosphere) Most of the soil life inhabits this horizon Most of the crop plants we grow feed from this horizon
  • Indicator Plants Cytisus scoparius - Broom : Infertile soil ,nitrogen deficient Achillea millefolium – Dry soil Rumex acetosella - Sorrel : Poor light dry, acid soil Stellaria media - Chickweed : Fertile soil Urtica dioecia - Stinging nettle : Fertile soil Sonchus sp – Sow thistle : Acid soil Caltha pulustris - Marsh Marigold : Poorly drained ,waterlogged soils Chenopodium album - Lambs Quarter : Previously cultivated soil
  • Other Soil Factors pH Nutrient Storage Water Relations
  • Essential points A diversity of soil life creates healthy soil We are aiming to grow soil and the soil will take care of theplants Organic matter is the most important ingredient for thefunctioning of healthy soil therefore healthy plants By adding organic matter we feed the soil and keep it in goodcondition to take care of the plants Only when fresh organic matter has been mineralised by thesoil life is it available to plants.