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CRITICALTHINKING“During times of universal deceit,telling the truth becomes arevolutionary act.”   ~ George Orwell
What is Critical Thinking   Critical thinking is reflective reasoning       Socratic method is defined as "a    about be...
Sumners Definition of Critical ThinkingWhat is Critical Thinking?(William Graham Sumner — 1906)   “[Critical thinking is]...
Consequential Validity: Using Assessment to Drive Instruction   Critical thinking is that mode of          Critical thin...
“The great masses of the people…will moreeasily fall victims to a big lie than to a smallone.”   ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kamp...
Definitions   Different sources define critical thinking variously as:   "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deci...
Cites from previous page of Definitians   2) Ennis, Robert (20 June 2002).    "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical...
“Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.”   ~ Malcolm S. Forbes   History and etymology   The ...
Skills   The list of core critical thinking          Evidence through observation    skills includes observation,    int...
Procedure   Critical thinking calls for the           Put to test the conclusions and    ability to:                    ...
“Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are alwaysready to defend their most precious possessi...
Habits or traits of mind                              The habits of mind that                               characterize ...
“Men become civilized, not in proportion to their willingness to believe, but in theirreadiness to doubt.”   ~ H. L. Menck...
Example thinker   raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly    and precisely   gathers and asses...
Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council forExcellence in Critical Thinking, 1987   A statement by Michael Sc...
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
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  1. 1. CRITICALTHINKING“During times of universal deceit,telling the truth becomes arevolutionary act.”   ~ George Orwell
  2. 2. What is Critical Thinking Critical thinking is reflective reasoning  Socratic method is defined as "a about beliefs and actions. It is a way of prolonged series of questions and answers deciding whether a claim is always true, which refutes a moral assertion by sometimes true, partly true, or false. leading an opponent to draw a conclusion Critical thinking can be traced in Western that contradicts his own viewpoint.” thought to the Socratic method of Ancient Greece. Socrates was a Philosopher, born c. 470 BCE…c.399 BCE, in Athens Greece…The Socratic tradition in which probing questions were used to determine whether claims to knowledge based on authority could be rationally justified with clarity and logical consistency… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thin king
  3. 3. Sumners Definition of Critical ThinkingWhat is Critical Thinking?(William Graham Sumner — 1906) “[Critical thinking is] . . . the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not. The critical faculty is a product of education and training. It is a mental habit and power. It is a prime condition of human welfare that men and women should be trained in it. It is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances.” {Sumner, W. G. (1940). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, New York: Ginn and Co., pp. 632, 633.}
  4. 4. Consequential Validity: Using Assessment to Drive Instruction Critical thinking is that mode of  Critical thinking is the disciplined thinking—about any subject, art of ensuring that content, or problem—in which the  you use the best thinking you are thinker capable of in any set of improves the quality of his or her  circumstances. thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it.  When we think critically, we realize that in every Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and  domain of human thought, it is self-corrective thinking. It possible and important presupposes assent to rigorous  to question the parts of thinking, standards of excellence and mindful and the standards for command of their use.  thought.  http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/consequential- validity-using-assessment-to-drive-instruction/790
  5. 5. “The great masses of the people…will moreeasily fall victims to a big lie than to a smallone.”   ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933We learn from history that we do not learn from history.   ~ George Wilhelm Hegel
  6. 6. Definitions Different sources define critical thinking variously as: "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"[2] "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action"[4][page needed] "purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based"[5] "includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"[6]
  7. 7. Cites from previous page of Definitians 2) Ennis, Robert (20 June 2002). "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking". faculty.education.illinois.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 4) Scriven, M., and Paul, R.W., Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (1987) 5) Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts, Insightassessment.com, 20011, p. 26 6) Mulnix, J. W. (2010). Thinking critically about critical thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00673.x, p. 471
  8. 8. “Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.”   ~ Malcolm S. Forbes History and etymology The critical thinking philosophical frame traces its roots in analytic philosophy and pragmatist constructivism which dates back over 2,500 years. Meaning Critical thinking clarifies goals, examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, accomplishes actions, and assesses conclusions.
  9. 9. Skills The list of core critical thinking  Evidence through observation skills includes observation, interpretation, analysis, inference,  Context skills evaluation, explanation, and meta-  Relevant criteria for making the cognition. There is a reasonable level judgment well of consensus among experts that an  Applicable methods or techniques individual or group engaged in strong critical thinking gives due for forming the judgment consideration to establish:  Applicable theoretical constructs In addition to possessing strong for understanding the problem and critical-thinking skills, one must be the question at hand disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, and fairness.
  10. 10. Procedure Critical thinking calls for the  Put to test the conclusions and ability to: generalizations at which one arrives  Reconstruct ones patterns of Recognize problems, to find beliefs on the basis of wider workable means for meeting those experience problems  Render accurate judgments about Understand the importance of specific things and qualities in prioritization and order of everyday life precedence in problem solving Gather and marshal pertinent (relevant) information Recognize unstated assumptions and values Comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discernment Interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments Recognize the existence (or non- existence) of logical relationships between propositions Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations
  11. 11. “Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are alwaysready to defend their most precious possession – their ignorance.”   ~ Hendrik Van Loon  In sum:  "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.”( b Edward M. Glaser (1941). An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN 0-404-55843-7.)
  12. 12. Habits or traits of mind  The habits of mind that characterize a person strongly disposed toward critical thinking include a desire to follow reason and evidence wherever they may lead, a systematic approach to problem solving, inquisitiveness, even- handedness, and confidence in reasoning.[16] When individuals possess intellectual skills alone, without the intellectual traits of mind, weak sense critical thinking results. Fair-minded or strong sense critical thinking requires intellectual humility, empathy, integrity, perseverance, courage, autonomy, confidence in reason, and other intellectual traits. Thus, critical thinking without essential intellectual traits often results in clever, but manipulative and often unethical or subjective thought.
  13. 13. “Men become civilized, not in proportion to their willingness to believe, but in theirreadiness to doubt.”   ~ H. L. Mencken 16) The National Assessment of College Student Learning: Identification of the Skills to be Taught, Learned, and Assessed, NCES 94–286, US Dept of Education, Addison Greenwod (Ed), Sal Carrallo (PI). See also, Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. ERIC Document No. ED 315–423
  14. 14. Example thinker raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems, without being unduly influenced by others thinking on the topic.
  15. 15. Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council forExcellence in Critical Thinking, 1987 A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at- issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.
  16. 16. http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
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