fear of uncaring doctors are becoming more common as cost pressures put greater demands on doctors to see more patients.
something must be done to boost doctors’ communication skills and improve the overall quality of patient care.
?? Advice about using control systems and strategies to improve the quality of the doctor-patient interaction.
Organizational control refers to the systematic process of regulating organizational activities to make the consistent with the expectations established in plans, targets,and standards of performance.
Organizational control is the process of
assigning, evaluating, and regulating
resources on an ongoing basis to
accomplish an organizational goal.
Effectively controlling an organization requires information about performance standards and actual performance, as well as actions taken to correct any deviations from the standards.
To effectively control, managers need to decide what information is essential, how they will obtain that information and share it with employees, and how they can and should respond it.
Lack of effective control
Red Cross and Spherion in 2005’s Hurricane Katrina
Controls make plans effective.
Controls make sure that organizational activities are consistent.
Controls provide feedback on project status.
Controls aid in decision making.
Control can focus on events before,during, or after a process.
a local automobile dealer
Three types of control
Sometimes called preliminary or preventive control
Also called post-action or output control
Anticipates problems Solves problems as they happen Solves problems after they occur Concurrent control Feedback control Feedforward control Focus is on inputs ongoing processes outputs Focus is on Focus is on
Control that attempts to identify and prevent deviations before they occur.
Focus is on
Purpose is to ensure that they meet the standards necessary for the transformation process.
Feedforward controls are evident in the selection and hiring of new employees.
The problems at Spherion and the Red Cross
Brookside Gables – an assisted living center
Another type of feedforward control is forecasting trends in environment and managing risk.
A.T. Kearney – a consulting company
Liz Claiborne – a fashion company
Monitors ongoing employee activities to ensure they are consistent with performance standards.
Concurrent control assesses current work activities, relies on performance standards, and includes rules and regulations for guiding employee tasks and behaviors.
Technology advancements are adding to the possibilities for concurrent control in services.
Retail stores, such as Beall’s, Sunglass Hut
Trucking companies, such as Schneider National, Covenant
Since concurrent control involves regulating ongoing tasks, it requires a through understanding of the specific tasks involved and their relationship to the desired and product.
It involves checkpoints at which determinations are made about whether to continue progress, take corrective action, or stop work altogether on products or service.
Focuses on the outputs of the organization after transformation is complete.
Schools in Kentucky
Feedback control has two advantages:
Feedback provides managers with meaningful information on how effective its planing effort was.
Little variance between standards and actual performance : planning was generally on target.
Great deviation : plans are not effective.
Feedback control can enhance employees motivation .
The major drawback : the time the manager has the information and if there is significant problem, the damage is already done.
Many feedback controls focus on financial measurement
budgeting : a form of feedback control because managers monitor whether they have operated within their budget targets and make adjustments accordingly.
Most organizations have outside audits of their financial records.
The U.S. government and Iraq
To determine whether performance meets established standards
Key steps in the feedback control model :
Establish standards of performance
Measure actual performance
Compare performance to standards
Take corrective action
If Inadequate If Adequate Adjust Standards Adjust Performance Feedback Establish Strategic Goals 1. Establish standards of performance. 2. Measure actual performance. 3. Compare performance to standards. 4. Take corrective action. 4. Do nothing or provide reinforcement.
Budgetary control is the process of setting targets for an organization’s expenditures, monitoring results and comparing them to the budget, and making changes as needed.
Budgets are reports that list planned and actual expenditures for cash, assets, raw material, and other resources.
Responsibility center is defined as any organizational department or unit under the supervision of a single person who is responsible for its activity.
Includes anticipated and actual expenses for each responsility center and for the total organization.
Actual expenses > budgeted amounts
the need for managers to identify whether a problem exists and take corrective action if needed.
Actual expenses < budgeted amounts
exceptional efficiency or possibly the failure to meet some other standards.
Lists forecasted and actual revenues of the organization.
Actual revenue > budgeted amount :
require determining whether the organization can obtain the necessary resources to meet the higher-than-expected demand for its products or services.
Actual revenue < budgeted amount:
signal a need to investigate the problem to see whether the organization can improve revenues.
Estimates receipts and expenditures of money on a daily or weekly basis to ensure that an organization has sufficient cash to meet its obligations.
Cash budget shows the level of funds flowing through the organization and the nature of cash disbursement.
Lists planned investments in major assests, such as buildings, heavy machinery, often involving expenditures more than one year.
Necessary to plan the impact of expenditures on cash flow and profitability.
middle and lower-level managers set departmental budget targets.
Done in accordance with overall company revenues and expenditures specified by top executives.
Lower-level managers anticipate their departments’ resource needs.
Budget request pass up to top manager for approval.
Helps to understand how well the organization is performing financially
Balance sheet : show the firm’s financial position with respect to assets and liabilities
Income statement : summarizes the firm’s financial performance for a given time interval.
Owners’ equity :
d ifference between assets and liabilities
i s the company’s net worth in stock and retained earnings
Assets : what the company own
(Cash , receivables…)
(Land , buildings…)
Liabilities : firms debts
Long –term debt
A manager needs to be able to evaluate financial reports that compare the organization’s performance with earlier data or industry norms.
The organization’s ability to meet its current debts
The organization’s internal performance respect to key
activities defined by management
Firm’s profit in terms of a source of profits
The use of rules, policies, hiearchy of authority, reward systems, and other formal devices to influence employee behavior and assess performance.
The use of organizational culture, group norms, and a focus on goals, rather than rules and procedures, to foster compliance with organizational goals
Bureaucratic Control Decentralized Control Uses detailed rules and procedures formal control systems Limited use of rules,relies on values, group and self control, selection and socialiation Top-down autorty, formal hierarchy, position power. Flexieble authority, falt structure, expert power, everyone monitors quality Task related job descriptions; measurable standarts define minimum performance Results-based job descriptions; Emphasis on goals to be achieved Emphasis on extrinsic rewards (pay, benefits,status) Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards (meaningful work, opportunities for growth) Rewards given for meeting individual performance standards Rewards individual and team; emphasis on equity across employees Limited formalized employee participation Broad employee participation
An organizationwide commitment to infusing quality into every activity through continuous improvement
Japanese companies first used.
In the 1980s American managers start to interest in TQM.
A group of 6 to 12 employees who meet regulary to discuss and solve problems affecting the quality of their work
The continuous process of measurşng products, services, and practices against major competitors or industry leaders
A quality control approach that emphasizes a relentless pursuit of higher qulality and lower costs.
Reduced Cycle Time
To steps taken to complete a company process
TQM does not always work
Six sigma principles might not be appropriate for all organizational problems
Many contingencies can influence the success of TQM program
Quality circles = more beneficial when challenging jobs
TQM more successful = enriches jobs + improves motivation
Positive Factors Negative Factors Tasks make high skill demands on employees Management expectations are unrealisticlly high TQM serves to enrich jobs and motivate employees Middle managers are dissatisfed about loss of authority Problem-solving skills are improved for all employees Workers are dissatisfied with other aspects of organizational life Participation and teamwork are used to tackle significant problems Union leaders are left out QC discussions Continuous improvement is a way of life Managers wait for big, dramatic innovations
International Quality Standards
New Financial Control Systems
ISO 9000, is a set of international standards for quality management systems established by the International Organization for Standardization in 1987 and revised in late 2000.
The main objective is to evaluate and compare companies on a global basis.
A control system that measures performance in terms of after-tax profits minus the cost of capital invested in tangible assets.
Aim of using EVA:
Run the business more efficiently
Make more cost-effective decisions.
MVA measures the stock market’s estimate of the value of a company’s past and expected capital investment projects.
MVA and EVA goes hand-in-hand with eachother in general.
A measurement which allocates the costs across business processes.
More accurate costs for various products
Evaluate the costs of activities that add value or not add value.
Open Book M a nagement
New Workplace Concerns
Sharing financial information and results with the employees in the organization.
Goal of Open-book Management is to get every employee thinking and acting like a business owner.
Need for active participation
Need for commitment to goals
Importance of teamwork
It allows employees;
To see the financial situation of the company
How his/her individual actions fits into the big picture and affects the financial future of the organization.
To see the interdependence and importance of each function.
To be more willing to take action in the entire team or function, if they are rewarded accordingly.
The higher the opacity index, the more confidential the financial figures and the managers are less willing to share the info with employees.
Source: The Opacity Index, http://www.opacity-index.com accessed on July 22, 2004 Country Opacity Index China 87 Russia 84 Indonesia 75 Turkey 74 South Korea 73 Romania 71 Poland 64 India 64 Argentina 61 Taiwan 61 Japan 60 Italy 48 Mexico 48 United Kingdom 38 United States 36 Singapore 29
Financial >>> * Markets
Measurements >>> * Customers
* Statistical Reports >>> * Employees
Balanced Scorecard is a comprehensive management control system that balances traditional financial measures with operational measures relating to a company’s critical success factors.
Customers Internal Business Processes
Learning and Growth
Do actions contribute to improving financial performance? Do internal Activities and Processes add Values for Customers and Shareholders? Are we learning changing, and improving? How well do we serve our customers? Mission And Goals Targets Measures Outcomes Initiatives Targets Measures Outcomes Initiatives Targets Measures Outcomes Initiatives Targets Measures Outcomes Initiatives
The Scorecard has become the core management control system for many organizations today. Such as;
The Drawback of this system is that the simplicity of the system may couse the manager to underestimate the time and commitment that is needed for the approach to become a truly useful management control system.
Financial Performance Internal Business Processes Customer Services Learning and Growth
Need for increasing control over companies
Corporate Governance is the system of governing an organization so the interests of corporate owners are protected.
Rochester Independent Practice Association
They needed objective feedback about how they were doing.
Scientific methods to survey patient satisfaction.