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learning and theories of learning

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  1. 1. Learning  It is the process by which an individual, through his own efforts and abilities, changes his behaviour  Any change of behaviour which takes place as a result of experience may be called learning  It is a process by which a relative permanent Change or modification in Behaviour occurs as a result of Practice or Experience
  2. 2. • Learning is active process as the part of the learner • Extension workers prime role is to create the “Learning Situations”
  4. 4. Teacher/insTrucTor  Teaching objectives are clearly significant to the learner and are attainable through the educational process with in the mental physical limitations of the learners  Thorough knowledge of the subject matter  Enthusiastic and interested in subject matter  Democratic instructional procedures  Well prepared, prompt in teaching-learning session  Minimize the distraction within & out side learning session  Skillful in using the teaching materials & equipment  Prepare & use teaching plan
  5. 5. Learner • • • • Need for information Interested Capable of learning Must use information gained
  6. 6. subjecT maTTer • • • • • Pertinent to learner’s need Applicable to real life situations Well organized and logically presented Presented clearly Challenging, satisfying and significant to the learners • Fit into overall objectives
  7. 7. Teaching aid • Meet the needs effectively • Readily available • Each item must be used skillfully
  8. 8. PhysicaL faciLiTies • • • • Free from outside distraction Well lighted & ventilated Adequate space for group Well arranged comfortable furniture
  9. 9. • The learner (farmer, farm women and youths) are the focal points in learning process • The extension worker should skillfully manipulate the elements of the learning situations and provides satisfactory learning experiences • Aim – change in behaviour of the learner • All teaching activity is carried out according to needs & resources of the local community
  10. 10. Learning experiences • Is the core of educational process • It is mental/physical reaction of a learner to seeing, hearing or doing the things learned • There is a constant reaction by learners with each of the other elements of learning • The great task of extension worker is to minimize the almost infinite number of possible distractions to the mental process • Learning experience ► Manner and Mental concentration on subject matter
  11. 11. principLe of Learning in farming situation • The subject matter decided by learner and must be discovered by them only • Learning is a consequence of experience. • Cooperative approaches are enabling farmers in farming situations • Learning is an evolutionary process & is characterized by free and open communication, engagement, acceptance, respect and the right to make mistakes • Each persons experience of reality is unique
  12. 12. principLe of aduLt Learning • • • • • • • • • • • Learning is personal (active process) Involvement (themselves) Readiness Association Conditioned principle (physical & psychological climate) Comfort assist learning Adopt teaching (as per the needs) Distribution (short lesson) Capacity (rate of learning) Arousing interest Enough practice & Encouragement
  13. 13. effect of senses on Learning • • • • • Taste Touch Smell Hearing Sight 1% 1.5% 3.5% 11% 83%
  14. 14. Learners abiLity to retain • • • • • • Read 10% Hear 20% See 30% See & Hear 50% What they say as they talk 70% Practically doing 90%
  15. 15. types of Learning • Conditioned Response Learning An organism reacts to a new experience on the basis of identical past experience further the learning is based on and referred to past-learnt experience. • Verbal Learning Ability to manipulate symbols, as in language, makes it possible for us to learn things • Motor Learning (Skill learning) Individual learns muscular coordination as a mode response to some situation
  16. 16. • Perceptual learning As a result of past experience people perceive the situation differently. One-way changing a persons habit of responding is to change the way in which the individual perceives the environment • Attitude Learning An attitude is an emotionalized system of ideas, which predisposes an individual to act in certain way under certain conditions. Our past experiences will results in giving favorable or unfavorable response to objects, persons, situations or ideas
  17. 17. Laws of Learning: Thorndike’s Laws • The law of readiness • The law of exercise • The law of effect • The law of belongingness
  18. 18. The Law of readiness • The learners will become ready when they feel that learning the new behaviour will satisfy their motives. Therefore, the teacher has first to study the felt needs of the learners and help them to focus their attention on the problems which block the satisfaction of those needs. In this way learner will become ready for learning
  19. 19. The Law of exercise • Continued practice is considered necessary for retention of what is learnt. The teacher must help the learners to practice and review the desirable behaviour as many times it tends to become habitual • i.e Learning is a self activity • Practice make man/women perfect
  20. 20. The Laws of effecT • People learn more rapidly and permanently when the learning experience is pleasant or enjoyable. As a teacher, one has to see that the effect of learning experience is desirable to the students.
  21. 21. The Law of beLongingness • It indicates that the teacher should help the learner to perceive the relationships. • The relationship between the elements may be cause & effect relationships, known & unknown relationship, old & new relationship, scientific & general relationship etc. • Whenever a new behaviour is to be thought to the learners it must be related to the situation of the learners or with the background of the learners
  22. 22. Theories of Learning • Behavioural Theory – Classical conditioning theory – Trial and error theory – Operant or Instrumental conditioning theory • Cognitive Theory • Humanistic Theory
  23. 23. cLassicaL condiTioning Theory • Ivan Pavlov • Is a form of association learning where a connection between a stimulus and response is established. • It involves substitution and association of one stimulus for another • Classical reward theory • Classical aversive theory
  24. 24. Trail and error Theory • E. L. Thorndike • During process of learning wrong movements are dropped out and right movements are strengthened (Cat experiment)
  25. 25. operanT or insTrumenTal condiTioning Theory • B.F.Skinner • It is an active process in which learner responds to stimuli according to the way in which response affects stimuli. • The respondents behaviour is an unlearnt reaction to a specified stimulus • Instrumental reward conditioning theory • Instrumental aversive conditioning theory
  26. 26. cogniTive Theory • The emphasis is on information storage and processing without explicit building up of stimulus-response association or manipulation of reinforces • Cognitive development theory • Assimilation theory • Discovery learning theory • Hierarchical moral learning theory • Gestalt theory
  27. 27. humanisTic Theory It includes •Hierarchy of needs •Transactional analysis •Andragogy •Pedagogical aspect of human life