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Cells and Batteries
D.MaruthamaniD.Maruthamani
Assistant ProfessorAssistant Professor
Department of ChemistryDepartment of...
Cells and Batteries
Types of electrochemical cells
Cells and Batteries
Batteries
• Battery is a device consisting of a series of galvanic
cells that can act as portable sour...
Cells and Batteries
Factors influencing the emf of batteries
According to Nernst equation at 298K
• The emf of a battery l...
Cells and Batteries
Leclanche cell
• Invented by the French engineer
George Leclanche in about 1886.
• Dry cell, contains ...
Cells and Batteries
Construction of Leclanche cell
Cells and Batteries
Working of Leclanche cell
Cells and Batteries
Limitations of Leclanche cell
• Not designed for heavy current outputs. Withdrawal
about 25 to 50mA wi...
Cells and Batteries
Lead-acid battery
• Invented by the French physicist
Gaston Plante in the year 1893.
• Rechargeable.
Cells and Batteries
Construction of lead-acid battery
Cells and Batteries
Construction of lead-acid battery (cont....)
Cells and Batteries
Working of lead-acid battery
Cells and Batteries
Working of Lead-acid battery (cont….)
Discharging reactions
Anode reaction:
Cathode reaction:
Cells and Batteries
Working of Lead-acid battery (cont….)
Recharging reactions
Anode reaction:
Cathode reaction:
Cells and Batteries
Limitations of Lead acid battery
• More amounts of materials should be taken. Because,
the products le...
Cells and Batteries
Ni-Cd battery
• Invented by the Sweden scientist Waldemar Jungner
in the year 1899.
• Rechargeable bat...
Cells and Batteries
Construction of Ni-Cd battery
Anode : Cd/CdO Sheets Electrolyte : 22% KOH
Cathode : Nickel hydroxide w...
Cells and Batteries
Construction of Ni-Cd battery (cont...)
Cells and Batteries
Working of Ni-Cd battery
First charging
Cells and Batteries
Working of Ni-Cd battery (Cont…)
Discharging
Cells and Batteries
Working of Ni-Cd battery (Cont…)
Recharging
Cells and Batteries
Applications of Ni-Cd battery
"Eveready" sealed nickel-cadmium batteries are
ideally suited for use in...
Cells and Batteries
Fuel cells
Fuel cells are electrochemical cells in which the
chemical energy of easily available fuel ...
Cells and Batteries
Bischoff cell
Construction:
• Fuel (here carbon) acts as anode.
• Wire gauze makes electrical connecti...
Cells and Batteries
Construction of Bischoff cell
Cells and Batteries
Working of Bischoff cell
Anode:
The carbon ions ( ) generated at anode react with
carbonate ions prese...
Cells and Batteries
Working of Bischoff cell (Cont…)
Cathode:
At the cathode oxygen ionizes at the magnetite surface
to fo...
Cells and Batteries
Working of Bischoff cell (Cont…)
Since the clay support for the electrolyte is thin and
porous, sodium...
Cells and Batteries
Bacon Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell
Cells and Batteries
Working of Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell
• Oxygen diffuses into the cell through a porous
carbon electrode...
Cells and Batteries
Different Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cells
Cells and Batteries
Different Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cells
Cells and Batteries
Applications in automobile industry
Cells and Batteries
Applications in automobile industry
Cells and Batteries
Applications in automobile industry
Cells and Batteries
Applications in automobile industry
Cells and Batteries
Applications in automobile industry
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Batteries by prof.marudhamani

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Transcript of "Batteries by prof.marudhamani"

  1. 1. Cells and Batteries D.MaruthamaniD.Maruthamani Assistant ProfessorAssistant Professor Department of ChemistryDepartment of Chemistry PSG College of TechnologyPSG College of Technology Coimbatore – 641 004Coimbatore – 641 004 Electrochemical power sourcesElectrochemical power sources
  2. 2. Cells and Batteries Types of electrochemical cells
  3. 3. Cells and Batteries Batteries • Battery is a device consisting of a series of galvanic cells that can act as portable source of direct electric current at a constant voltage. • Used in calculators, watches, pace makers for heart, hearing aids, computers, car engines, stand-by power supplies, emergency lighting in hospitals, electroplating, industrial traction and military and space applications. • The size of batteries ranges from a fraction of a cubic centimetre to several cubic decimetres.
  4. 4. Cells and Batteries Factors influencing the emf of batteries According to Nernst equation at 298K • The emf of a battery largely depends on As the difference in the electrode potential increases the emf also increases for a given value of Q at constant temperature. • Temperature and the concentration ratio given by reaction quotient Q.
  5. 5. Cells and Batteries Leclanche cell • Invented by the French engineer George Leclanche in about 1886. • Dry cell, contains the elctrolyte in the form of a thick paste. • Not rechargeable.
  6. 6. Cells and Batteries Construction of Leclanche cell
  7. 7. Cells and Batteries Working of Leclanche cell
  8. 8. Cells and Batteries Limitations of Leclanche cell • Not designed for heavy current outputs. Withdrawal about 25 to 50mA will increase the efficiency and life of battery. • Not designed for continuous use. Intermittent usage will increase the efficiency of battery. • When not in use for a long period, the batteries should be removed from the device and should be stored in a cool place. Otherwise, condensation can cause electrical leakage which reduces life and may destroy the battery case.
  9. 9. Cells and Batteries Lead-acid battery • Invented by the French physicist Gaston Plante in the year 1893. • Rechargeable.
  10. 10. Cells and Batteries Construction of lead-acid battery
  11. 11. Cells and Batteries Construction of lead-acid battery (cont....)
  12. 12. Cells and Batteries Working of lead-acid battery
  13. 13. Cells and Batteries Working of Lead-acid battery (cont….) Discharging reactions Anode reaction: Cathode reaction:
  14. 14. Cells and Batteries Working of Lead-acid battery (cont….) Recharging reactions Anode reaction: Cathode reaction:
  15. 15. Cells and Batteries Limitations of Lead acid battery • More amounts of materials should be taken. Because, the products lead sulphate and water are poor conductors of electricity. Moreover, acid gets progressively diluted. • Optimal charging and discharging should be done to avoid the loss of efficiency. • Wrong polarity connection should be avoided. • Acid concentration and proper connections should be monitored /checked frequently.
  16. 16. Cells and Batteries Ni-Cd battery • Invented by the Sweden scientist Waldemar Jungner in the year 1899. • Rechargeable battery. • Nickel-cadmium is the only battery type that performs well under rigorous working conditions.
  17. 17. Cells and Batteries Construction of Ni-Cd battery Anode : Cd/CdO Sheets Electrolyte : 22% KOH Cathode : Nickel hydroxide with 14% Nickel foil
  18. 18. Cells and Batteries Construction of Ni-Cd battery (cont...)
  19. 19. Cells and Batteries Working of Ni-Cd battery First charging
  20. 20. Cells and Batteries Working of Ni-Cd battery (Cont…) Discharging
  21. 21. Cells and Batteries Working of Ni-Cd battery (Cont…) Recharging
  22. 22. Cells and Batteries Applications of Ni-Cd battery "Eveready" sealed nickel-cadmium batteries are ideally suited for use in many types of battery- operated equipment. Some of the applications are listed here:Some of the applications are listed here: Calculators Personal Pagers Dictating machines Digital Cameras Instruments Radio control Radios Photoflash equipment Portable computers Tape recorders Television sets Portable hand tools and appliances Cassette players and recorders Portable communications equipment
  23. 23. Cells and Batteries Fuel cells Fuel cells are electrochemical cells in which the chemical energy of easily available fuel such as hydrogen, methane etc. is converted into electrical energy by their oxidation at suitable anodes.
  24. 24. Cells and Batteries Bischoff cell Construction: • Fuel (here carbon) acts as anode. • Wire gauze makes electrical connection with fuel bed. • Oxygen electrode (set up by circulating oxygen continuously through bed of granular magnetite) acts as cathode. • Sodium carbonate acts as electrolyte.
  25. 25. Cells and Batteries Construction of Bischoff cell
  26. 26. Cells and Batteries Working of Bischoff cell Anode: The carbon ions ( ) generated at anode react with carbonate ions present in electrolyte to form carbon dioxide.
  27. 27. Cells and Batteries Working of Bischoff cell (Cont…) Cathode: At the cathode oxygen ionizes at the magnetite surface to form oxygen ions.
  28. 28. Cells and Batteries Working of Bischoff cell (Cont…) Since the clay support for the electrolyte is thin and porous, sodium oxide and carbon dioxide readily come into contact and in doing so react to regenerate the ionized electrolyte. Overall reaction
  29. 29. Cells and Batteries Bacon Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell
  30. 30. Cells and Batteries Working of Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell • Oxygen diffuses into the cell through a porous carbon electrode containing silver as catalyst. • Hydrogen diffuses into the cell through a similar porous carbon electrode containing nickel or platinum as catalyst. • The electrolyte, a warm solution of KOH, is placed between the two electrodes.
  31. 31. Cells and Batteries Different Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cells
  32. 32. Cells and Batteries Different Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cells
  33. 33. Cells and Batteries Applications in automobile industry
  34. 34. Cells and Batteries Applications in automobile industry
  35. 35. Cells and Batteries Applications in automobile industry
  36. 36. Cells and Batteries Applications in automobile industry
  37. 37. Cells and Batteries Applications in automobile industry ThankThank YouYou
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