About Balaji Thresher

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About Balaji Thresher

  1. 1. Approved by... Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India Northern Regional Farm & Machinery Testing & Training Institute, Hissar (HP) SUPER JET MULTICROP THRESHER
  2. 2. Content Introduction Threshing systems Parts of thresher Threshing process When to threshing Recommendations Threshing losses
  3. 3. Introduction Threshing is the process of collecting the mature crop from the field. • • • • • • Cutting: cutting the panicles and straw. Hauling: moving the cut crop to the threshing location. Threshing: separating the paddy grain from the rest of the cut crop. Cleaning: removing immature, unfilled and non-grain materials. Field drying: (optional) leaving the cut crop in the field and exposing it to the sun for drying. Stacking / Piling: (optional) temporarily storing the harvested crop in stacks or piles.
  4. 4. Threshing systems 1. Manual system Manual operation sometimes using tools Labor requirement: 48 person/ days
  5. 5. Capacity: approximately 15 person/ days Threshing by impact High shattering losses Pre-drying might be needed
  6. 6. 2. Pedal thresher Capacity: Principle Wire loop threshing drum Mainly combing the grains off the straw, some threshing by impact Advantages Maintains the straw Disadvantage Needs winnowing after threshing Wire loop threshing drum
  7. 7. 3. Axial-flow thresher Capacity: 0.3-3 tone/hour Threshing through impact Large range of sizes available With or without cleaner Truck mounted units Advantages Can thresh wet crop Compact produced in 9 different countries used by several 100,000’s of rice farmers across Asia Axial flow principle Peg tooth threshing drum
  8. 8. Axial flow thresher
  9. 9. 4. Super Jet Multicrop Thresher There are three types of super jet multicrop thresher 1. Single Shaft thresher 2. Double Shaft thresher 3. Autofeeder thresher Power efficiency is very more than conventional threshers. Many crops like millet,wheat,castor,rice,corn, soyabean can be threshed at better efficiency.  Cleaning process is done by combination of fan and oscillating sieves. Autofeeder for feeding the crops in cutterdrum.
  10. 10. 1. Single shaft thresher Construction: In this machine threshing rotor and blowers are mounted on same shafts. Required Input RPM to the threshing shaft is given by belt and pulley drive from the input power unit eg. Tractor/motor or engine. . There are two blowers mounted one is for suction and throwing chopped waste and second is for fine cleaning of the output grain. Body of very heavy gauge welded steel plates with the following features.
  11. 11. 2. Double shaft thresher Application : To Remove seeds from the cobs by gentle shelling action without damaging seeds. Empty Cobs will be collected from the back side of the thresher which comes out from the top of reciprocating sieve chamber. Construction: In this machine threshing rotor and blowers are mounted on different shafts. Required Input RPM to the threshing shaft is given by belt and pulley drive from the input power unit eg. Tractor/motor or engine. . There are two blowers mounted one is for suction and throwing chopped waste and second is for fine cleaning of the output grain. Body of very heavy gauge welded steel plates with the following features
  12. 12. 3. sidedshaft thresher Multi Crop Thresher also known as side shaft thresher has threshing rotor and blower. This Machine is state of the art design to handle different variery/size/shape of grains and pulses. This machine can thresh almost all the crops like castor, soyabean, maize, wheat, millet, cluster bean, mustard, pegion pea, mung beans, peas, sunflower, fenugreek, cumin seed, Isabgul(phylium), Rajgara, coriander seed(dhaniya) etc… Construction : In this machine threshing rotor and blowers are mounted on different shafts. Required Input RPM to the threshing shaft is given by belt and pulley drive from the input power unit eg. Tractor/motor or engine. From the back end of the threshing shaft belt and pulley drive is given and a required RPM is transferred to a shaft mounted on one of the side of thresher. And from there with belt and pulley drive rotation is provided to a blower shaft at the back end of thresher. There are two blowers mounted one is for suction and throwing chopped waste and second is for fine cleaning of the output grain.
  13. 13. Operation As the crop to be fed in the feeding hopper , threshing rotor applies gentle threshing/shelling and press the material to the concave sieve made from square polish bars resulting separation of grains and covers. From there onwards grains fall on reciprocating sieve chamber and passes through the screen. Wastage ( chopped straws) can not pass through the holes due to there bigger size and ejected through powerful blowers and falls away from the operating area. Small dust particles which passes through screens along with grains in the reciprocating sieve chamber finally blown by refining fan mounted on main shaft having air discharge to the final output of grains.
  14. 14. Various parts of multicrop thresher Double Shaft Thresher Rotor It is available in two types. This rotor rotates on two shaft and due to that the speed of the rotor and fan is proportionally same. • Chaffer It is very useful for refined chaffing of grains. • Big Size Sieve The new model is 30" wide. So there are no chances of clogging and the cleaning is done speedily.
  15. 15. Table Due to its special design it can be moved to and fro and up and down even though it is attached to Thresher. Rear- Side Blower This facility helps to throw away residue and to avoid spoiling tractor's radiator in case of change in the direction of wind. Traction Joint Hook It is specially designed to adjust it up or down as per requirement.
  16. 16. Gearbox It is designed in accordance with R.P.M of tractor. So the speed of the sieve can be adjusted according to the crop. Auto-Feeder Hoaper Modern design and new arrangement for feeding corn into the machine. This avoids chances of accident. No necessity to push corn into the machine by hands. No injury is caused while drawing wheat, mustard, vetch, etc and also has better average.
  17. 17. When to thresh thresh the corn when:  20-25% grain moisture 80-85% straw colored and  the grains in the lower part of the panicle are in the hard doe stage  30 days after flowering
  18. 18. Cleaning  Combination of fan and oscillating sieves  Air delivered by first fan removes lighter materials  Second fan removes heavy materials by flow airs from behind parts of the sieves.  Top sieves with large holes remove larger straw particles  Bottom sieves with smaller holes remove small seeds (e.g. weed seeds)
  19. 19. Losses during threshing Separation loss or “blower loss” = mature grains that are mixed with straw or chaff during the cleaning operation. Scatter loss = mature grains that are scattered on the ground during the threshing and cleaning operation. Threshing loss = mature grains that remain attached to the panicle in the straw after completion of the threshing operation. High threshing efficiency will lead to low threshing loss, and vice versa.
  20. 20. Recommendations for optimizing quality Threshing at the right time and moisture content Avoid stacking the cut crop in the field Avoid delays in threshing after harvesting Use the proper machine settings when using a threshing machine Clean the grain properly after threshing Avoid delay in drying after threshing
  21. 21. Tips for manual threshing Thresh as soon as possible after cutting Hand thresh at lower moisture Place a large canvas under the threshing frame to minimize shatter loss
  22. 22. Tips for machine threshing Thresh as soon as possible after cutting Level the thresher Set machine correctly drum speeds in thresher (600rpm) air flow in the cleaner angle in the cleaner sieves
  23. 23. Setting threshing drum speed Always adjust the thresher correctly. For peg-tooth drums the drum tip speed should be about 12-16 m/sec (see Table for correct RPM). Higher speeds result in higher grain damage and de-hulled grains. Lower speeds increase the amount of non-threshed grain and result in grain loss. Lower speeds also decrease the throughput of the thresher. RPM Tip speed (m/s) for drum diameters of 30 cm 40 cm 50 cm 400 6.3 8.4 10.42 450 7.07 9.4 11.78 500 7.85 10.5 13.09 550 8.64 11.5 14.4 600 9.42 12.6 15.7 650 10.21 13.6 17.02 700 11 14.7 18.3 750 11.8 15.7 19.64 800 12.6 16.8 21 850 13.4 17.8 22.25 900 14.14 18.85 23.6
  24. 24. Setting concave clearance Concave clearance For most threshers clearances between peg-teeth and concave should be about 25mm. Smaller clearance increases grain damage and might lead to clogging of straw. Larger concave clearances reduce threshing efficiency.
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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