conflict and negotiation

21,671 views
21,025 views

Published on

ORGANISATION BEHAVIOR CHAPTER14 CNOFLICT AND NEGOTIATION

Published in: Education
0 Comments
25 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
21,671
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
28
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,459
Comments
0
Likes
25
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Conflict primarily deals with perception. If nobody thinks there is conflict, then no conflict exists. Conflict can be experienced in an organization through many different avenues. It can be that the goals of the individuals are incompatible or there is a difference in opinion over the interpretation of facts. Many conflicts also arise through disagreements about how people should behave. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • The interactionist view of conflict does recognize that even though functional conflict can support the group goals and improve their performance there is also dysfunctional conflict that hinders group performance. This type of conflict should be avoided, controlled, or minimized as much as possible. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • There are many types of interactionist conflict including task, relationship, and process. Task conflict arises when there is conflict over the content and/or goals of the work. If this type of conflict exists at low to moderate levels, then this is a functional conflict that can help individuals seek clarification or new ideas on how to accomplish their goals. Relationship conflict is based on problems between individuals and is almost always dysfunctional. Process conflict occurs when there is disagreement on how the work gets done. Low levels of process conflict represent functional conflict. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • The conflict process is outlined above. In the following slides we will look at each step individually. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Stage one of the conflict process is potential opposition or incompatibility. In this stage there are three main conditions that can cause conflict to arise. They are communication, structure, and personal variables. Communication may cause conflict when words mean different things to different people and misunderstandings result. Communication can be functional to a point, but when too much communication is given, it can cause frustrations and sometimes there are barriers in place to effectively hear what is being communicated. Structure can cause conflict when people are confused about their roles or the amount of authority they have. If goals are not well-defined or different for different group members, that can cause conflicts. Also leadership styles may cause conflict if it is not a style group members respond well to. Reward systems and dependency issues may also be sources of conflict. Personal variables will cause conflicts when there are different value systems represented and personality types are at odds. These factors can bring about conflict and set the stage for conflict to occur. Stage two then talks about what comes next. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Stage two looks at the recognition or cognition of the conflict and the personalization or the emotional part of the conflict. As stated earlier, in order for conflict to be present, there must be an awareness of its existence, defined as perceived conflict. Once people are aware of the conflict, emotions are expressed that can impact the outcome of the conflict – this is defined as felt conflict. Emotions can include anxiety, tension, frustration, or hostility. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Stage three starts to look at the intentions of the individuals involved. These intentions include the determination to act in a certain way, but it is important to realize behavior does not always accurately reflect intention. Sometimes people act out of emotion and not rational thinking. There are competing dimensions of conflict-handling intentions. One can be motivated by cooperativeness or attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns or assertiveness, attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. As the exhibit in this slide shows, there are also variations of those two competing claims. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Stage four moves us beyond intentions to the chosen behavior in the conflict. Conflict management is using behavior such as resolution and stimulation techniques to manage how much conflict is present. The conflict-intensity continuum in this slide shows the escalation of conflict from zero conflict to annihilatory conflict. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • There are a number of techniques available to help work through conflict. Some ideas include problem solving, creating a shared goal, and restructuring the organization. Each technique chosen needs to reflect the situation and the people involved in order to be an effective conflict resolution technique. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Stage five looks at the outcomes of conflict resolution. Functional outcomes include increasing group performance, encouraging interest and curiosity, and creating an environment for self-evaluation and change. Dysfunctional outcomes include discontent workers, reduced group cohesiveness, and infighting. In order to create functional conflict, it is important to reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Having a good understanding of conflict and conflict resolution, it is now important to look at negotiation. Negotiation or bargaining is the process where the people involved work on creating a deal that is mutually beneficial. There are two main approaches – distributive and integrative. Distributive bargaining seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources and often creates a win/lose situation. Integrative bargaining seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win situation for all parties involved. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • The chart on this slide compares the two different bargaining approaches in regards to different criteria. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • The grid in this slide outlines the steps of the negotiation process: Preparation and planning, definition of ground rules, clarification and justification, bargaining and problem solving, and closure and implementation. You should determine your and the other party’s BATNA before proceeding with negotiations. BATNA represents the Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement or the lowest acceptable value you will take for a negotiated agreement. Then anything above your BATNA is a good negotiated outcome. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Many individual differences are interwoven in the negotiation process and impact the effectiveness of the outcomes. Personality traits will impact outcomes as extroverts tend to be weaker at negotiation because they will want people to like them. Intelligence is not an indicator of effective negotiation skills. Mood and emotion can impact negotiations as anger is often an effective tool in distributive bargaining, whereas positive moods are helpful in integrative bargaining situations. Gender can also impact negotiation effectiveness. Men and women tend to approach negotiations in the same way but may view the outcomes differently. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Organizations today are often utilizing third party negotiators to work through conflicts. They may use a mediator who is a neutral third party helping to facilitate a negotiated solution by using reason, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. They may use an arbitrator who helps to negotiate solutions but has the authority to dictate an agreement. A conciliator may also be brought in who is a trusted third party who provides informal communication between the parties. Or a consultant may be utilized as a skilled conflict manager who will attempt to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • There are numerous global implications in the area of conflict as different cultures will view conflict through unique lenses. For example, U.S. managers are more likely to use competing tactics whereas Japanese managers will tend toward compromise and avoidance. The different viewpoints of conflict will play out in the arena of negotiations and the styles utilized. American negotiators will often make the first offer where Japanese negotiators will wait. North Americans use facts to persuade, Arabs use emotions, and Russians will speak more in ideals. Brazilians tend to say no when negotiating much more than American or Japanese negotiators will do so. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • Conflict is a natural part of the organizational context and it can be constructive or destructive. Excess conflict can be reduced through competition, collaboration, avoidance, accommodation, or compromise. In the end, it is best to seek a negotiation strategy that is a win-win for all parties. (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, All rights reserved.
  • conflict and negotiation

    1. 1. Robbins, Judge, and VohraOrganizational Behavior14th Edition Conflict and Negotiation Conflict and Negotiation Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell CollegeCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-1Behavior, 14e
    2. 2. Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Define conflict. – Differentiate between the traditional, resolution focused, and interactionist views of conflict. – Outline the conflict process. – Define negotiation. – Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. – Apply the five steps in the negotiation process. – Show how individual differences influence negotiations. – Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations. – Describe cultural differences in negotiations.Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-2Behavior, 14e
    3. 3. Conflict Defined Conflict Defined A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about – That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations – Incompatibility of goals – Differences over interpretations of facts – Disagreements based on behavioral expectationsCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-3Behavior, 14e
    4. 4. Transitions in Conflict ThoughtTransitions in Conflict Thought THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICT THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT MANAGED CONFLICT VIEWCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-4
    5. 5.  THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICTThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided Conflict was bad and to be avoided it was viewed negatively and discussed with such terms as VIOLENCE,DESTRUCTION and IRRATIONALITY to reinforce its negative connotationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-5
    6. 6.  THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT the belief that conflict is not only a positive force ina group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effictively It encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious peaceful,tranquil,and cooperative group is porne to becoming,apathetic,and unresposive to needs for change and innovation. functional conflict dysfunctional conflictCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-6
    7. 7. Forms of Interactionist Conflict Forms of Interactionist ConflictCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-7Behavior, 14e
    8. 8. Types of Interactionist Conflict Types of Interactionist Conflict  Task Conflict – Conflicts over content and goals of the work – Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL  Relationship Conflict – Conflict based on interpersonal relationships – Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL  Process Conflict – Conflict over how work gets done – Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONALCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-8Behavior, 14e
    9. 9. The Conflict Process The Conflict Process We will focus on each step in a moment… E X H I B I T 14-1 E X H I B I T 14-1Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-9Behavior, 14e
    10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-10
    11. 11. Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityStage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, over communication and “noise” Structure – Size and specialization of jobs – Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity – Member/goal incompatibility – Leadership styles (close or participative) – Reward systems (win-lose) – Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality typesCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-11Behavior, 14e
    12. 12. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Important stage for two reasons: 1. Conflict is defined • Perceived Conflict – Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise 2. Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the eventual outcome • Felt Conflict – Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostilityCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-12Behavior, 14e
    13. 13. Stage III: Intentions Stage III: Intentions Intentions – Decisions to act in a given way – Note: behavior does not always accurately reflect intent Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions: – Cooperativeness • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns – Assertiveness • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concernsSource: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial andOrganizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. Arrows added. Used with permission. E X H I B I T 14-2 E X H I B I T 14-2Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-13Behavior, 14e
    14. 14. Stage IV: Behavior Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management – The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict Conflict-Intensity ContinuumSource: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Managementand Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40. E X H I B I T 14-3 E X H I B I T 14-3Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-14Behavior, 14e
    15. 15. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Management Techniques  Conflict Resolution  Conflict Stimulation Techniques Techniques – Problem solving – Bringing in outsiders – Superordinate goals – Communication – Expansion of resources – Restructuring the – Avoidance organization – Smoothing – Appointing a devil’s – Compromise advocate – Authoritative command – Altering the human variable – Altering the structural variables Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 SEE E X H I B I T 14-4 SEE E X H I B I T 14-4Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of OrganizationalBehavior, 14e 14-15
    16. 16. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes Functional  Dysfunctional – Increased group – Development of discontent performance – Reduced group – Improved quality of effectiveness decisions – Retarded communication – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Reduced group cohesiveness – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Infighting among group members overcomes group – Provision of a medium for goals problem solving  Managing Functional – Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and Conflict change – Reward dissent and punish conflict avoidersCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-16Behavior, 14e
    17. 17. Negotiation NegotiationNegotiation (Bargaining) – A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them Two General Approaches: – Distributive Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation – Integrative Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solutionCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-17Behavior, 14e
    18. 18. Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining Distributive versus Integrative BargainingBargaining Characteristic Distributive Bargaining Integrative BargainingGoal Get all the pie you can Expand the pieMotivation Win-Lose Win-WinFocus Positions InterestsInformation Sharing Low HighDuration of Relationships Short-Term Long-TermSource: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A.Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin,1985), p. 280. Integrative Distributive SEE E X H I B I T 14-5 SEE E X H I B I T 14-5Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-18Behavior, 14e
    19. 19. The Negotiation Process The Negotiation Process  BATNA – The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement – The lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement E X H I B I T 14-7 E X H I B I T 14-7Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-19Behavior, 14e
    20. 20. Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Personality Traits – Extroverts and agreeable people are weaker at distributive negotiation; disagreeable introverts are best – Intelligence is a weak indicator of effectiveness Mood and Emotion – Ability to show anger helps in distributive bargaining – Positive moods and emotions help integrative bargaining Gender – Men and women negotiate the same way, but may experience different outcomesCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-20Behavior, 14e
    21. 21. Third-Party Negotiations Third-Party Negotiations Four Basic Third-Party Roles – Mediator • A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives – Arbitrator • A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. – Conciliator • A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent – Consultant • An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysisCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-21Behavior, 14e
    22. 22. Global Implications Global Implications Conflict and Culture – Indian and French managers view conflict differently – Indian managers are more likely to use accommodation and avoidance while French managers are likely to use competing tactics. Cultural Differences in Negotiations – Multiple cross-cultural studies on negotiation styles, for instance: • American negotiators are more likely than Japanese bargainers to make a first offer • North Americans use facts to persuade; Arabs use emotion; and Russians use asserted ideals • Brazilians say “no” more often than Americans or JapaneseCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-22Behavior, 14e
    23. 23. Summary and Managerial Implications Summary and Managerial Implications Conflict can be constructive or destructive Reduce excessive conflict by using: – Competition – Collaboration – Avoidance – Accommodation – Compromise Integrative negotiation is a better long-term method E X H I B I T 14-8 E X H I B I T 14-8Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-23Behavior, 14e
    24. 24. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-24Behavior, 14e

    ×