IMD 203 - Ch03
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IMD 203 - Ch03 IMD 203 - Ch03 Presentation Transcript

  • A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 3 PC Repair Fundamentals
  • Objectives
    • Learn about tools you’ll need as a PC support technician
    • Learn how to develop a preventive maintenance plan and what to include in it
    • Learn how to work inside a computer case
    • Learn what happens when you first turn on a PC before the OS is loaded
  • Objectives (continued)
    • Learn how to approach and solve a PC problem
    • Learn how to troubleshoot a failed boot before the OS is loaded
  • Introduction
    • Basic repair skills
      • Developing a maintenance plan
      • Implementing a maintenance plan
      • Working inside a computer case
      • Following sequence of events that occur at startup
    • Advanced repair skills
      • Using common-sense guidelines to solve problems
      • Interviewing a user
      • Determining if a problem occurs before or after boot
      • Troubleshooting and solving a problem of a failed boot
  • PC Support Technician Tools
    • Help you maintain a computer
    • Help you diagnose and repair computer problems
    • Criteria for choosing tools:
      • Level of PC support you expect to provide
      • Amount of money you can spend
    • Some essential tools:
      • Ground bracelet, ground mat, or ground gloves
      • Torx screwdriver set
      • Recovery CD, DVD, or floppy disk for target OS
    • Store tools in toolbox for PC troubleshooting
  • Figure 3-1 PC support technician tools
  • Recovery CDs
    • Used to boot a system
    • Also used to repair and reinstall Windows
    • Primary recovery CD sources
      • PC manufacturer (preferred)
      • Operating system distributor, such as Microsoft
    • Some hard drives have a hidden recovery partitions
      • A hidden partition can be used to reinstall Windows
      • A utility for creating recovery CDs may be provided
      • Access hidden utilities by pressing a Fn key at startup
  • Figure 3-2 Windows Setup CD and Windows Recovery CDs for a notebook computer
  • Loop-Back Plugs
    • Used to test various ports
      • Some port types: serial, parallel, USB, network
    • How to use a loop-back plug
      • Plug in the loop-back plug
      • Run the software that comes with the plug
  • Figure 3-3 Loop-back plugs used to test serial and parallel ports
  • Cleaning Pads and Solutions
    • Various types are designed for specific uses
    • Example: contact cleaner
      • Cleans contacts on expansion cards
    • Warning: solutions may be flammable and/or toxic
    • Sources of safety and emergency instructions:
      • Side of the can of solution
      • Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
    • Adhere to safety procedures of your employer
      • Example: fill out an accident report (if required)
  • Figure 3-5 Each chemical you use should have available a material safety data sheet
  • Post Diagnostic Cards
    • Report computer errors and conflicts at POST
    • How to use a POST diagnostic card:
      • Install card in an expansion slot on the motherboard
      • Attempt to boot your system
      • Record any error codes appearing in LED panel
      • Look up the entry associated with the error code
    • Examples of Post diagnostic cards:
      • PCI Error Testing/Debug Card by Winic Corporation
      • POST card V3 by Unicore Software, Inc.
      • Post Code Master by MSD, Inc.
  • Figure 3-6 Post Code Master diagnostic card by MSD, Inc.
  • Personal Computer Preventive Maintenance
    • Preventive maintenance reduces number of problems
    • Goals of preventive maintenance plans:
      • Prevent failures
      • Reduce repair costs
      • Reduce downtimes
    • Goal of disaster recovery plan: manage failures
    • Some causes of PC failure: heat, dust, spills, viruses
  • When a PC is your Permanent Responsibility
    • Tasks and procedures to prepare for troubleshooting
      • Keep good backups of data and system files
      • Document all setup changes, problems, and solutions
      • Protect the system against viruses and other attacks
        • Always use a firewall (software or hardware barrier)
        • Install and run antivirus software
        • Keep Windows Updates current
      • Physically protect your equipment
  • Figure 3-9 Configure antivirus software to scan e-mail and instant message attachments and to download updates automatically
  • Creating a Preventive Maintenance Plan
    • Plan based on history or pattern of malfunctions
      • Example: PCs in dusty areas need more maintenance
    • Goals common to maintenance plans
      • Extend the working life of a PC
      • Anticipate problems that could disrupt service
      • Ensure data is secure and backed up
      • Provide support to PC users
    • Basic steps involved in designing a plan
      • Define your overall goals
      • Incorporate procedures for achieving goals
  • Dealing with Dust
    • Dust accumulates in layers over components
    • Two major problems due to dust blankets
      • PC components directly overheat
      • Cooling fans jam, also resulting in overheating
    • Maintenance task: remove the layer of dust
    • Two tools used to remove dust:
      • Antistatic vacuum
      • Compressed air
  • Preparing a Computer for Shipping
    • Adverse factors to consider:
      • Rough handling
      • Exposure to water, heat, and cold
      • Misplacement or theft of computer
    • Some shipping guidelines to follow:
      • Backup the hard drive onto a backup medium
      • Remove inserted disks, tape cartridges, or CDs
      • Coil and secure all external cords
      • Separately wrap hardware components
      • Purchase insurance on the shipment
  • Disposing of Used Equipment
    • Various guidelines for disposing of equipment:
      • Table 3-2
      • Manufacturer documentation
      • Local environmental regulators
    • Danger posed by monitors and power supplies
      • Residual charge in capacitors can cause shock
      • Modern devices discharge if unplugged for 60 minutes
      • Older devices may require discharge with a probe
    • Destroy secondary storage devices with sensitive data
  • Table 3-2 Computer parts and how to dispose of them
  • How to Work Inside a Computer Case
    • Objective: dismantle a computer, put it back together
    • Some safety precautions to follow:
      • Make notes that will help you backtrack
      • Keep screws and spacers orderly
      • Do not stack boards on top of each other
      • Do not touch the chips on circuit boards
      • Do not use a graphite pencil to change DIP settings
      • Turn off the power, unplug and ground the computer
      • Do not remove covers of monitors or power supplies
      • Keep components away from hair and clothing
  • Static Electricity
    • Build-up of charge due to absence of conductors
    • Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
      • Due to dissimilar electrical surfaces making contact
      • Only 10 volts of ESD can damage PC components
      • Walking across carpet generates up to 12,000 volts
    • Two types of damage: catastrophic and upset failure
    • Tool and methods for grounding yourself and the PC
      • Ground bracelet, ground mats, static shielding bags, antistatic gloves
    • If working inside a monitor, do not ground yourself
  • Figure 3-13 A ground bracelet, which protects computer components from ESD, can clip to the side of the computer case and eliminate ESD between you and the case
  • Steps to Take Apart a Computer
    • Essential tools:
      • Ground bracelet
      • Phillips-head screwdriver
      • Flat-head screwdriver, paper, and pen
    • Follow safety precautions at all times
    • Summary of Steps 1 - 4
      • 1. Enter CMOS and write down customized settings
      • 2. Power down the system, unplug all components
      • 3. Put the computer on a good-sized table
      • 4. Remove the cover of the PC
  • Figure 3-19 Removing the cover
  • Steps to Take Apart a Computer (continued)
    • Summary of steps 5 - 11
      • 5. Diagram cable connections and switch settings
      • 6. Identify cables connecting drives to motherboard
      • 7. Remove the cables to all drives
      • 8. Remove the expansion cards
      • 9. Remove the motherboard (or drives)
      • 10. Remove the power supply from the case
      • 11. Remove each drive (if not already removed)
  • Figure 3-33 Remove the motherboard from the case
  • Steps to Put a Computer Back Together
    • 1. Install power supply, drives, motherboard, cards
    • 2. Connect all data and power cables
    • 3. Plug in the keyboard, monitor, and mouse
    • 4. Ask instructor to check work (if in a classroom)
    • 5. Turn on the power and check PC functions
  • Understanding the Boot Process
    • Key learning objectives
      • Know how to boot a PC
      • Understand what happens first when a PC is turned on
      • Understand how an operating system is loaded
  • Booting a Computer
    • Process that drives a computer to a working state
    • Hard (cold) boot: turn the power switch on
    • Soft (warm) boot: allow the OS to reboot
    • How to soft boot Windows XP
      • Click Start
      • Click Turn Off Computer
      • Click Restart
  • Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot
    • Hard boots are more stressful on machines
      • Power surges through system when PC is turned on
    • Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot
      • Less stressful on the machine
      • Faster due to skipping initial steps
    • Some computers have a soft and hard power switch
      • Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows
      • Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine
  • The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot
    • The startup BIOS gets a system up and running
    • Four phases of the boot process:
      • BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources
        • POST: power-on self test
      • BIOS searches for and loads an OS
      • OS configures system and completes its own loading
      • Application software is loaded and executed
  • Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware resources and needs and assigns system resources to satisfy those needs
  • Changing the Boot Sequence
    • BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS
    • Boot sequence: order of drives checked for an OS
    • Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities
    • Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on
      • Example: press F8 before Windows screen appears
  • Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load an operating system (in this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)
  • How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem
    • Assume the attitude of an investigator
    • Do not compound the problem by your own actions
    • Look at the problem as a learning opportunity
    • Ask questions until you understand the problem
    • Believe that you can solve the problem
  • Steps to Solving a PC Problem
    • Key advice:
      • Ask good questions
      • Document the process
    • Four-step problem solving process:
      • Step 1: Interview the user
      • Step 2: Back up data
      • Step 3: Solve the problem
      • Step 4: Verify the fix and document the solution
  • Figure 3-44 General approach to troubleshooting
  • Troubleshooting a Failed Boot
    • It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills
    • Hands-on training: troubleshooting a failed boot
  • My Computer Won’t Boot
    • First step: maintain your calm
    • Second step: develop a game plan
    • Figure 3-45 provides a procedure
      • Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions
      • Example: Does the PC boot properly?
        • If no, troubleshooter is directed to another question
        • If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for now)
  • Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem
  • Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting
    • Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45
      • The electrical subsystem
      • Essential hardware devices
        • The motherboard, memory, and the CPU
      • Video
      • Reading from the hard drive
    • Key aides: tables identifying error codes
  • Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings
  • Summary
    • Some PC repair tools: recovery CDs, screwdrivers, POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic cards
    • Preventive maintenance plans extend the life of a PC
    • Follow an organization’s preventive maintenance plan, or develop one if it does not exist
    • Computers present chemical and electrical hazards
    • Protect components in case from ESD by grounding yourself and the PC
  • Summary (continued)
    • Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the technician for actual repair work
    • Startup BIOS controls when the boot process begins
    • Four step boot process: POST, loading the OS, OS initializing itself, loading and executing applications
    • Expert troubleshooters ask good questions
    • Before tackling a problem, develop a game plan