Ent300 Module08


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Ent300 Module08

  1. 1. MARKETING PLAN Dr. Zarina Salleh Hjh. Zanariah Zainal Abidin
  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOME <ul><li>Understand the importance of preparing a marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the steps in preparing a marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify components of a marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a marketing plan for a small business </li></ul>
  3. 3. Module Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in Preparing a Marketing Plan for Small Businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Product or Service </li></ul><ul><li>Target Market </li></ul><ul><li>Market Trend and Market Size </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Forecast </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Budget </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>A well prepared marketing plan helps entrepreneurs to: </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate market acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>develop strategies to market products or services of the business </li></ul><ul><li>identify required resources to execute the marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>estimate marketing financial requirement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Steps in Preparing a Marketing Plan <ul><li>Setting Marketing Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determining product or service </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identifying target market </li></ul><ul><li>4. Analyzing market trend and size </li></ul><ul><li>5. Assessing competition </li></ul><ul><li>6. Forecasting sales </li></ul><ul><li>7. Developing marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>8. Planning for marketing personnel </li></ul><ul><li>9. Preparing marketing budget </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Setting Marketing Objectives: <ul><li>New business: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce new products/services </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate market acceptance and sales </li></ul><ul><li>Existing business </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce new products/services </li></ul><ul><li>Inform market of product improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Enter new market </li></ul><ul><li>Increase sales of existing products </li></ul><ul><li>Increase market share </li></ul><ul><li>Market penetration </li></ul><ul><li>Regain market for existing product </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Determining product or service <ul><li>Needs & wants of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Marketability of a product or service </li></ul>Guide in describing product or services State clearly the value and benefits of product or service to customers. Capitalize on the uniqueness or strengths of the product or services such as on its formulation, ingredients used, safety, ease of use, life span, flexibility, assortment, location, operation hours, personalization, extended warranty etc.
  8. 8. 3. Identifying target market <ul><li>Who is the consumer of the product or service? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their common needs or wants that would be satisfied by the product or service? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their common characteristics? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Target Market Alternatives <ul><li>Segmented Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>target several or a particular market segments </li></ul><ul><li>design separate offers for each segment </li></ul><ul><li>Niche Marketing: </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting a large share of one or a few segments or niches </li></ul><ul><li>Micromarketing: </li></ul><ul><li>Tailoring products to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations </li></ul>
  10. 10. Target Market Alternatives <ul><li>Mass-Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>ignoring market segment differences </li></ul><ul><li>go after the whole market with one offer </li></ul>
  11. 11. Common Bases For Segmentation <ul><li>Demographic Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychographic Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Segmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits Sought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User Status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usage Rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty Status </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Analyzing Market Trend and Market Size <ul><li>What is the trend in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>What is market potential? </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the market - what is the RM value? </li></ul><ul><li>Customer profiles of relevant market segments. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Market Size : </li></ul><ul><li>- Total potential purchase of target market </li></ul><ul><li>- Should be translated into monetary value </li></ul><ul><li>- Growing, remain the same or shrinking </li></ul><ul><li>Market Share : </li></ul><ul><li>a comparative measure to assess </li></ul><ul><li>performance against the competition </li></ul>
  14. 14. 5. Assessing Competition <ul><li>Identify Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Assess their market positions and strategies i.e.; product quality, pricing, distribution and promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Duration in market </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6. Forecasting Sales <ul><li>Past performance </li></ul><ul><li>Break-even – to set the minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Secured projects </li></ul><ul><li>On-going contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated or intended growth </li></ul>
  16. 16. 7. Developing Marketing Strategy <ul><li>To enable business to plan for its limited resources in order to achieve stated marketing objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The key idea is to deliver customer satisfaction yet provide business with a competitive advantage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Marketing Strategy <ul><li>Product Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Place or Distribution Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion Strategy </li></ul>
  18. 18. Product Strategy <ul><li>Include product and service strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product is a physical item that can be seen, owned, used or consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas and creations of the minds can also be regarded as product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service is intangible and cannot be seen or owned, but is useful, can be experienced and able to satisfy customer needs and wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product strategy refers to a product, service or a combination of both </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Product attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade name </li></ul><ul><li>Brand name </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul><ul><li>After sales service </li></ul>Product Strategy
  20. 20. Marketing Strategies for Services <ul><li>Service quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service package </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of services at competitive price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering that is unique and can be differentiated from the competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After sales services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Pricing Strategy <ul><li>Price is the value exchanged between the seller and the buyer in order for the buyer to possess, use or experience the product or service offered </li></ul><ul><li>Most often, price is in the form of monetary value paid by the buyer to obtain the product or service </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Common Pricing Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Cost + Variable Cost + Desired Margin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on Perceived Value </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Competition </li></ul>Pricing Strategy
  23. 23. Pricing Tactics <ul><li>Price lining </li></ul><ul><li>Discounting </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase with purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Captive pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Product bundle pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation pricing </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factors to Consider When Setting Price <ul><li>Marketing objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Demand and supply </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor’s pricing </li></ul>
  25. 25. Place or Distribution Strategy <ul><li>Place strategy refers to the decision made on the location of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of location is crucial for most brick and mortar businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Channel of distribution is a network developed to ensure product or services reach target consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution strategy for consumer product and industrial product may vary </li></ul>
  26. 26. Distribution Strategy Manufacturer/Producer Wholesaler Retailer Retailer Wholesaler Consumer E-Intermediaries
  27. 27. Factors to Consider When Determining Distribution Strategy <ul><li>Type of product </li></ul><ul><li>Target market </li></ul><ul><li>Market coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation ease </li></ul><ul><li>Product standardization </li></ul>
  28. 28. Promotion Strategy <ul><li>Promotion is any coordinated effort taken to supplement the product, price and place strategies in order to achieve marketing objectives. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Sales promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul>Promotion Strategy
  30. 30. <ul><li>Channel of adverting: </li></ul><ul><li>Printed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic and Digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort messaging system </li></ul></ul>Promotion Strategy Advertising Paid, non personal sales effort through a medium to influence a large number of consumers. <ul><li>Outdoor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Sales promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional activities or incentives carried out or offered within a set time frame to influence purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Common sales promotion strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coupons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase-with-purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premiums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-of-purchase promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweepstakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended warranty </li></ul></ul>Promotion Strategy
  32. 32. <ul><li>Personal Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Personal sales presentation conducted by a trained sales person to influence potential customers. It is most often used for products that require demonstration or explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts taken to develop and maintain good relationship with the public to ensure good favorable public image of the business. </li></ul>Promotion Strategy
  33. 33. 8. Planning For Marketing Personnel <ul><li>Determine number of supporting personnel needed to undertake the marketing tasks – in-house or outsource? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing manager or executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution personnel </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 9. Preparing Marketing Budget <ul><li>Marketing budget refers to expenses incurred in planning for the marketing aspect of the proposed business or project. It consists of 3 components. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Investment on fixed assets </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation for working capital for marketing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Other marketing expenses </li></ul>
  35. 35. END OF MODULE 8
  36. 36. Marketing Budget Table 5,000 5,000 4,000 Total (RM) 5,000 3,000 1,500 500 4,000 <ul><li>Fixed Asset </li></ul><ul><li>Signboard </li></ul><ul><li>Working Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Salary/EPF/SOCSO </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Lain-Lain </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Opening </li></ul>Other Expenses (RM) Working Capital (RM) Fixed Asset (RM) Items