DIGITAL AND ONLINE APPLICATIONS IMD252 DIGITAL RESOURCE CENTER
3.1 What is Database? <ul><li>‘ a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various way’ (The New Oxford Dictionary) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ a database generally provides details of bibliographic references which the searchers uses as keys in order to consult the original source literature to obtain the detailed knowledge he is seeking’ (Computer in Library Management, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968, Dr. Ralph Halsted Parker of University of Missouri, developed a graduate level class in the masters degree program titled ‘Library Information System’. He went on to identify LIS as not only “automating” existing processes within libraries (such as circulation, cataloging and so forth) but also including access to materials not held by the library but available in electronic form. </li></ul>FACTS... For example, the National Library of Medicine was experimenting with the development of what is now MEDLINE.
3.2 Library System <ul><li>The application of computing systems in libraries has been a subject of interest to professional librarians for more than 65 years. More recently, libraries have sought to implement increasingly complex solutions that involve distributed networking and access to remote information resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To date, the developments have included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Library System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-Based Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Library Collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Books and e-Journals </li></ul></ul>FOR MORE INFO... Visit http://www…
Integrated Library Systems <ul><li>Integrated Library System (LIS) began with one-of-a-kind pioneering efforts centering on circulation control and overdue notice production, moved to turnkey integrated library systems solutions and, by the turn of the century, had developed into a global industry. One example of an early pioneering effort was the development of a punched card circulation systems at the University of Texas at Austin in the mid 1930s. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical integrated library systems include functionality in support of acquisitions, cataloging, circulation control, materials booking, serials control, and online catalogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially developed as standalone solutions to library’s processing and services needs, these applications are now increasingly ‘welded at the seams’ with other services, such as access to online databases. </li></ul>GLOSSARY... Turnkey system – a computer-system developed for a specific application, such as library systems, and delivered ready to run, with all the necessary application program and peripherals.
Online Databases <ul><li>The online database industry began as a separate marketplace (from the integrated library system) in the early 1970s and now is closely coupled with integrated library systems solutions to provide end users a ‘one-stop’ desktop access point for materials held both locally and licensed internationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed for professional searchers, the online database industry has grown to include users of all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The recent introduction of the WWW has allowed database producers a clear route for disseminating their resources to a wider audience, in many instances directly to the end user (in some cases bypassing the library). </li></ul>FACTS... Example – AGRICOLA Database been subscribed by the library and also organization such as MARDI, PORIM etc…
Web-Based Resources <ul><li>Web-based resources moved to the forefront in the mid 1990s, after libraries determined that users had begun to spend much of their time browsing the Web searching for relevant materials that could be conveniently delivered to their desktop in digital fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional librarians began to think like users in terms of ‘one-stop shopping’ for information. </li></ul><ul><li>Using their expertise to identify, validate, and organize information content, they sought to build ‘portals’ that offered access not only to information that was held or licensed by the library, but also to information readily available on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries are continuing to develop new Web portals as new resources are created and made accessible via the Internet. </li></ul>GLOSSARY... Portal – a Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services.
Digital Library Collections <ul><li>The Digital Library movement, still in its early stages, has begun to evolve from its early research platform to more fully developed applications, typically in selected content areas. </li></ul><ul><li>As funding sources continue to be identified, we are now seeing the development of specialized collections in digital format. Aimed squarely at end users. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of digital library is rather encompassing, and currently we are seeing the first efforts at creating environments for storing and disseminating digital content. </li></ul>GLOSSARY... Internet – a systems of linked computer networks, worldwide in scope, that facilitates data communication services such as remote, login, file transfer, electronic mail and newsgroup.
E-Books and E-Journals <ul><li>In March 2000, Stephen King released a 66page novella, Riding the Bullet, as an e-Book, exclusively for publication via the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>A half million copies sold in the first 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>While King was not the first to publish full text via the Internet, this event certainly identifies the potential for a new distribution medium – directly from author to the end user. </li></ul><ul><li>Other authors and their publishing houses are rapidly developing strategies for competing in this new arena. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly publishers already compete for the click of the end user’s mouse, and both online full-text databases and e-Journals are example of their positioning and strategy. </li></ul>GLOSSARY... CD-ROM – acronym for compact disk-read only memory, a read-only optical storage technology that uses compact disks.
3.2.1 Computer/Technology Use in Managing DRC <ul><li>Online Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation System </li></ul><ul><li>Local Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Center Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul>Both librarians and software agents do work delegated to them by a user; both apply some expertise to the user’s problem or need; and both work in the background, completing tasks for the user’s information needs.
3.4 Document Imaging Process (DIP) <ul><li>Document Imaging Process is a process of transforming boxes, cabinets, even rooms full of paper into convenient and safe electronic files. </li></ul><ul><li>Document storage is a problem that exists in the home and the workplace both. </li></ul><ul><li>Space is not the only concern. How do you protect these documents? They are vulnerable to fire, blood, insects or mice, or even simply the effects of time. They are also vulnerable to theft, or to being seen by unauthorized eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>The more documents you have, the more difficult it is to keep them safe. </li></ul>GLOSSARY DIP – a system for the imaging, storage, and retrieval of text-based documents that includes scanning documents, storing the files on optical or magnetic media, and viewing when needed using a monitor, printer, or fax.
3.4.1 Types of document that can be stored digitally <ul><li>The short answer is, if it can be printed or copied, it can be stored digitally. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minutes from meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings & Blueprints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals & Logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books and other published material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile or very old documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family correspondence or archives. </li></ul></ul>
3.4.2 Benefits of DIP <ul><li>Accessing and sharing information is very quick and inexpensive; </li></ul><ul><li>Costs related to managing electronic documents are a fraction of those for paper archives; </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing documents internally and externally is very easy, quick and inexpensive; </li></ul><ul><li>You are not required to invest in new hardware since the documents can be viewed on any Mac, PC or Unix system; </li></ul><ul><li>The documents are in electronic format, the archives won’t deteriorate over time; </li></ul><ul><li>You will increase the level of workflow and customer satisfaction due to quick and up-to-date access to information. </li></ul>
3.5 Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) <ul><li>Computer-Aided Instruction (also called Computer-Assisted Instruction) is means of helping students master cognitive (academic) skills through interactive computer programs. </li></ul>
3.5.2 Benefits of CAI <ul><li>Difficult concepts are made easier to understand. Can also be used by the student for private study on individual PCs following instructor-taught lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances retention of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater teaching effectiveness improves exam pass rates. </li></ul><ul><li>CAI transmits difficult concepts in an easy-to-understand, entertaining way, alleviating language difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater standardization of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>New instructors become ‘operational’ more rapidly than with traditional teaching methods. Again, increasing cost effectiveness of instructional staff. </li></ul>FOR MORE INFO… Multimedia Presentation