CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION <ul><li>This chapter examines the basis of the concept of the digital resource center. By briefly reviewing key developments in the evolution of the school resource center over the past 10 years, and placing these in the context of the Smart School initiatives in Malaysia environment. At the end of this chapter you will: </li></ul><ul><li>be aware of the ways in which the digital resource center may be understood </li></ul><ul><li>have an awareness of systems in the resource center </li></ul><ul><li>be familiar with the major trends in the development of information systems in school resource center over the past 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>be able to reflect on the relationship between today’s systems and future visions (Smart School) </li></ul>
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION (cont..) Malaysia comprises Peninsular Malaysia (131,598sqkm), Sabah (73,711sqkm) and Sarawak (124,449sqkm), covering a total area of 329,759sqkm. Peninsular Malaysia consists of 11 states and the Federal Territory. The capital of Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur. Education is under the purview of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry manages a comprehensive public school system, ranging from primary schools to colleges. The school libraries/school resource center are under the the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education.
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION (cont..) Building a Digital Resource Center is a daunting challenge, involving a wide variety of technological, social and policy issues. The library and resource center of the future will be digital and have the following features: <ul><li>Constrain all recorded knowledge online; </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed, maintained globally; </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible by: </li></ul><ul><li>any person </li></ul><ul><li>in any language </li></ul><ul><li>any time </li></ul><ul><li>anywhere on earth </li></ul><ul><li>via the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Act as the information resource for the 21 st century. </li></ul>
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION (cont..) The shift from traditional libraries or resource center to the digital is not merely a technological revolution, but requires a change in the paradigm by which people access and interact with information. If digital resource center are to become truly useful, they must assist users in making the transition from paper books to digital hypermedia. Many people report that they derive a high degree of comfort from books for the following reasons: <ul><li>Portability – Books can readily be carried, are compact, light in weight and comfortable to read. Anything you can’t read in bed will never displace a book. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability – Reading books would still be possible even if every computer on earth were down. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with the medium. The pages of a book are easy to turn, the book can be opened to any page, and the linear hierarchical organization of the material is easy to grasp. </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to annotate. Comments and corrections can be written in a book; passages can be marked for emphasis or studying, and a book can be resold to recover costs. </li></ul>
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION (cont..) The first use of computers in information management opened the door to new ways of accessing and using information, making it possible to create and access electronic indexes to collections, electronic databases of journal articles, conference papers, and so on. This was a new era and, in addition to using the printed information resources created locally and accessible remotely.
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION (cont..) Over the years, remote online information search services became a regular part of our information-seeking and information use patterns. These services did not replace libraries of printed material, but enhanced information access and use by exploiting information and communication technologies. Subsequently libraries began to convert their card catalogues to the electronic catalogue databases which eventually became the online public access catalogues (OPAC), providing local as well as remote access.
Assignment #1 (10% - Individual) Case study : In 1964, Arthur Samuel predicted that by 1984 paper libraries would disappear, except at museums (Samuel 1964). Why hasn’t this happened? From the above statement, do your research at the library and answer the question Why? Written assignment and not less than 5 pages (excluding cover, reference, and appendix page). Submission date is on ___________ 2008.
Assignment #1 (10% - Individual) – Possible answers. <ul><li>The biggest reason is that we cannot easily find billions of ringgit to fund the mechanical conversion of millions books to digital form (Funding Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Sum to compensate the copyright owners for most of the books (Copyright Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of security and fraud (Intellectual Property Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with people who like books the way they are (Loyalty and Change Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>User’s affordability to buy computers, readers mechanism or online services (Economics and Digital Divide Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>User’s sensible reluctance to change a system that works into an unknown one (Paradigm Shift – just like fixing something that is not broken). </li></ul>
1.3: What is OPAC? Most libraries have devoted large expenditures on the development of online public access catalogues (OPACs). The online aspect of these catalogues, originally aimed at internal use, has now been extended to include external access. In addition to the library’s stock of materials, the OPACs can also provide access to the library journals holdings and enable outside users to determine which journals are held by the library and in which part of the library. ‘ We need to change the definition of the catalog from what we (librarians) THINK it is to what our users WISH it were!’ ‘ Our catalog should represent EVERYTHING we have AND the THINGS we have access to elsewhere.’ (Shirley Baker)
1.3: What is OPAC? “ For the past 25 years, OPACs have been at the center of the library world. That era is over. Ask any patron how many times a week he uses an OPAC and how many times a week he uses a Web search engine. The answer to that question should scare us.” (Stuart Weibel)
1.3.1: Benefits of OPAC <ul><li>There were three main benefits that resulted when an OPAC was introduced into a library. </li></ul><ul><li>These benefits included: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced costs to provide a library catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Improved access to the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate access to location and </li></ul><ul><li>Status information </li></ul>
1.4: CD-ROM Another major change in the process of storage, retrieval and dissemination of information was brought by the invention of CD-ROMs. Major databases began to appear on the new medium, facilitating distribution and access. Users could access electronic information sources – bibliographic as well as non-bibliographic databases – at their own end, in libraries, offices, and so on. Features of CD-ROM: CD-ROMs can store up to 700Mb of data. CD-ROM technology was originally used for encyclopedias, dictionaries, and software libraries, but now they are often used in multimedia applications.
1.5: The WEB One of the most important contributions of web technology has been the creation of digital libraries, which allow users to access digital information resources from virtually anywhere in the world. What are digital libraries/ digital resource centre? How do they differ from online databases and search services? Will they replace print libraries? What impact will they have on people and society? All these questions will be discuss in this programmed IMD252 – Digital Resource Centre. <ul><li>The internet enhance libraries service to users through: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic library information. </li></ul><ul><li>New ways of access to library facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive home pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Links to remote information. </li></ul>
1.6.1: What is Digital Library? What is digital library? Several definitions of digital libraries are available in the literature. The definition of digital libraries provided by Arms points towards the management aspects of digital collections and services. According to Arms (2000), a digital library is a ‘ managed collections of information, with associated services, where the information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network ’ . The definition provided by Oppenheim and Smithson, on the other hand, lays emphasis on digital technologies. According to them, a ‘ digital library is an information service in which all the information resources are available in computer processable form and the functions of acquisition, storage, preservation, retrieval, access and display are carried out through the use of digital technologies ’ (Oppenheim and Smithson, 1999)
1.6.2: Characteristics of Digital Library <ul><li>Major Characteristics of Digital Library </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Chowdury GG and Chowdury S (2003) following major characteristics have been jotted down: </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of digital information sources </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Libraries reduce the need for physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Users at remote </li></ul><ul><li>Users may build their own personal collections by the facilities provided by digital library </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to distributed information resources </li></ul><ul><li>Some information resource can be shared by many at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift both in use and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Collection development be based on potential usefulness and appropriate filtering mechanism be followed to negotiate the problem of plenty </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to handle multilingual content. </li></ul>
1.7: What is Resource Center? <ul><li>S chool resource center is specifically designed and located at any school for specific purpose. General objectives may be listed as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>to serve the needs of the school community (teachers and students) </li></ul><ul><li>to provide reference materials at appropriate levels </li></ul><ul><li>to provide study areas for users </li></ul><ul><li>to provide a lending service appropriate to the different types of users </li></ul>
1.7: What is Resource Center? (cont..) It is a place to build, maintain, organize, evaluate, sort and disseminate the collection for the use of teaching, learning, research and publishing and also to develop the creativity and innovation of the students . School resource center is a systematic organized collections of carefully and purposely selected information, that are used to provide appropriate and timely information, program and services to pupils and teachers of the school’s in order to strengthen the method used and opportunities. Discussion How school resource center can help to strengthen the method used in the teaching and learning processes?
1.7.1: Purpose of a Resource Center Primary purpose is to improve teaching and learning. It consists of dependent component, resources , management , activities and programs . Resources Activities Management Programs
1.7.1: Purpose of a Resource Center (cont..) <ul><li>To participate effectively in the resource center programs to meet the need of students, teachers, parents and other communities member. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide young people with resource center materials and services appropriately to their individual growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>To guide student in their reading to increase their enjoyment, satisfaction, critical judgment and application. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide opportunity for students to develop interests to make personal adjustment and to acquire desirable social attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>To help student to become skillful and disseminating users of resource center and print and non print materials. </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce student to community libraries and to cooperate with those resource center with other librarians and community growth. </li></ul>
1.7.1: Purpose of a Resource Center (cont..) <ul><li>To work with teachers in the selection and use of all types of resource center resources which contributes to teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>To participate with other teachers and administrators in programs for professional and cultural growth of the school staff. </li></ul><ul><li>To cooperate with other librarians and community leaders in planning and developing resource center programs. </li></ul>Fact The success of a school resource center depends upon the best utilization of its resources. The value of a resource center can be gauged basing on much and how well it is used by the members of a community.
1.7.2: Developing a Digital Resource Center Info “ IN ORDER TO DESIGN LIBRARIES FOR THE NEEDS OF FUTURE USERS, WE NEED TO EXAMINE THE VARIED ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN THE COMPLEX RANGE OF LIBRARIES WE HAVE TODAY” Is there any one among us today who does not believe that education and learning are lifelong pursuits? Education and learning can be the huge market for digital libraries when distributed digital resource center and information work technologies are available to content creators. Distributed digital resource center also have the potential to revolutionize education and learning, so there is a healthy symbiotic relationship among education and learning and digital resource center, a relationship that is in its infancy. School resource center varied greatly. Some IRC appeared to be healthy, stimulating and active learning environments, however, these were very rare indeed. More significant is the issue that even though nearly all the IRC that I visited had no students in them library staff did not identify this as a problem .
CHAPTER 2 : MANAGEMENT OF A DIGITAL RESOURCE CENTER The process of change continues. To understand that process, and to understand how to improve school resource center. In effect we ask, What problems are school resource center meant to solve? Because the situation is complex, the problems we discover depend in part on what we choose to look for. Different types of libraries have evolved in response to different kind of problems. Info Managers do things right: leaders do right things. (Riggs and Sykes, 1993)
CHAPTER 2 : Introduction Info It has become a truism to say that human resources are an organization’s most valuable asset. Library and information professionals are in well placed position to make a strong contribution to the development of the global information infrastructure, by ensuring that much of what already exist in print format finds it way on the information superhighway. However, there seem to be a general lack of adequate skills that would enable them work in electronic information environments.
2.0: Goals and Objectives of DRC Fact Information is a precondition for identifying choices, reducing uncertainty about their implications and facilitating their implementation. (UN.CTC, 1983, p.34) Librarians and other information specialists must grapple with the problem of redefining themselves and the importance of their proper knowledge in an information environment that continues to change out of all recognition. <ul><li>Objectives of DRC are: </li></ul><ul><li>To provide library resources available in full-text online, including electronic journals, full-text databases, digitised collections, e-books, etc. that are accessible anywhere and anytime (reduces constraints for time and space). </li></ul><ul><li>To have effective and expedient document delivery services if students are to access resources that are not available in full-text online. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide ‘point of need’ assistance – in any of the forms: virtual reference, online tutorials, e-mail or telephone communication with librarians, and other instructive resources that enhance students’ information literacy experiences. </li></ul>
2.0: Goals and Objectives of DRC (cont…) Fact <ul><li>Support the creation and use of new more dynamic, integrated formats for representing data, information and knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Can support new forms of group collaboration in the creation and use of information; new communities of practice. </li></ul>Resource Centre is specifically designed and located at any school.
2.1: Roles and Functions <ul><li>D igital Resource Centre serving a scattered student population can provide sophisticated distance learning programmes. The widespread access of the Internet into the homes of students ensures the success of these schemes and enables the libraries to provide course materials and other documents electronically to students scattered over wide areas, particularly rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of models have been applied to the various ways in which the Web can be used as part of the student learning experience: </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘OPEN RESOURCE MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>Where the Web is accessed to retrieve information from diverse sources which may, or may not, be educationally-based. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘LEARNING MATERIALS MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>Where the Web contains specific resources for students such as background reading recommended by teachers. </li></ul>
2.2: Roles and Functions <ul><li>The ‘TEACHING MATERIALS MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>- Which contains information provided by teachers and related to a particular course of study and may contain brief summaries of lectures and be a replacement for paper-based handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘DIRECTED LEARNING MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>Containing the complete set of learning materials for a course. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>Involving computer-based training for self-study by students. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘COMMUNICATION MODEL’ </li></ul><ul><li>- Where students discuss and collaborate on their studies through facilities such as computer conferencing. </li></ul>
2.3: Resources The definition introduces the concept of distributed and linked resources. The digital resources are the collections and information services. The digital collections are – digital surrogates, non-printable objects and digital artifacts that cannot be distributed in printed form. The digital resources are the collections and information services. The digital collections are – digital surrogates, non-printable objects and digital artifacts that cannot be distributed in printed form
2.4: Instructional Technology/Material It is all concerned with improving the process of human learning. They are concerned with identifying objectives, designing strategies to achieve those objectives, applying a system. Approach reacting positively to innovation, ensuring feedback and evaluation. <ul><li>The major role of IT suggested by Ellington is to improve efficiency in the teaching / learning process: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing quality of learning or the degree of mastery. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing the time taken for learners to attained desired goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the capacity of the teachers in terms of the number of learners taught, without reducing the quality of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing cost without affecting quality. </li></ul>
2.4.1: Instructional Technology/Material It is the arrangement of learning and environment to facilitate learning. The methods, media and equipment needed to convey information and guide the learner’s study. <ul><li>Function of Resource Centre in Instructional Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Present materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver materials independently, allowing students some students control over how much of material they will experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learners to experience materials through various senses e.g. (seeing projected slides ,hearing a verbal description) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide learners with repeated and varied experiences with subject matter to help them construct their own understanding or meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Gain and maintain attention on subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate student toward a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance the quality of instructional materials using the electronic capabilities of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the time required to design, produce and reproduce the instructional materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the overall effectiveness of instructional materials through enhanced presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine graphic, video, audio and textual forms of media into single integrated instructional presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with others at both near and distant locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Student use computer to complete task and solve problems. </li></ul>
CHAPTER 3 : DIGITAL AND ONLINE APPLICATIONS <ul><li>The documents or resources in the digital collection will be of very varied nature, as indeed are physical documents. A digital resource centre collection, which may be logically defined as a set of criteria for selecting resources from a broader information space, may be less formally understood as a set of digital objects, with the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Unique : they should be identifiable as the same resource in whatever format or medium they are instated; </li></ul><ul><li>Coherent : they must present as logically coherent quantity of information; </li></ul><ul><li>Significant : they must include viable and useful information content; </li></ul><ul><li>Control : the objects are prepared and organized according to some standards, and are preserved in some way; and </li></ul><ul><li>Access : they must be accessible by the libraries’ systems. </li></ul>
3.1: Databases What is Database? It should be noted that the word ‘database’ is often used outside the library and information field to describe “ a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways ” (Source: The New Oxford Dictionary). In the field of information management the words database are now usually taken to have the following meanings: ‘ a database generally provides details of bibliographic references which the searchers uses as keys in order to consult the original source literature to obtain the detailed knowledge he is seeking’ . (Source: Computer in Library Management,2003,167)
3.2: Library Systems In this fast changing world information technology and information management are going to play an important role. Information has already been recognised as one of the basic resources for the socio-economic development of a country. Information has now rather acquired the status of the most sought after resource of the resources. The newly emerging ‘high tech’ disciplines such as computers, tele-communications, biotechnology, etc… are given importance because they store, generate, manipulate, communicate information.
3.2: Library Systems ILMU Implementation Internet Users INTERNET Leased Lines Intranet Users Multi-tiered Security Terminal Servers NAS Box for Digitize Materials (Optional) Staging & Testing servers Router and Switches Web servers ILMU Application Database Server Satellite Libraries
3.3: Virtual Reference There are some works of reference that are so clearly better suited to electronic supply and access that they will almost certainly never again appear in print. Searchable databases are, of course, tools that have been used in libraries for many years. In the 1970s, when services such as Dialog and MEDLINE were first offered, connection time was so expensive that reference librarians spent a great deal of time with library users refining their information needs prior to connection to databases, and this expert guidance meant that user got the best possible answers to their information queries. There are some works of reference that are so clearly better suited to electronic supply and access that they will almost certainly never again appear in print.
3.4: Document Imaging Process DIP is a process of transforming boxes, cabinets, even rooms full of paper into convenient and safe electronic files! Document storage is a problem that exists in the home and the workplace both. Bills, receipts and statements need to be stored for business and tax purposes; confidential documents, legal documents and agreements must be saved per law; and correspondence and other personal documents may be stored for sentimental or other reasons. If you have documentation that needs to be saved, then you are aware of how quickly you can run out of storage space. Businesses may have literally rooms full of file cabinets!
3.4.1: Document Imaging Process Space is not the only concern. How do you protect these documents? They are vulnerable to fire, flood, insects or mice, or even simply the effects of time. They are also vulnerable to theft, or to being seen by unauthorized eyes. The more documents you have, the more difficult it is to keep them safe.
3.4.1: Document Imaging Process Digital Document Imaging offers the high-tech solution to an age-old problem! We convert your paper documents into electronic files which can be easily stored on either the internet, your personal computer, or on backup media such as CD's or zip disks. Once they have been transformed, they can be printed from any printer, emailed, copied, or even archived into databases for easy searching and reference. We can save them either as image files, for a complete and accurate representation of the original (especially appropriate when signatures are required or if there are pictures in the original) or as text files (not a re-creation, but much smaller in terms of file size).
3.4.1: Document Imaging Process <ul><li>Types Of Documents That Can Be Stored Digitally </li></ul><ul><li>The short answer is, if it can be printed or copied, it can be stored digitally! It is particularly well-suited to certain types of documentation, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes from meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Specification Manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings & Blueprints </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction Manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Journals & Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Books and other published material, subject to copyright laws </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile or very old documents </li></ul><ul><li>Family correspondence or archives </li></ul><ul><li>However, the possibilities are really only limited by the fact that the original needs to be a "hard copy" of some sort, and needs to be in compliance with all existing laws, statutes and regulations (i.e. we will not violate copyright laws nor knowingly digitize anything illegal). </li></ul>
3.4.1: Document Imaging Process PDF Files A very common electronic format is the PDF file (Portable Document Format). This is an excellent, versatile means of storing your documents. Among its greatest advantages is the fact that it can easily be read by anyone with a computer! The viewing software, known as Acrobat Reader, is available free of charge from Adobe, and downloads quickly and easily from the internet for those who do not have it. A more complete version of this software, "Acrobat", is available for a reasonable fee and offers the ability to edit these files as well as simply read them. Other advantages to PDF files include the fact that they are "platform-independent", which means they can be opened on any type of computer: PC's, Macintosh, or Unix-based. PDF files can also be saved in various different formats depending on how it will be used. These formats include: TIFF Files : These are "raw" image files, which have not been formatted for PDF. These files are large but are the least expensive to create. PDF, Image Only : Image-only files are exact re-creations of the original but are built solely from images, and thus cannot be "searched" if archived in a database. This has a relatively large file size but is the least costly PDF to create.
3.4.1: Document Imaging Process <ul><li>Why PDF? </li></ul><ul><li>PDF is the industry standard for image files </li></ul><ul><li>Platform-independent and easily viewed using free software </li></ul><ul><li>Entire file can search for any/all words on page </li></ul><ul><li>Image files can be converted to text to reduce size </li></ul><ul><li>Why not PDF? </li></ul><ul><li>Image files cannot be indexed </li></ul><ul><li>Non-text files can be unrealistically large </li></ul>
3.4.1: Benefits of Document Imaging Process Never waiting for another microfilm to be pulled! 7 You will increase the level of workflow and customer satisfaction due to quick and up-to-date access to information. 6 The documents are in electronic format, the archives won't deteriorate over time; 5 You are not required to invest in new hardware since the documents can be viewed on any Mac, PC or Unix system; 4 Distributing documents internally and externally is very easy, quick and inexpensive; 3 Costs related to managing electronic documents are a fraction of those for paper archives; 2 Accessing and sharing information is very quick and inexpensive; 1
3.5: Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) <ul><li>3.5.1 What is CAI? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided Instruction (also called Computer-Assisted Instruction) is a means of helping students master cognitive (academic) skills through interactive computer programs. CAI can employ any of a variety of technologies, including web pages, sound, video and animation (which are the best technologies to use will depend on the application and method of distribution). In a properly constructed CAI presentation, students: </li></ul><ul><li>Read a short explanation of subject matter and, possibly, look at images, listen to sound and/or watch a video or animation that further explains the subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer one or more multiple-choice questions that test students’ comprehension of what they have just read, seen and/or heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress to additional subject matter only after they have demonstrated mastery of the stated learning objectives by answering the assessment questions correctly. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
3.5: Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) <ul><li>Difficult concepts are made easier to understand - Can also be used by the student for private study on individual PCs following the instructor-taught lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances retention of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater teaching effectiveness improves exam pass rates - greater value for money for the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater teaching effectiveness means that the classroom teaching content of courses can be reduced (20% or more). Increasing the cost-effectiveness of instructional staff. CAI, thus, has the potential to increase company profitability. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers effective English-language based training to students whose mother tongue is not English. - CAI transmits difficult concepts in an easy-to-understand, entertaining way, alleviating language difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater standardisation of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>New instructors become "operational" more rapidly than with traditional teaching methods. Again, increasing cost effectiveness of instructional staff. </li></ul>3.5.2 What are the benefits of CAI?
3.6: CD-ROM and Internet In the 1980s, when reference sets on CD-ROM began to appear, these were often still used by librarians on behalf of users. The rise of open-access terminals and PCs meant that increasingly users checked out the CD-ROM from the issue desk and had unmediated interaction with it – with varying degrees of frustration given that most products had different interfaces and search methods. With networked CD-ROMs, access could be from outside the library, and users had to be even more self-reliant. Figure: CD-ROM network infrastructure diagram.
3.6: CD-ROM and Internet CD-ROM technology has taken the information industry by storm. Since standards were first agreed on the hardware in 1985, with subsequent agreements to standardize on operating systems to be installed on the disc, the built up of CD-ROM as a means of distributing vast amounts of textual information has been dramatic. A second wave of this interest in CD-ROM technology is being evidenced at present as multimedia – combining sound, moving images and animations, together with text and data on the same disc, to provide an integrated story – takes hold.
3.6: CD-ROM and Internet Multimedia workstations are essentially defined as those offering the capability to display and reproduce some or all the following on a single medium: text, data, audio, graphics, still pictures, animation and moving pictures. Each has a set of technical standards which are increasingly becoming open . At present restrictions on bandwidth and end user hardware capabilities are a limitation on multimedia in the networking area, though this is changing rapidly.
3.6: CD-ROM and Internet <ul><li>‘ Internet’ is the umbrella within which thousands of networks are connected using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocols which enables users in different countries, using different networks, to exchange information. It is the most rapidly growing feature of the information firmament. </li></ul><ul><li>Searching using the various ‘ navigators ’ is one of the fastest growing parts of the business. Examples of ‘navigators’ include: </li></ul><ul><li>Gophers </li></ul><ul><li>Archie </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web (WWW) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Veronica </li></ul>The Internet was launched in 1988 although its origins date back to the late 1960s.
CHAPTER 4 : DIGITIZATION AND AUTOMATION Although a large proportion of a digital library’s collection comprises materials that are born digital, such as e-journals, internet resources, databases, and so on, there are many resources that are not originally created in digital form, but are digitized in order to include them in a digital library’s collection. Digitization is the conversion of an analog signal or code into a digital signal or code. (Lee, 2001)
4.1: What is Digitization? (cont…) S ince the time of the Sumerians, documents and their supporting technologies have continued to evolve at an unprecedented path. Schramm (1988) documents that it took at least 50 million years for society to progress from spoken language to writing; about 5,000 years from writing to printing; about 500 years from printing to the development of sight-sound media (photography, the telephone, sound recording, radio, television); and yet fewer than 50 years from the first of the sight-sound media to the modern computer. In recent years, with the development of computing and networking technologies, documents and their supporting technologies are experiencing a revolutionary change. Many technologies appear to expand the document boundaries and extend the traditional definition of documents. As new document technologies cause transformation in the way we use documents, it has become increasingly important to rethink the role of documents.
4.1: What is Digitization? (cont…) O ur perception and understanding of documents is usually shaped by the documents we conventionally use. Traditionally, documents were denoted as “textual and text-like records” (e.g. books or a pile of printed records). This was the prevailing view of documents before the arrival of digital documents. The traditional notion of documents no longer accommodates emerging forms of digital documents. The concept of what constitutes a document is becoming increasingly complicated and amorphous (Buckland, 1997; Schamber, 1996). With the resurgence of interests about various fundamental issues of documents, more careful attention to the historical examination of evolution of various aspects of documents is warranted. amorphous without a clearly defined shape or form
4.1: What is Digitization? (cont…) T raditionally, information organizations deal directly with “information-as-thing.” For example, libraries deal with books, museums display objects, and archives handle records. The “differences in their physical attributes affect how the stored items can be handled” (Buckland, 1991). Rayward (1998) observes that with the proliferation of “information-as-thing” being represented electronically, “the physical distinctions between the different formats or media of record disappear.” He further notes that digitization “eliminates physical distinctions between types of records and thus, presumably, the need for institutional distinctions in the management of the systems with which these records are handled.”
4.2: Purpose of Digitization <ul><li>The digitization of resources opens up new modes of use, enables a much wider potential audience and gives a renewed means of viewing our cultural heritage. The advantages of digitizing includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate access to high-demand and frequently used items; </li></ul><ul><li>Easier access to individual components within items (e.g. articles within journals); </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid access to materials held remotely; </li></ul>
4.3: Purpose of Digitization <ul><li>The ability to reinstate out-of-print materials; </li></ul><ul><li>The potential to display materials that are in inaccessible formats (e.g. large volumes or maps); </li></ul><ul><li>‘ virtual reunification’ – allowing dispersed collections to be brought together; </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to enhance digital images in terms of size, sharpness, colour contrast, noise reduction, etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>The potential to conserve fragile/precious originals while presenting surrogates in more accessible forms; </li></ul><ul><li>The potential for integration into teaching materials; </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced searchability , including full text; </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of different media (images, sounds, video, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to satisfy requests for surrogates (photocopies, photo-graphic prints, slides, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the burden or cost delivery; and </li></ul><ul><li>The potential for presenting a critical mass of materials. </li></ul>
4.4: The Integrity of Digitized Information <ul><li>The central goal of any project should be to preserved the integrity of the information being digitized by defining and preserving those features of the objects that distinguish it as a whole and singular work – including: </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Fixity </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Provenance </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul>
4.4: The Integrity of Digitized Information Content The notion of ‘content’ as text is familiar to all information users and information professionals. But it also necessarily includes material submerged in the text, such as page numbers, chapter headings and footers. The content of images and sound is more problematical because less inherently understood. Colour is an element, as is shape and form in the case of images, while tonality can be significant for sound. High resolution during scanning is essential for rich colour register; this means a larger file size and more expensive storage, as well as slower transmission across a network. Where the costs of a digitization project are a significant factor, compromises may have to e made as to what is an essential level of ‘content’ for a particular information object as opposed to what would be ideal.
4.4: The Integrity of Digitized Information Fixity ‘ Fixity’ is the relationship of the object and its content to other objects and to the outside world. Library and information professionals are accustomed to the concept of fixity in published and other works; a book may go through several editions; business records, invoices for example, relate to a particular transaction which is fixed and located in time. In other cases – the most obvious being financial databases – the digitized data is volatile and there are no points of fixity except in relation to the data itself. The integrity and value of such databases resides in their completeness and the fact of being up-to-date. But in order to identify significant shifts, a record of changes and a method for recording these needs to be built into the initial design of the database.
Reference Reference is a third aspect which bears on the integrity of digitized information. Reference is a consistent method of identifying both what an information object is and where it is located. Such systems as authors, titles, ISBNs and catalogues have evolved over time to do precisely this for traditionally published materials. The challenge with digital information is to adopt such techniques which meet conventional citation requirements. Among the most important developments are the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), the Uniform Resource Name (URN) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs) but their use is far from standard as yet.
4.4: The Integrity of Digitized Information Provenance The provenance of an information object also contributes to its integrity. Provenance identifies where an information object came from and how it got there. This is essential if users of the information are to have any confidence in it and corresponds to the familiar notions of relying on the reputation of a publisher and the peer review system as indications of quality, worth and authenticity. It is necessary in a project to document the sources of the data which have been digitized, and in some cases how they were measured and what instrumentation systems were used for their collection, as well as the use made of the information by the organization which created or collected it.
4.4: The Integrity of Digitized Information Context The final attribute of information integrity is context, including technical and communication dimensions, links to other information objects and wider social issues. Essential for any use of digitized material is the specification of hardware and software technologies for both creation and use. The storage method selected for the digitized material has obvious implications for how and where it can be used, as well as by whom. HTML provides a way both to link together the disparate parts of a single object and to link one object with another. Wider social and economic issues include the provision of the technical infrastructure in which networks and communication services operate, data protection, copyright and other legal requirements, and funding for major digitization projects.
CHAPTER 6 : DIGITIZATION PLAN A digitization project may start in response to an external request and/or availability of funding, or as part for digitizing one or more specific collections. The first kinds is called reactive digitization and the second proactive digitization (Lee, 2001)
5.1: What is Automation? In the 1970s most libraries used the computer of the parent body, or a mainframe system over which they had no direct control. The 1970s saw the growth of cooperative services and resource sharing among libraries. In the early 1980s turnkey systems (where one supplier offers complete hardware, software, installation, training and maintenance) became prevalent. The significant drop in prices and impressive increase in power for microcomputers made microcomputer-based systems became feasible by the mid-1980s. CHAPTER 5 : LIBRARY AUTOMATION
5.2: What is Automation? What is the meaning of automation? Automation means ‘ the use or introduction of automatic equipment in a manufacturing or other process or facility’ (The New Oxford Dictionary). The focus now in library automation is on interconnecting systems , information resources , and users . Developments for the future include the growth of the use of networks and the Internet. <ul><li>Computers have traditionally been used in the management of libraries in many ways. Traditional library automation is blending with other information storage/retrieval operations and this is becoming standard for library automation. Integrated automated library management systems come with standard modules that include: </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation (keeping track of books checked out and by whom) </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging (keeping and offering access to materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisitions (acquiring new items) </li></ul><ul><li>Serials (tracking periodicals) </li></ul><ul><li>Online Public Access Catalogue or OPAC </li></ul><ul><li>InterLibrary Loan (cooperative sharing of library materials) </li></ul>
LIBRARY AUTOMATION Computer is one of the most powerful tools ever designed by man to solve problems that involve computing and processing of data. It can manipulate and transform all kinds of data at a tremendously fast speed without a mistake. It has no brain, therefore, it has to be instructed to perform a task and supplied with necessary information in the most detailed form in a language which it can understand.
5.3: Introduction A ccording to Webster’s Dictionary, automation is, ‘the technique of making an apparatus, a process or a system operate automatically’. In other words, it is the machinery that mathematically manipulates information storing, selects, presents and record input data or internally generated data.
5.4: Automation and Libraries <ul><li>M echanisation of library house-keeping operations predominantly by computers is known as library automation. The term ‘library automation’ is used extremely to refer to the use of computers to perform some of the traditional activities such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial control; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataloging; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and some related fields such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Information retrieval, automatic indexing, abstracting, automate textual analysis, and resource sharing through networks. </li></ul>
5.4.1: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Purposes and some advantages of libraries automation are enumerated below: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Speed and Saving of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Updating record files much more quickly and easily </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Library Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Better Library Management </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>New services </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Records </li></ul><ul><li>Report production </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Computer in Library Management:2003,82) </li></ul>
5.4.2: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Increase in Speed and Saving of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Library automation saves time in information storing, handling, processing, retrieval and etc. because all these functions are done at enormous speed. As a result the time lag between the acquisition of documents and their availability to the user will be reduced considerably. </li></ul>
5.4.3: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Updating record files much more Quickly and Easily </li></ul><ul><li>Computers system will lend in updating the record files much more quickly and easily than in the manual system. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Library Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Computer systems installed in different libraries can be hooked to each other via satellite and through a central agency and thereby can know each other’s collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Better Library Management </li></ul><ul><li>When properly planned, per unit operating costs will normally be reduced by automation. The money saved can be utilized for some other productive purposes, such as book purchase, etc. </li></ul>
5.4.4: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>In order to meet with the increasing needs for services, the use of equipment can further be extended as such scope always exists in the system. There is, therefore, no need for increasing the manpower. </li></ul><ul><li>New Services </li></ul><ul><li>Many new services can be introduced without any extra cost or manpower. And many library service can be generated only as a by product of the records already available on the system. </li></ul>
5.4.5: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Protection of Records </li></ul><ul><li>Inputting the records in the system in machine readable form provides them greater protection against loss of these records by fire, earthquake, and natural disasters. Recreation of the files from the machine readable form of records is also much easier. </li></ul>
5.4.6: Purpose of Library Automation <ul><li>Report Production </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of reports about library activities, letters, notices, reminders etc. can automatically be generated. </li></ul>
8.1: What is a Smart School? <ul><li>A learning institution that has been systematically reinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management to prepare children for the Information Age . </li></ul><ul><li>Planned in stages nationally to meet the requirements of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) in line with the MoE. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives are to produce a thinking and technology literate workforce, democratise education, increase participation of stakeholders,provide all round development of the individual,provide opportunities to enhance individual strengths and abilities. </li></ul>
GLOSSARY OF BASIC CONCEPTS IMAGE CAPTURE A digital camera or scanner captures an image via a light sensitive sensor that converts that information into a digitally coded image-file that can be viewed on a monitor or printed out. For discussion of the pros and cons of digital cameras vs. scanners, see section V. PIXELS Digital images are composed of pixels, tiny little dots that are arranged into columns and rows to comprise the entire image. Each pixel represents a minute section of the image, and can represent a number of different shades of gray, or grayscale or color. When asked to define Image Size, pixels are typically used as the unit of measurement for the long and short dimensions of a particular image, although it is also possible to view the dimensions of an image represented in inches or centimeters. Most monitors provide a screen space of around 480 x 540 pixels (and sometimes larger). Resolution refers to the amount of pixels per inch (or dots per inch) used in a particular image file. The more pixels per inch, the higher the resolution (and download time) of the file. While Master Files require high resolution and bit-depth, the Web can represent only 72dpi.
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