Introduction to strategic studies & key concepts 2013 1


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Introduction to strategic studies & key concepts 2013 1

  1. 1. STRATEG IC STUDI ES (GFPS304 3) L- 1 Introductio n
  2. 2. Nature of Strategic Studies? 0 The discipline of Strategic Studies concerns itself with the use of force as an instrument of state policy, and remains an extremely Clausewitzian entity, deriving from the Clausewitzian notion of strategy as “the use of engagement for the purpose of the war” [von Clausewitz, cited in Loo, B. (2012)] 0 As an academic discipline the early focus was on how wars start, how they can be avoided, or if not avoidable, then fought in the most efficient manner possible (Farrell, 2010: 1). 0 To this end, the focus of traditional strategic studies has been the military means that actors in the international system employ to gain their political objectives or ends. 0
  3. 3. What is Strategic Studies? Definition by, 0Clausewitz 0Von Moltke 0Liddell Hart 0W.Murray and M Grimslay 0Grogery D.Foster 0Robert Osgood 0Collin S. Gray
  4. 4. What is Strategic Studies? ….is the use of engagement for the object of war (Clausewitz) ….is the practical adoption of the means placed at a general’s disposal to the attainment of the object in war (Von Moltke) ….is the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy (Liddell Hart) ….is a process, a constant adoption to the shifting conditions and circumstances in world where chance, uncertainty and ambiguity dominate (W.Murray and M.Grimslay) …is ultimately about effectively exercising power. Grogery D.Foster …as the overall plan for utilizing the capacity for armed coercion – in conjunction with economic, diplomatic and psychological instrument of power-to support foreign policy most effectively by overt, covert and tacit means. Robert Osgood
  5. 5. What is Strategic Studies? • Recently, thinkers argued that strategic studies or ‘strategy’ embodies more than just the study of war and military campaigns, but strategy is the application of military power to achieve political objectives. More specifically “the theory and the practice of the use, the threat of use of organized force for political purposes. [Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, Kautilya) • Liddle Hart (1969) coinage the concept of ‘grand strategy’, which involves the coordination and direction of “all the resources of a nation, a band of nations, toward the attainment of the political objectives” • Strategy deal with difficult problems of national policy which the areas of political, economic, psychological and military factors are overlap..
  6. 6. What is Strategic Studies? • Strategic theory is a theory of action (Brodie, 1973), which is best studied from interdisciplinary perspective (which involve: politics, economics, psychology, sociology, geography, tech, force structure, and tactics.) • Strategic studies cannot be studied as a discipline on it own, for it is too narrow, and rely upon arts, sciences and social sciences for ideas. • It is also studied by people from different expertise: Schelling (Economist), Kissinger (historian) Brodie ( Sc Politics) etc..
  7. 7. What is Strategic Studies? Evolution… • This concern with operational issues helped revive an interest among strategist with the different elements or dimension of strategy (i.e: Collin Gray & Michael Howard). • In “On War” Clausewitz, pointed that strategy consisted of moral, physical, methamatical, geography & statistical elements
  8. 8. ? Development of ‘SS’
  9. 9. During the Cold War, strategic studies became one of the most important sub-discipline within the international relations Bernard Brodie – 1949 Article (Strategy as a Science)  Concerned about methodology – argued that strategic studies need to be studied scientifically. “ 1st Age of Strategic Studies “golden age” – 1950s/60s – 1980s [nuclear deterrence, limited war, arms control] – utopian failed in WW2.
  10. 10.  1970s – A fallow period for Strategic Studies [Détente – a relaxation period by signing SALT1 & SALT 2)  1990s - 2nd Age of Strategic Studies - SDI (Bush Sr), BMDO (Clinton) & NMD (Bush Jr)  3rd Age? – mid-1990s-Now [the collapse of Soviet Union] & the end of Cold War  Security Studies emerged, eclipsed strategic studies as an area of inquiry. What is the future of Strategic Studies?
  11. 11. ? What criticisms are made of Strategic Studies?
  12. 12.  Obsessed with conflict and force  Insufficiently concern with ethical issues  million of lives are at risk in the calculation that take place in strategic policies  Not scholarly in their approach often advise government on paid basis, policy advocacy, part of government advice and justify their policy  Part of the problem, not the solution  State centric
  13. 13. ? Why?
  14. 14. Reasons ? 0 Relation between Strategic Studies and Realist ‘School of Thought’ 0 0 0 Human nature – inherently selfish, destructive, competitive and aggressive, prone to conflict due to pride and egoism Anarchy and power – international arena is in anarchy, state struggle for power to protect and survive. Limited role of international law, morality and institutions – without effective government state will respond only base on interest 0 Clausewitz - “Strategies are so preoccupied by threats to the interest of states & ignore security issues within the state.”
  15. 15. Relationship (Security & Strategic Studies)  Strategy = military (a part of security studies)  Security studies covers broader definitions includes everything that might negatively affect human affairs – i.e environment..etc  Security “freedom from threat to core values” SECURITY STUDIES TRADITIONAL Military NON-TRADITIONAL Economic Security Political Security Social Security Environmental security
  16. 16. Strategic Studies in IR & Security SOCIAL SCIENCES Political Sciences International Relations Security/Conflict Studies STRATEGIC STUDIES
  17. 17. Why Strategic Studies is needed? War is a serious business "War is a matter of vital importance to the state; the province of life or death; the road to survival or ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied" [Sun Tzu] "You might not be interested in war, but war is interested in you." [Trotsky]  War is Inevitable  Force and military power continue to be an important currency in the international politics.
  18. 18. ? Issues
  19. 19. Issues of interest in Strategic Studies  War  Application of strategic thinking and ideas  Threats (conventional and non conventional)  Defense spending  Nuclear and WMD issues  Asymmetrical warfare (insurgency and terrorism)  Alliance (military)  Intelligence and information warfare  Regional security threat
  20. 20. ? K ey Concepts
  21. 21. Key Concepts : Strategic Studies 0 Strategy 0 Grand Strategy 0 Theatre Strategy 0 Sphere of Influence 0 Sphere of Interest 0 Pre-Emptive Strike 0 Terrorism 0 Alliance – i.e. NATO & Warsaw Pact 0 Insurgency 0 Deterrence
  22. 22. Conclusion