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Historical Analysis of the England-Scotland Conflict
 

Historical Analysis of the England-Scotland Conflict

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    Historical Analysis of the England-Scotland Conflict Historical Analysis of the England-Scotland Conflict Presentation Transcript

    • England’s Impact on Scotland By Aleksej and Jason
    • What we’ll be talking about
      • Overview of Scotland
      • Scottish history in a nutshell
      • First War of Scottish Independence
      • Second War of Scottish Independence
      • ‘ The Fifteen’ Jacobite Uprising
      • ‘ The Forty-Five’ Jacobite Uprising
      • Independence Today
      • Conclusions
      • A Quote to Think About
    • A brief overview of Scotland
      • 78 772 sq km
      • 4 998 567 people (1991)
      • Largest Exports: Whiskey, Bagpiping, and Sean Connery
      • One of oldest national flags still in use
    • The Ultra-Condensed History of Scotland™
      • 1: Britain invaded by Romans
      • 122-128: Emperor Hadrian builds wall to keep out northern (RE: Scottish) tribes
      • C. 600: Celtic Scots from Ireland took over; land came to be called Scotland
      • 1066: Normans conquered and established feudalism
      • 1290: Struggle for crown; Edward I proclaims John Baliol king. John betrays him.
      • 1296: Edward I invades and makes himself king
      • 1297: William Wallace!!!
      • 1314: Robert the Bruce kicks the English out, and becomes king
      • 1512: James IV leads a failed invasion of England
    • The Ultra-Condensed History of Scotland™ (Part 2)
      • 1560: Parliament adopts Presbyterianism
      • 1561: Mary, fleeing from Parliament, is imprisoned by Elizabeth
      • 1603: Elizabeth dies. Mary’s son James takes over both thrones
      • Scots supported Puritans against the English, but called for Charles II to take over
      • 1707: Act of Union
      • 1715: Highlanders supported James III
      • 1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie fails to recapture the throne
      • 1950: Stone of Scone stolen from Westminster Abbey; returned four months later
      • 1998: Scotland Act
    • Our thesis: England’s occupation of Scotland caused huge conflict and death within the country
    • First War of Scottish Independence: Background
      • King Alexander III died in 1286
      • Ruling body of Scotland betrothed his granddaughter Edward I’s son
      • Margaret died en route, creating a power vacuum of squabbling nobles
      • Edward I agreed to mediate
      • John Baliol, a puppet of Edward, was selected
      • John signed an alliance with France, annoying Edward
      • Edward invaded, and proclaimed himself king after winning the Battle of Dunbar in 1296
    • Historical Figure: Edward I
      • Born 17 June, 1239
      • Very ill in his childhood, but grew into a strong king
      • Married to his second cousin, Eleanor, at age fifteen
      • Eleanor bore fifteen children
      • The fourth son, Edward, would later become king
      • Joined eighth crusade
      • Invaded Wales in 1277
    • Beginning the War
      • Andrew de Moray and William Wallace start two simultaneous rebellions
      • Wallace hated the English, and eventually killed the sheriff of Lanark
      • Wallace had the support of the commoners, but not the nobles
      • Nobles wanted to negotiate peace with England
      • Wallace and de Moray’s forces joined against the English at Stirling Bridge
    • Historical Figure: Sir William Wallace
      • Little known of him before 1297
      • Younger son of a Scottish knight
      • Almost certainly educated by his uncle, a priest
      • Probably had previous military experience
      • Two legends about why he started his rebellion
      • Made a sword belt out of the flayed skin of Hugh Cressingham
      • Knighted in the name of King John, and named Guardian of Scotland
      • Extraordinary influence in Scottish society
      • Made a diplomat after the battle of Falkirk
      • Betrayed by countryman John Menteith and executed for High Treason in 1305
    • First War of Scottish Independence
      • Two major battles: Stirling Bridge and Falkirk
      • Stirling was a great success: Andrew de Moray’s bottleneck tactic
      • Falkirk was a massive failure, because longbowmen cut through schiltrons
      • Despite their victory, the English were forced to retreat
    • Aftermath of Falkirk
      • William Wallace would never fight again
      • John Baliol sent to Italy to be imprisoned
      • Wallace goes to France
      • English take Stirling Castle
      • Nobles signed a truce with Edward
      • Wallace captured by the English near Glasgow
    • The Death of William Wallace
      • Wallace was put on trial for High Treason
      • Although not allowed to speak, he maintained his innocence anyway
      • Was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered.
      • Sentence was carried out on 23 August, 1305
    • The Scottish Fighting Back
      • Robert the Bruce and John Comyn made co-Guardians of Scotland
      • Comyn killed by the Bruce
      • Crowned king by the nobles
      • Disastrous Battle of Methven led to him being exiled
      • Finally defeated English at Bannockburn in 1314
      • Edward I died in 1307, the same year Robert the Bruce came back
    • Historical Figure: Edward II
      • Complete failure
      • Lavished favour on male favourites
      • Notable: Gascon Piers Gaveston
      • Earl of Lancaster exiled Gaveston and imposed restrictions on Edward
      • Gaveston murdered by barons; rebellion stopped by more restrictions
      • Hugh Dispenser
      • Lancaster defeated by Edward in 1322 and executed
      • Sent wife Isabella to France
      • She and her lover invaded in 1326
      • Edward deposed in 1327
      • Murdered in September
    • Historical Figure: Robert the Bruce
      • Born 11 July 1274
      • Grandfather claimant to throne in 1290
      • Bruce family refused to acknowledge Baliol
      • Changed sides many times
      • Killed rival John Comyn in 1306; crowned King of Scotland
      • Defeated in 1307, he left Scotland for a short time
      • Returned to wage a successful war against English
      • Received Papal Recognition in 1324 after the Declaration of Arbroath
      • Died 7 June 1329
    • Battle of Bannockburn
      • Scottish outnumbered 3 to 1
      • The Bruce charged in a direct battle
      • His reasoning: weak leadership
      • Scots behind Bannock stream, which blunted cavalry charges
      • Booby trapped field, and improved schiltrons
      • Normally disciplined English led a failed charge
      • The next day, Edward II ordered a cavalry charge
      • Massive failure
      • The Bruce deployed his schiltrons
      • Edward fled, and his troops were decimated
    • First War: Aftermath
      • Said that St. Magnus appeared above Aberdeen to announce the victory
      • Scottish officially independent in 1328
      • Edward II’s son, Edward III, wasn’t happy about it
    • Film Interlude
    • Second War of Scottish Independence: Background
      • Robert the Bruce left a young heir
      • Edward III more like Longshanks than his father
      • Edward Balliol defeated young David II, and proclaimed himself King
      • Encountering resistance from Scots, he called to Edward III for help
    • Historical Figure: Edward III
      • Born 13 November, 1312
      • Became king in 1327, married in 1328
      • Rule began in 1330
      • Assumed French crown in 1340
      • Treaty of Bretigny in 1360: Renounced claim to France
      • Wars started again in 1369; failure for England
      • Queen Philippa died in 1369
      • ‘ Good Parliament’ summoned in 1376
      • Died 21 June, 1377
    • Historical Figure: David II
      • Born 5 March, 1324
      • Married to Edward III’s sister in 1328
      • Ascended to throne in 1329
      • Edward Baliol made de facto king in 1333
      • Went into exile in France
      • Returned in 1341
      • Captured in 1346
      • Released in 1357
      • Negotiated with Edward to drop the ransom in 1363
      • Died 22 February, 1371
    • Second War of Scottish Independence
      • Battle of Halidon Hill: Scottish army decimated
      • Afterwards, landowners were quick to swear fealty
      • English occupation fizzled with the amount of destroyed land
      • War pretty much ended with Treaty of Berwick, inciting a £67 000 debt
    • Second War: Aftermath
      • First instalment paid on time, second a fair bit late, and no more after that
      • Country almost totally impoverished
      • David II incurred the wrath of the country be stealing his own ransom
      • Nevertheless, Scotland was still independent
      • The Wars of Independence finally ended
    • What Happened Next
      • Scotland and England kept mostly to themselves
      • Scottish parliament adopted Presbyterianism
      • Turned against Catholic queen, Mary
      • Mary’s son James succeeds Elizabeth I of England
      • Glorious Revolution
      • Darien Venture
      • Act of Union
    • ‘ The Fifteen’: Background
      • Jacobite: Supporter of the House of Stuart
      • Failed rebellion in 1708
      • 1714: Queen Anne died; succeeded by George I
      • Very controversial
      • Many nobles and Tories started to support Jacobitism
    • The Fifteen
      • James Stuart wrote to allies in Scotland
      • 2000 men marched south
      • Surrendered in England
      • Battle of Sheriffmuir
      • Clans started returning north
      • James finally arrived
      • Gave up on Perth
      • Scorched-earth didn’t help, and James fled
    • The Forty-Five
      • France offered 7 000 ships to Charles
      • Clans initially reluctant to join him
      • Marched around Scotland; arrived in Edinburgh
      • Continued into England, but retreated near London
      • Jacobites met Hanoverians at Falkirk and won
      • Continued going north
      • Butchered at Culloden
    • Aftermath of the Jacobite Uprisings
      • English hunted down Jacobites
      • Banned kilts and weapons
      • Charles ultimately fled to France
      • Charles intended to raise another rebellion, but never did
      • Never spoke to his father again
      • Died in Rome, 31 January 1788
    • Scottish Independence in Recent Times
      • Stone of Scone stolen from Westminster Abbey in 1950
      • Stone formally returned to Scotland in 1996
      • Failed devolution for Scotland in 1978
      • Scottish Parliament voted into existence 11 September, 1997
      • Officially opened 1 July, 1999
    • Conclusions
      • No casualty reports survive from the battles
      • Common thread of scorched-earth and paranoid house-burnings
      • Several events nearly bankrupted the country
    • Quote
      • Just as a man would not cherish living in a body other than his own, so do nations not like to live under other nations, however noble and great the latter may be .
    • Image Sources
      • http://www.gengenie.co.uk/SCOTLAND%20FLAG.jpg
      • http://thecorner.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/cuillin-mountains-scotland-backside.jpg
      • http://ltflaher.stu.cofc.edu/bagpipes.jpg
      • http://mentalfloss.cachefly.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/connery.jpg
      • http://www.lochlomonddistillery.com/assets/Images/whisky_range.jpg
      • http://www.natashatynes.com/gallery/images/centurions.jpg
      • http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/hadrian_massimo.jpg
      • http://www.imdb.com/media/rm3935738112/tt0349683
      • http://www.newworldcelts.org/hallstatt%20chief.jpg
      • http://www.doyle.com.au/images/normans.jpg
      • http://www.the40yearplan.com/img/longshanks2.jpg
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      • http://unitedcats.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/william_wallace.jpg
      • http://www.mac-sothis.com/scottish-history/assets/Robert-the-Bruce.jpg
      • http://tudorhistory.org/people/james4/james.jpg
      • http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/55000/55023/55023_Edward-I_lg.gif
      • http://media.freeola.com/images/user-images/8420/moray1.jpg
      • http://www.khsd.k12.ca.us/HIGHLAND/New_HHS_Site/Staff/Business/craig_davidson/braverheartfreedom.jpeg
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/independence/features_independence_wallace.shtml
      • http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0313033/designfiles/sbridge.jpg
      • http://www.prca.org/books/portraits/knox.jpg
      • http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~brown24e/classweb/images/imageg.jpg
      • http://www.edu-negev.gov.il/bs/makif7/english/Elizabeth.jpg
      • http://www.leithhistory.co.uk/images/jamesvi.jpg
      • http://liquidthinker.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/oliver-cromwell3.jpg
      • http://www.doakisland.com/school/Restoration&18th/charles%20II.jpg
      • http://s3.amazonaws.com/findagrave/photos/2002/170/1979_1024579525.jpg
      • http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/images/OldPretender.jpg
      • https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/rwb/www/teaching/engl209/pics/young-pretender.jpg
      • http://peoplemaps.com/main/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/stone-of-destiny-still-2preview.jpg
      • http://sosglasgow.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/scottish-parliament-larger.png
      • http://sinclair.quarterman.org/rhuseth/Bnckbrn2.jpg
      • http://www.nndb.com/people/710/000093431/king-edward-ii-2-sized.jpg
      • http://archives.balliol.ox.ac.uk/images/Portraits/016.jpg
      • http://www.walkforwallace.com/graphics/wallaceink.jpg
      • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_7FAsUT6FePU/SR8nVF0Vx7I/AAAAAAAAATk/AKamXF_5vp8/s400/death.bmp
      • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_KgBT8kIRgBo/R3FKSNOmUBI/AAAAAAAABjQ/WxDd2Wx-JO4/s320/Robert+the+Bruce+in+battle.gif
      • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/2/2a/20090625023523!Battle_of_Bannockburn_-_Bruce_addresses_troops.jpg
      • http://scottnolansmith.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/saltire.jpg
      • http://klausjames.tripod.com/edwardiii.jpg
      • http://www.freewebs.com/casper6739/David%20II%20-%20King%20(1324-1371).gif
      • http://www.freefoto.com/images/1077/22/1077_22_26---Quiraing--Isle-of-Skye--Scotland_web.jpg
      • http://www.scotclans.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/battle-of-dunbar-oliver-cromwell.jpg
      • http://www.citysnapper.org/chantrey/northland/photos/20040820025berwick.jpg
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      • http://liquidthinker.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/oliver-cromwell3.jpg
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    • Information Sources
      • http://www.mapsofworld.com/flags/scotland-flag.html
      • http://www.heritage-of-scotland.com/hist.htm
      • http://www.britainexpress.com/History/Hadrian's_Wall.htm
      • http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=first_scottish_war
      • www.andrewdemoray.com
      • http://militaryhistory.about.com
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/independence/
      • http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon31.html
      • http://www.historynet.com/wars-of-scottish-independence-battle-of-bannockburn.htm/2
      • http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/
      • http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_scotindependence.php#second
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/
      • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/152606/David-II
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      • http://www.rampantscotland.com/famous/
      • http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/vli/history/