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Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
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Water, people and the media
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Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
Water, people and the media
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Water, people and the media

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Talk delivered by Bajinder Pal Singh on "Water, people and the media"

Talk delivered by Bajinder Pal Singh on "Water, people and the media"

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  • 1. PeoplBajinder Pal Singhbajinder@hotmail.com Presented at seminar “Water Crisis and Role of Media in People’s Movement-organised by the local chapter of the Indian Media Centre at ICSSR Complex, Panjab University (PU), on 14 June 2009. Medi
  • 2. How much water do you Consume?
  • 3. An early morning in our life Courtesy: R K Laxman’s common man
  • 4. An early morning in our life
  • 5. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min
  • 6. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min
  • 7. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min
  • 8. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min
  • 9. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 10. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 11. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 12. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 13. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 14. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 5 min = 15 litre = 15 min = 15 litre = 5 min
  • 15. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 5 min
  • 16. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 226.5 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 100 min = 5 min
  • 17. An early morning in our life = 0.5 litre = 15 litre = 30 litre = 5 min = 20 min = 30 min = 15 litre = 50 litre = 100 litre = 15 min = 15 min = 20 min = 1 litre = 226.5 litre = 15 litre = 10 min = 100 min = 5 min
  • 18. 6 PosersPOSER 1: How much water do you consume?
  • 19. How much water do you Consume? Drink?
  • 20. How much water do you drink every day? 2 LITRES ?Thirst : a painting by William Bouguereau
  • 21. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ?
  • 22. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ?
  • 23. How much water do you eat?
  • 24. How much water do you eat?
  • 25. How much water do you eat?
  • 26. How much water do you eat?
  • 27. How much water do you eat?
  • 28. How much water do you eat?
  • 29. How much water do you eat?
  • 30. From Real Water…Real Water
  • 31. …to Virtual WaterReal Water
  • 32. From Real Water to Virtual Water Once crop is harvested the water changesReal Water Virtual Water Source: http://fao.org/nr/water
  • 33. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 34. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 35. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 36. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 37. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 38. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 39. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 40. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 41. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 42. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 43. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 44. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 45. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 46. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 47. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 48. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 49. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 50. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 51. How much water is….Source: Water unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org/nr/water
  • 52. Virtual Water Virtual water is the amount of water that is embedded in food or other products needed for its production. For example, to produce one kilogram of wheat we need about 1,000 litres of water, i.e. the virtual water of this kilogram of wheat is 1,000 litres. : World Water Council
  • 53. Virtual Water Also known as •Embedded water •Hidden water •Embodied waterCrown Princess Victoria presented the Stockholm Water Prizeto John Anthony Allan for his “virtual water" concept. Date: 2008-08-29Source: http://www.royalcourt.se/royalcourt/theroyalfamily/latestnews/2008/2008archive/crownprincesspresentsstockholmwaterprize.5.30963a1811be3fda3ab80001644.html
  • 54. Calculation virtual water
  • 55. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce wheat than the US Because of heat, climate, soil......
  • 56. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton India Wheat 1654 Rice 2850 Paddy Cotton 8264 Seed Coffee 12180 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 7736Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  • 57. Calculating virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton USA China India World Average Wheat 849 690 1654 2975 Rice 1275 1321 2850 2291 Paddy Cotton 2535 1419 8264 3644 Seed Coffee 4864 6290 12180 17375 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 2389 3652 7736 3918Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  • 58. Implications of virtual water India may require more water to produce than the US Because of heat, climate, soil...... M3 /ton USA China India World Average Wheat 849 690 1654 2975 Rice 1275 1321 2850 2291 Paddy Cotton 2535 1419 8264 3644 Seed Coffee 4864 6290 12180 17375 (green)Source: UNESCO – Institute of Water EducationWater footprints of nations Volume 1: Main Chicken 2389 3652 7736 3918Report, MeatA.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  • 59. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ?
  • 60. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ?
  • 61. Implications of virtual water
  • 62. Implications of virtual water India Pakistan
  • 63. Implications of virtual water India 1 kg wheat Pakistan
  • 64. Virtual water trade India 1 kg wheat = 1654 litres Pakistan
  • 65. Global Virtual Water Trade
  • 66. Change in export policy?Water-scarcecountries like Israeldiscourage the exportof oranges (relativelyheavy water guzzlers)precisely to preventlarge quantities ofwater being exportedto different parts ofthe world
  • 67. Reverse drain? “Research shows that certain states in water-deficit North Western India send surplus grain to meet the deficit of water- abundant states”: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)Source: p4. Water Figures . Quaterly Newsletter of IWMI. ISSUE 1 2009
  • 68. Virtual Water exportersState Virtual Water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  • 69. Virtual Water exportersState Virtual Water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  • 70. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearHaryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / yearSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  • 71. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water ExportPunjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / yearUttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / yearHaryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / yearJharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / yearOrissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year
  • 72. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water Export Per capita Water resources (Cubic metre /capita/year )Punjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / year 3554Uttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / year 2992Haryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year 2176 Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / year 6898Jharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / year 4580Orissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year 8710
  • 73. Virtual water exportersState Virtual water Export Per capita Water resources (Cubic metre /capita/year )Punjab 20.9 x 109 cubic m / year 3554Uttar Pradesh 20.8 x 109 cubic m / year 2992Haryana 14.1 x 109 cubic m / year 2176 Virtual Water ImportBihar 15.3 x 109 cubic m / year 6898Jharkhand 9.3 x 109 cubic m / year 4580Orissa 4.8 x 109 cubic m / year 8710
  • 74. PunjabSource: Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) The water footprint of India
  • 75. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ?
  • 76. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ?
  • 77. How much water do you wear?Production of 1 cotton shirt weighing 300 grams approximately 2,500 litersSource: UNESCO-IHE
  • 78. Water Footprint
  • 79. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ?
  • 80. How much water do you Consume ? Drink ? Eat ? Export ? Wear ? Footprint?
  • 81. Water Footprint Is defined as the total water used for the production of the goods and services consumed by the individual. It can be estimated by multiplying all goods and services consumed by their respective virtual-water content.
  • 82. Water FootprintOf an individualOf a productOf a companyOf a nation
  • 83. Water FootprintCountry Water Footprint m3/cap/yrGlobal 1240USA 2480Greece, Italy, Spain 2300-2400China 700India 980Source: Water footprints of nationsVolume 1: Main Report, A.K. Chapagain & A.Y. Hoekstra, November 2004
  • 84. Water Footprint The 10 largest water users (in volume) are India, China, the United States, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and the Russian Federation** Source: 3rd UN World Water Development Report, 2009
  • 85. Water Footprint The 10 largest water users (in volume) are India, China, the United States, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and the Russian Federation*• India is the country with the largest footprint in the world 987 Gm3/yr* Source: 3rd UN World Water Development Report, 2009
  • 86. Era of scarcity
  • 87. Era of scarcity
  • 88. Era of scarcitySource:Shiklomanov, I.A. 1999. World water resources and their use: a joint SHI/UNESCO product. http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/db/shiklomanov/
  • 89. India and water Year Water Ranking availability m3/capita/year 1980 2000-5000 Low 2000 1000-2000 Very low 2020 < 1000 Drastically low(Source: Stockholm Environmental Institute data – Comprehensive assessment of fresh water resources in the world.)
  • 90. Waste water in agriculture ? Survey of 53 cities in world conducted by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 80 % are using untreated or partially treated wastewater for agriculture. In over 70 % of the cities, more than 50 % of urban agricultural land is irrigated with wastewater that is either raw or diluted in streams There are now WHO guidelines on use of water in agriculture titled “Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater”
  • 91. Ismail Serageldin Former Vice President, World BankKofi AnnanFormer Secretary General of UN
  • 92. Water Wars “The wars of the next century will be fought not over oil, but water...unless we change the way we manage it" : Ismail Serageldin (1996)"fierce competition for fresh water may well becomea source of conflict and wars in the future“ (2000)
  • 93. Water Wars The CIA’s report, Global Trends 2015 …water scarcities and allocation will pose significant challenges to governments in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and northern China Water will remain South Asia’s most vital and most contested natural resource
  • 94. Potential & Existing ConflictsCountries RiverTurkey, Syria & Iraq Tigris & EuphratesIsrael, Jordan, Syria & Palestine Jordan river, Golan height aquifersIndia & Pakistan PunjabIndia & Bangladesh Ganges &BrahmaputraChina, Indochina & Taiwan MekongTajikistan, Kyrghyzstan & Oxus & JaxartesUzbekistanEthiopia, Sudan and East African Nile riverriparian countries, Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/22.htm
  • 95. Potential & Existing ConflictsCountries RiverTurkey, Syria & Iraq Tigris & EuphratesIsrael, Jordan, Syria & Palestine Jordan river, Golan height aquifersIndia & Pakistan PunjabIndia & Bangladesh Ganges &BrahmaputraChina, Indochina & Taiwan MekongTajikistan, Kyrghyzstan & Oxus & JaxartesUzbekistanEthiopia, Sudan and East African Nile riverriparian countries, Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/22.htm
  • 96. Water Wars
  • 97. Rivalry rival (n.) from L. rivalis "a rival," originally, "one who uses the same stream" (or "one on the opposite side of the stream"), from rivus "brook" (see rivulet). The notion is of the competitiveness of neighbors.
  • 98. How could water scarcity impact our lives
  • 99. How could water scarcity impact our lives It is already impacting our lives
  • 100. How could water scarcity impact our lives It is already impacting our lives Ban on  watering of lawns during mornings  washing cars during mornings  preparation of milk based sweets  Sowing of paddy before June 15 We are already consuming food prepared from waste water
  • 101. What more? Shift from  Rice Paddy to other crops  Meat eating to vegetarian diets  Burgers back to naan / roti / paratha
  • 102. Media AnalysisSerious analysis on media coverage of Water issues has been found lackingA very good example which could be followed is that of Australia. Using the CARMA® system, an internationally recognised Computer Aided Research and Media Analysis methodology Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  • 103. Media coverage of water in Australia Every adult or child over the age of reason in Australia is aware of a water crisis Between Jan-April 2007 - 80,000 media news reports, features articles, columns, letters to the editor and radio and TV program segments discussing water 3.5 billion Opportunities to See* Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  • 104. Source: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  • 105. Quantitive & Qualitative AnalysisSource: http://www.mediamonitors.com.au/insights/media-analysis
  • 106. Media coverage of water in IndiaAn analysis of national English dailiesAn analysis of vernacular daily in PunjabAn analysis of city supplements of English dailiesDuration: June 4-10, 2009Page analysed : Page 1
  • 107. The Times of India: June 4. 2009
  • 108. The Times of India: June 5. 2009
  • 109. The Times of India: June 6. 2009
  • 110. The Times of India: June 7. 2009
  • 111. The Times of India: June 8. 2009
  • 112. The Times of India: June 9. 2009
  • 113. The Times of India: June 10. 2009
  • 114. The Indian Express: June 4. 2009 The Indian Express: June 5. 2009
  • 115. The Indian Express: June 6. 2009 The Indian Express: June 7. 2009
  • 116. The Indian Express: June 8. 2009 The Indian Express: June 9. 2009
  • 117. The Indian Express: June 10. 2009
  • 118. Daily Ajit: June 4. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 5. 2009
  • 119. Daily Ajit: June 6. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 7. 2009
  • 120. Daily Ajit: June 8. 2009 Daily Ajit: June 9. 2009
  • 121. Daily Ajit: June 10. 2009
  • 122. Chandigarh Newsline: June 09. 2009
  • 123. HT Chandigarh Live: June 09. 2009 HT Chandigarh Live: June 09. 2009
  • 124. Who loves water more? National dailies lack coverage on water issues Vernacular dailies are reporting on water issues City supplements – in their quest for civic journalism stress on water issues – though policy issues are missing
  • 125. When does water make to news Water becomes an issue  Scarcity • Drought, • late monsoon etc  Surplus • Floods  Contamination • Unclean • pesticide
  • 126. Indian film song – clamouring for water/rainshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=toJxhZ-DZQk

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