Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research


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A brief introduction to qualitative & mixed-methods research delivered during a basic quantitative research course.

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  • Ethnography: study a group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of timePhenomenology: identify the essence of human experiences about a phenomenon as described by participants.studying a small number of participants through extensive & prolonged engagementCase studies: The researcher explores in depth a program, event, activity, process, or one or more individualsNarrative research:The researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or more individuals to provide stories about their lives
  • Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research

    1. 1. Qualitative & Mixed-MethodsResearch<br />SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c)<br />Umm Al-Qura University<br />ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa<br />
    2. 2. Quantitative<br />Qualitative<br />Mixed-Methods<br />Numbers<br />Words<br />Actions<br />Reactions<br />
    3. 3. Not everything that can be counted counts,<br />and <br />not everythingthat counts can be counted.<br />Albert Einstein<br />
    4. 4. EBM<br />Research Evidence<br />Patients’ Preferences<br />Clinical Expertise<br />Clinical Context<br />Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350<br />
    5. 5. Everyday<br />New Patient<br />QUALITATIVE  quantitative<br />Follow-up Patient<br />QUANTITATIVE  qualitative<br />
    6. 6. Questions<br />How do trauma patients with quadriplegia in the Western region – Saudi Arabia rehabilitate?<br />What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients?<br />What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?<br />
    7. 7. Learning Outcomes<br />By the end of the lecture, you will be able to:<br />Identify:<br />What is qualitative research? characteristics?<br />When to use it?<br />Identify:<br />What is mixed-methods research? types?<br />When to use it?<br />
    8. 8. Qualitative Research<br />
    9. 9. Types of Research Questions<br />Quantitative: (cause, determine, relate, influence)<br />Does A cause/correlate with B?<br />Which is better A or B in terms of diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis?<br />Qualitative: (discover, understand, explore, describe)<br />What?<br />How?<br />Why?<br />
    10. 10. Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    11. 11. Characteristics of Qualitative<br />Natural settings<br />Researcher as key instrument<br />Multiple sources of data: interviews, observations, documents<br />Inductive data analysis<br />Participants’ meanings<br />Emergent design<br />Theoretical lens: sampling, saturation, integrating<br />Interpretive<br />Holistic account<br />Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    12. 12. When to use qualitative?<br />Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively<br />Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem<br />Gain insights into potential causal mechanisms<br />Develop quantitative measurement instruments<br />Study special populations (those traditionally underrepresented in research, low literacy)<br />Curry et al, Circulation 2009<br />
    13. 13. Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Common Strategies (Approaches) of Qualitative Research<br />Culture-sharing behavior of groups<br />Ethnography<br />Phenomenology<br />Narrative research<br />Case studies<br />Grounded theory<br />Individuals<br />Explore processes, activities, events<br />
    19. 19. Data Collection Methods<br />Observation  field notes<br />Interviews  transcripts<br />One-on-one: in-depth, open-ended<br />Focus group<br />Documents content analysis<br />Audio-visual materials  analysis<br />
    20. 20. Qualitative Data Analysis<br />Data Collection<br />Data Analysis<br />
    21. 21. Qualitative Data Analysis<br />Raw Data (transcripts, field notes, images)<br />Organizing data for analysis<br />Reading through all data<br />Coding the data  Themes<br />Integrating themes, diagramming  Interpreting<br />
    22. 22. Data<br />
    23. 23. Computer-Aided Qualitative Analysis<br />ATLAS.ti<br />NVivo<br />MAXqda<br />
    24. 24. NVivo<br />
    25. 25. NVivo<br />
    26. 26. www.researchsupport.com.au<br />
    27. 27. “Validity” Strategies<br />Rationale for choosing an approach<br />Triangulation of methods<br />Interviewers training<br />Member checking<br />Rich, thick description<br />Reflectivity<br />Peer debriefing  Cross-coding<br />Documentation External auditor<br />
    28. 28. Mixed-Methods<br />
    29. 29. What is mixed-methods research?<br />Combining <br />qualitative & quantitative research<br />1960s<br />
    30. 30. Aspects in Mixed-Methods<br />Timing: sequentially or concurrently<br />Emphasis:qualitative, quantitative, or both<br />Mixing:integrating, connecting, or embedding<br />
    31. 31. 1. Sequential Explanatory<br />QUAN<br />qual<br />Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    32. 32. 2. Sequential Exploratory<br />QUAL<br />quan<br />Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    33. 33. 3. Concurrent Triangulation<br />QUAL<br />QUAN<br />QUAN<br />Data Collection<br />QUAL<br />Data Collection<br />QUAN<br />Data Analysis<br />QUAL<br />Data Analysis<br />Data Results Compared<br />Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    34. 34. 4. Concurrent Embedded<br />QUAN<br />qual<br />Creswell J. Research Design. 2009<br />
    35. 35. Lewin et al, BMJ 2009<br />
    36. 36. Publishing<br />
    37. 37.
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Resources<br />
    40. 40. Books<br />Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. John Creswell. 3rd Edition. 2009. SAGE Publications.<br />
    41. 41. Articles<br />
    42. 42.
    43. 43.
    44. 44. People<br />Look around in your university:<br />Nursing<br />Medical Educationalist<br />Psychology<br />Sociology<br />Medical Geography<br />
    45. 45. Questions<br />How do Saudi patients with quadriplegia in the Western region rehabilitate?<br />What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients?<br />What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?<br />
    46. 46. Summary<br />Patients talk, act & react  not numbers<br />Qualitative is helpful when nothing or little is known about a condition or environment<br />GOOD qualitative research needs lots of work<br />Be pragmatic<br />ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa<br />