Insulin Therapy in Pregnant Women
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Insulin Therapy in Pregnant Women



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    Insulin Therapy in Pregnant Women Insulin Therapy in Pregnant Women Presentation Transcript

      Internal Medicine
      October 2010
    • abstract
      goal in pregnancy complicated by diabetes is to maintain maternal glucose levels as near normal as possible throughout the pregnancy because near normal glycemia has been shown to decrease the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia, macrosomia, intra-uterine death and caesarean delivery
      steps to achieve normal glucose during pregnancy include medical nutrition therapy and the additional of insulin, if goals are not met
    • abstract
      only human NPH insulin, regular human insulin and the rapid acting insulin analogs, lispro and aspart, are approved for use during pregnancy
      Lispro or Aspart is preferable to regular human insulin
      fifty percent of the insulin is given as a basal dose using NPH insulin and the other 50% as boluses before meals with lispro or aspart.
    • abstract
      the total daily insulin dose may be computed based on the current weight of the patient and stage of pregnancy as follows:
      prepregnancy, 0.6 U/kg/d
      first trimester (wk 1-12), 0.7 U/kg/d
      second trimester (wk 13-28), 0.8 U/kg/d
      third trimester (wk 29-34), 0.9 U/kg/d
      term (wk 35-39), 1.0 U/kg/d
      these doses are only starting doses and need to be adjusted based on results of home glucose monitoring
    • Fetal Hyperinsulinemia
      LGA or macrosomia are associated with birth trauma (shoulder dystocia)
      0.6-1.4% in fetuses weighing 2500-4000g
      5-9% in fetuses weighing >4000g
      Associated with neonatal hypoglycemia after infant is delivered and no longer exposed to maternal hyperglycemia
    • Management of Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy
      mean fasting glucose 75mg/dL
      peak post-prandial glucose 110mg/dL
      Medical Nutrition Therapy
      Weight control
      Carbohydrate restriction
      Frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose
    • When to Start Insulin
      When MNT fails
      Glycemic goals:
      Premeals 60-90mg/dL
      1-hour postprandial <140mg/dL
      2-hour postprandial <120-130mg/dL
    • Insulin and Insulin Analogs
    • Problem with Regular Insulin
      Slow onset of activity
      Inconvenient for patient (administered 30-60minutes prior to meal)
      Long duration of activity
      Potential for late postprandial (4-6hours) hypoglycemia
      Lasts up to 12hours
    • Insulin Lispro in Pregnancy
      More efficacious than human regular insulin to normalize blood glucose levels in gestational and pre-gestational diabetic women
      Rapidly lowered postprandial glucose levels, thereby decreasing A1c levels, with fewer hypoglycemic episodes, and without increasing anti-insulin antibody levels
      Similar neonatal outcomes versus regular insulin
      Improved patient satisfaction
      Especially helpful in women with hyperemesis or gastroparesis because they can be dosed after meals
    • Insulin Aspart in Pregnancy
      The overall safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart is comparable to regular human insulin in pregnant women with GDM/pregestational DM.
      Insulin aspart was more effective than regular insulin in providing postprandial glycemic control.
      Patients showed greater treatment satisfaction with Aspart.
    • Insulin Glulisine in Pregnancy
      There is inadequate data on glulisine use in pregnancy.
    • Insulin Glargine in Pregnancy
      Glycemic control, birthweight, and prevalence of macrosomia and neonatal morbidity were similar to human insulin
      Rate of congenital malformations comparable to NPH insulin
      Glargine is not approved for use in pregnancy
    • NN304-1687: Insulin Detemir in Pregnancy Study
      Randomised, parallel-group, open-labelled, multinational trial comparing the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir versus NPH insulin, used in combination with aspart as bolus insulin, in the treatment of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes
      Expected number of 240 completed pregnancies with 120 subjects in each arm
      To be completed 2010
    • How to Give Insulin
      50% of total daily insulin as basal insulin using NPH, 50% as boluses before meals with rapid analog
      Predicted total daily insulin requirement
      Prepregnancy 0.6u/kg/d
      First trimester 0.7u/kg/d
      Second trimester 0.8u/kg/d
      Third trimester 0.9u/kg/d
      Term (wk 35-39) 1.0u/kg/d
      Rapidly adjust dose based on SMBG
    • How to Give Insulin
      NPH: 1/6 of total daily insulin dose administered every 8hours
      Lispro or Aspart: 1/6 of total daily insulin dose given before meals
      Monitor BGs before and 1hour after meals
      65-90 mg/dL before meals
      <120 mg/dL after meals
    • Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump
      CSII versus MDI in pregnancy
      RCTs show equivalent glycemic control and maternal and perinatal outcomes
      CSII- multiple adjustable basal rates can be especially useful for patients with daytime or nocturnal hypoglycemia or a prominent dawn phenomenon
      Disadvantages of CSII: cost, potential for marked hyperglycemia and risk of DKA as a consequence of insulin delivery failure
    • Glycemic Control and Insulin Treatment during Delivery
      Goal: maintain normoglycemia in order to prevent neonatal hypoglycemia
      Target CGBs 80-110 mg/dL during labor
      CBG every hour during labor, or every 2-4 hours if stable
      CBG >100mg/dL: NS or LR at 100cc/hr
      CBG <100mg/dL: supplemental 5% dextrose infusion at 100cc/hr
    • Glycemic Control and Insulin Treatment during Delivery
      CBG >120mg/dL: 2-4 units regular insulin IV every hour that CBG >120mg/dL (or RI incorporated into IV)
      After expulsion of placenta, requirement of insulin will fall precipitously
      Postpartum requirements drop to 1/3 to ½ of their previous insulin dosages; no insulin in first 24-48hours
    • Postpartum
      During lactation: postprandial glucose goals <150mg/dL to minimize high glucose levels in breast milk
      Stimulate hyperinsulinemia and accelerate hunger in the infant
      Contribute to excessive weight gain, obesity, and metabolic syndrome later in life
      Human insulin and insulin analogs appear in breastmilk directly proportional to serum levels in maternal blood, but they are not absorbed in the gut
    • Summary
      Rapid achievement of normoglycemia with limited weight gain is critical to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes in all women with diabetes during pregnancy.
      Lispro and Aspart have been tested and found to be safe and effective during pregnancy. Their use over regular insulin has been shown to result in improved glycemic control, fewer hypoglycemic episodes, and improved patient satisfaction.
      2 to 3 doses of NPH insulin may be used to provide basal insulin needs. Neither glargine nor detemir is approved for use in pregnancy.
    • Thank You!