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Classroom Management Techniques
 

Classroom Management Techniques

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    Classroom Management Techniques Classroom Management Techniques Presentation Transcript

    • Classroom Management Techniques Therese B. AguilTherese B. Aguil andand Baita T. SapadBaita T. Sapad Educ 650 Dr. Tito M. Demafiles
    • Rules and Procedures Probably, the most obvious aspect of classroom management involves the design and implementation of classroom rules and procedures. Rules and procedures help in dealing with various types of learners especially during the teaching-learning process.
    • Rules and procedures vary in different classrooms, but all effectively managed classrooms have them. Rules and procedures, although used interchangeably, have some important differences. Both refer to stated expectations regarding behavior. However, a rule identifies general expectations or standards, and a procedure communicates expectations for specific behaviors.
    • Setting rules and behaviors involves two actions: Identifying specific rules and procedures for your classroom Involving students in the design of rules and procedures.
    • General classroom behavior commonly addresses the following areas: Politeness and helpfulness when dealing with others Interrupting the teacher or others Respecting the properties of others Hitting or shoving others
    • Beginning of the school day or beginning of the period The manner in which class begins sets the tone for what happens next. The way the day or period ends leaves students with an impression that carries over to the next time you meet.
    • Rules and procedures that pertain to the beginning and ending of the school day commonly address the following areas: Beginning the school day with specific social activities Beginning the day with the pledge of allegiance Doing administrative activities Ending the day by cleaning the room and individual desks Ending the day by putting away materials
    • Transitions and interruptions Inevitably, students will have to leave and enter the classroom for a variety of reasons. These transitions and interruptions can cause disorder if there are no relevant rules and procedures.
    • Rules and procedures that pertain to transitions and interruptions commonly address the following areas: Leaving the room Returning to the room Doing administrative activities Using the bathroom Using the library and resource room Going to the canteen Using the playground
    • Materials and equipments are critical to a variety of subject areas. Rules and procedures apply to the following areas: Distributing materials Collecting materials Storage of common materials The teacher’s desk and storage areas Student’s desks and storage areas Use of drinking fountain, sink, and pencil Materials and equipment
    • Cooperative learning groups have positive impacts on student achievement, interpersonal relationships, and attitudes about learning. Rules and procedures address the following areas: Movement in out of the group Expected behavior of students in the group Expected behavior of students in the group Group communication with the teacher Cooperative learning groups
    • Usually involves the expectation that students will remain in their seats. Rules and procedures apply to the following areas: Student attention during presentation Student participation Talking among students Obtaining help Out-of-seat behavior Behavior when work has been done Seatwork & teacher-led activities
    • Involving students in the design of rules and procedures The most effective classroom managers do not simply impose rules and procedures on students. Rather, they engage students in the design of the rules and procedures.
    • Summary: Classroom rules and procedures are important, but they may vary from one teacher to another. Rules and procedures typically fall into several categories including: general expectations for behavior; beginning and ending the day or period; transitions and interruptions; materials & equipments; group work; and teacher-led activities. In all cases, it is important to involve students in the design of classroom rules and procedures.
    • Disciplinary Interventions The lack of discipline is the most serious problem facing schools today. The higher the grade level, the more disciplinary problems occur in public schools.
    • What are the action steps you are encouraged to follow?
    • Action Step 1 Employ specific techniques that acknowledge and reinforce acceptable behavior and acknowledge and provide negative consequences for unacceptable behavior.
    • Five categories of disciplinary interventions can be used to provide a balance of positive and negative consequences: teacher reaction tangible recognition direct cost group contingency home contingency
    • Teacher Reaction Verbal and physical teacher reactions are the simplest ways to acknowledge and reinforce acceptable behavior and to acknowledge and provide negative consequences for unacceptable behavior.
    • Emmer, Evertson, and Worsham (2003) list a variety of teacher reactions that include the following:  Make eye contact with an offending student by moving closer to him or her.  Use physical signal to indicate that a given action is inappropriate.  If a student is not following a procedure, provide him/her with simple verbal reminder.  If a student is “off task” but not misbehaving, state the desired appropriate behavior.  If a student does not respond to more subtle interventions, simply tell the student to stop the inappropriate behavior.
    • Tangible Recognition  involves the use of some concrete symbol of appropriate behavior. It is important for any system of tangible recognition to be accompanied by a thorough discussion of the rationale behind it. Care should be taken to ensure that tangible recognition is not perceived as some type of bribe or form of coercion relative to student behavior.
    • Direct Cost  are more oriented toward negative consequences for student behavior. These strategies involve explicit and direct consequences for inappropriate student behavior.
    • Isolation Time out  refers to the removal of a student from the classroom reserved for disruptive students. It requires that students have a clear understanding as to the specific behaviors that will lead to its use. Students should be aware that isolation time out would be used only when other attempts to correct the disruptive behavior within the regular context of the classroom have been exhausted.
    • Overcorrection  is a procedure that is used when a student has misbehaved in a way that destroys or alters some objects in the classroom. Student would be asked to overcompensate for the behavior.
    • Group Contingency Group contingency techniques operate in a fashion similar to concrete recognition techniques except that they apply to a group of students as opposed to individuals
    • Interdependent Group Contingency Techniques  require every student in the group to meet the behavioral criterion for the group to earn credit.
    • Dependent Group Contingency Technique  requires a specific individual or a specific set of individuals in the group to meet the criterion for the group to earn credit.
    • Home Contingency Home contingency involves making parents aware of the positive and negative behaviors of their children. This is done in the form of a short note, a letter, a phone call, or a visit to the parents of the student.
    • Action Step 2 Establish clear limits for unacceptable behavior and an effective system to record these behavior.
    • To use positive and negative consequences effectively, you must establish limits. Setting limits is a perfect opportunity to involve students in their own management. Rather than you establishing the limits in isolation, the class could do so after discussing with them why the target behavior is important and what are fair expectations regarding that behavior. The limit established by consensus approach would be the best limit for the class.
    • Summary: The guiding principle for disciplinary interventions is that they should include a healthy balance between negative for inappropriate behavior and positive consequences for appropriate behavior. Specific techniques that involve both positive and negative consequences include teacher reaction, tangible recognition, direct cost, group contingency, and home contingency. Whatever the approach, it is important to establish behavioral limits and a record- keeping system that allows you to keep track of student behavior efficiently and unobtrusively.
    • Communicating with Students Everyday you communicate with your students using different forms of communication, verbal or non- verbal. Though ability to communicate is inherent to all human beings, the skill to communicate properly must be learned.
    • Communication is a two way process. If one is speaking, somebody should be listening. There is no communication if both parties are speaking.
    • Communicating with students involves the following aspects: 1.Using descriptive rather than judgmental language; 2.Teaching students to listen to you; 3.Listening to students; 4.Using supportive Replies; 5.Avoiding Unintended Messages; and 6.Professional confidence and student’s rights.
    • Using descriptive rather than judgmental language Research studies indicate that students feel less threatened, less defensive, and more willing to engage in learning activities when working with teachers who consistently use descriptive language than they are when working with teachers who use a more judgmental language style.
    • Descriptive language verbally portrays a situation, a behavior, an achievement, or a feeling. Judgmental language verbally summarizes an evaluation of a behavior, achievement or person with a characterization or label. Judgmental language that focuses on personalities is particularly detrimental to a climate of cooperation.
    • The consequences of judgmental language Judgmental language makes pupils uncomfortable in the teacher’s presence because they believe that their teacher has little respect for them. Pupils develop a disruptive behavior pattern as they live up to what they perceive to be their teacher's expectation.
    • How would you avoid using judgmental language 1. Avoid labels. 2. Learn to distinguish between a student’s accomplishments and the value of the student. 3. Do not view a student’s display of off- task behavior as a reflection of character flaws.
    • 4. Be responsible for teaching each student to be on task and to achieve learning objectives. 5. Do not include judgment of student’s characters among your responsibilities. 6. Do not hesitate in communicating your feeling about specific behavior or achievements of students. However, do not allow those feelings to influence the degree to which you respect, care for and value students.
    • In order to consistently use a descriptive language style, you must resist event silent thoughts that characterize students with labels such as, “smart”, “slow”, “good reader”, “well behaved”, “problem child”, “honest”, “intelligent”, “under achiever”, and the paradoxical “overachiever”. Instead of thinking of students according to labels, you should focus on learning tasks, circumstances, and situations.
    • Teaching Students to Listen to You There are at least seven ways how you could teach your students to listen to you: 1. Use descriptive language. 2. Use words judiciously. 3. Think before talking. 4. Avoid useless words. 5. Speak only to intended listeners. 6. Be aware of your body languages. 7. Speak only to the attentive.
    • The Judicious Use of Words In general, students are likely to pay attention whenever you speak if they know that whenever you speak you really have something to say. By judiciously using words that inform and by avoiding inane talk, you leave your students with the idea that they miss something by not hearing you whenever you speak to them.
    • Thinking Before Talking Rather than immediately reacting with the first word that comes to mind, it is usually wise for a teacher to pause and carefully frame words before speaking to students. Often, adults send inane messages to children because they immediately react to circumstances before they get more relevant information.
    • More and More Useless Words Students begin to learn to ignore teacher- talk when teachers act as if they are initiating a self-initiating behavior. Students may begin tuning a teacher out when that teacher makes judgments that only the students can make.
    • Speaking Only to Intended Listeners When the situation warrants, teachers should make it clear that what she has to say is meant only for a particular pupil. Other pupils don’t have to stop their work only to find that the teacher’s message does not apply to them.
    • Body Language How you position your body when speaking to students has a major impact on what messages students receive. Teachers sometimes make the mistake of saying one thing to students, but communicating another as a consequence of their body language. Your voice sometimes provides a hint of stress and indicates to your pupils that you are not really in control.
    • Speaking Only to the Attentive Speak to people only when they are ready to listen. Sometimes students may not be ready to listen to you because they do not think you understand them well enough. Hence, you would not tell them anything that they would consider important. In other case, they are preoccupied with thoughts with which they must dispense with before attending to your message.
    • Listening to Students A reasonably accurate understanding of your students’ thoughts and attitudes is vital to your ability to identify student’s needs, decide learning goals, design learning activities, and evaluate how well learning goals are achieved. You also need to understand students’ thoughts and attitudes in order to decide what messages you should communicate and when and how each message should be communicated. By listening to them, you will discover how to get students to listen to you.
    • Using Supportive Replies This includes accepting feelings, relieving frustration and defusing conflicts.
    • Accepting Feelings Expressions of feelings receive a support when the listener indicates that the expression has been understood and accepted.
    • Relieving Frustration Frustration can be quite incapacitating and sometimes a person must relieve his or her frustration before addressing the source of the frustration. Having another person’s empathy can sometimes serve to relieve frustration.
    • Defusing Conflict By acknowledging students’ feelings with supportive replies, you can avoid arguments and dispense with excuses for not being on-task.
    • Avoiding Unintended Messages Unintended messages, unwittingly communicated to students by teachers, can cause many of the misunderstandings about expectations that lead students to become off-task. However, you can reduce miscommunication when you send unintended messages by : modeling a business attitude; avoiding disruptions in your own learning activities; avoiding destructive positive reinforcers; and avoiding destructive punishments.
    • Professional Confidence and Students Rights Violation of Trust Trust between a teacher and a student is an important ingredient in establishing a classroom climate that is conducive to cooperation, on-task behaviors, and engagement in learning activities. Teachers violate that trust when they gossip about students or share information obtained through their role as teachers with people who need not privy to that information. Once students acquire the idea that teachers gossip about them, they are far less likely to feel comfortable in trusting those teachers.
    • The following have a right & need to know about students’ achievement levels and behaviors: • Students themselves • Students parents/ guardians • Professional personnel  guidance councilor  principal  subject area supervisor / curriculum director
    • Summary: If there is one skill that is neglected or not being developed by teachers, it is the ability to communicate with students effectively. Communicating with students involves several skills which must be learned by heart by all teachers. Descriptive language should be used by teachers rather than judgmental language. To teach students to listen to you, you should be aware of what, when, how, and whom to speak.
    • Listening to pupils means to stop talking and lend ears to students. Teachers should listen not only to what pupils say but listen also to what they do not say. Pupils seek reply when they communicate with their teachers. Replies should be supportive. You can do this by accepting feelings, relieving frustration and avoiding conflicting statements.
    • Misinterpretations often occur when teachers communicate with pupils. Thus, teachers should be sensitive enough when communicating with students. Teachers should also avoid disrupting their own learning activities because it carries unintended message. Trust is the most important ingredient in communication. Teachers should engage in activities in the classroom that promote trust and confidence among pupils.
    • Teacher-Student Relationship If a teacher has a good relationship with students, then students more readily accept the rules and procedures and the disciplinary actions that follow their violations. Without the foundation of a good relationship, students commonly resist rules and procedures along with the consequent disciplinary actions. Product also of good teacher-student relationship is responsible communication between them.
    • Researchers indicate that on average, teachers who have high-quality relationships with their students had 31 percent fewer discipline problems, rule violations, and related problems over a year’s time with their students.
    • Effective teacher-student relationships have nothing to do with teacher’s personality or even with whether the students view the teacher as a friend. Rather, the most effective teacher-student relationships are characterized by specific teacher behaviors: • exhibiting appropriate levels of dominance • exhibiting appropriate levels of cooperation • and being aware of high-needs students
    • Appropriate Levels of Dominance Wubbels and his colleagues (1999) define dominance as the ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both academics and student behavior. Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by:  establishing clear behavioral expectations and learning goals  establishing clear rules and procedures  providing consequences for students behavior
    •  exhibiting assertive behavior According to Emmer and colleagues (2003), assertive behavior is the ability to stand up for one’s legitimate rights in ways that make it less likely that others will ignore or circumvent them.
    • Assertive behavior differs significantly from both passive behavior and aggressive behavior. Researchers explain that teachers display assertive behavior in the classroom when they:  Use assertive body language by maintaining an erect posture, facing the offending student but keeping enough distance so as not to appear threatening and matching the facial expression with the content of the message being presented to students;
    •  Use an appropriate tone of voice, speaking clearly and deliberately in a pitch that is slightly but not greatly elevated from normal classroom speech, avoiding any display of emotions in the voice.  Persist until students respond with the appropriate behavior. Do not ignore an appropriate behavior; do not be diverted by a student denying, arguing, or blaming, but listen to legitimate explanations.
    •  providing clarity about the content and expectations of an upcoming instructional unit. Important teacher actions to achieve this end include:  Establishing and communicating learning goals at the beginning of a unit of instruction.  Providing feedback of those goals.  Continually and systematically re-visiting the goals.  Providing summative feedback regarding the goals.
    • Appropriate Levels of Cooperation Cooperation is characterized by a concern for the needs and opinions of others. Although not the antithesis of dominance, cooperation certainly occupies a different realm. Whereas dominance focuses on the teacher as the driving force in the classroom, cooperation focuses on the students and teacher functioning as a team. The interaction of these two dynamics; dominance and cooperation is a central force in effective teacher-student relationships.
    • You can convey appropriate levels of cooperation by:  providing flexible learning goals.  take a personal interest in each student
    • Some practical strategies that emphasize equitable and positive classroom interactions with all students:  Make eye contact with each student.  Deliberately move toward and stand close to each student during the class period.  Attribute the ownership of ideas to the students who initiated them.  Allow and encourage all students to participate in class discussions and interactions.  Provide appropriate wait time for all students to respond to questions, regardless of their past performance or your perception of your ability.
    • Awareness of High-Needs Students Although the classroom teacher is certainly not in a position to address the students’ severe problems, teachers with effective management skills are aware of high-needs students and have a repertoire of specific techniques for meeting some of their needs.
    • Five Categories of High-Needs Students
    • Passive Behavior that avoids the domination of others or the pain of negative experiences. The child attempts to protect self from criticism, ridicule, or rejection, possibly reacting to abuse and neglect. Passive students fall into two subcategories:  those who fear relationships  those who fear failure.
    •  Fear of Relationships:  Fear of Failure: Avoids connection with others, is shy, doesn’t initiate conversations, attempts to be invisible. Gives up easily, is convinced he or she can’t succeed, is easily frustrated, uses negative self-talk.
    • Aggressive Students Hostile  have poor anger control, low capacity for empathy, and an inability to see the consequences of their actions. Oppositional  consistently resist following orders, argue with adults, use harsh language, and tend to annoy others. Covert  often nearby when trouble starts and never quite do what authority figures ask of them.
    • Attention Problems Behavior that demonstrates either motor or attention difficulties resulting from a neurological disorder. Students with attention problems fall into two categories:  Hyperactive  Inattentive
    •  Hyperactive:  Inattentive: Has difficulty with motor control, both physically and verbally. Fidgets, leaves seat frequently, interrupts, talks excessively. Has difficulty staying focused and following through projects. Has difficulty with listening, remembering and organizing.
    • Perfectionist Behavior that is geared toward avoiding the embarrassment and assumed shame of making mistakes. The child fears what will happen if errors are discovered. Has unrealistically high expectations of self. Has Possibly received criticism or lack of acceptance while making mistakes during the process of learning. Tends to focus too much on the small details of projects. Will avoid projects if unsure of outcome. Focuses on results and not on relationships. Is self-critical.
    • Socially Inept Behavior that is based on the misinterpretation of nonverbal signals of others. The child misunderstands facial expressions and body language. Hasn’t received adequate training in these areas and has poor role modeling. Attempts to make friends but is inept and unsuccessful. Is forced to be alone. Is often teased for unusual behavior, appearance, or lack of social skills.
    • Summary: Teacher-student relationships are critical to the success of three of the other aspects of effective classroom management. To build good relationships with students, it is important to communicate appropriate levels of dominance and to let students know that you are in control of the class and are willing to lead. It is also important to communicate appropriate levels of cooperation and to convey the message that you are interested in the concerns of students as individuals and the class as a whole. You may need to make a special effort to build positive relationships with high-needs students, but using the proper techniques in working with these students can enhance the chance of successful classroom management.
    • Thank you!