1. PSY 492 – Advanced General Psychology By Michael S. Bailey April 14, 2010
2. <ul><li>Overmedicated or misdiagnosed children, and their misinformed parents, are being led to believe that the lack of attention or pent up energy is a symptom of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). </li></ul>
3. <ul><li>Defined as a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and is more severe than is typically observed in individuals at comparable levels of development, </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms must have been present before seven years of age, some impairment from the symptoms must be present in at least two settings, and there must be clear evidence of interference with developmentally appropriate social, academic or occupational functioning. </li></ul>(DSM-IV-TR, 2000).
4. <ul><li>1845, ADHD was first described by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman. </li></ul><ul><li>1956 Ritalin became the drug of choice for treatment of children with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the 1960’s, the disorder was called “Minimal Brain Dysfunction” and by 1968, in the DSM-II, the name of the disorder was changed to “Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood” </li></ul><ul><li>1980 the disorder was given its current name of Attention Deficit Disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD). </li></ul><ul><li>1987, ADD was changed to ADHD and the APA noted that this was a medical diagnosis and not purely a psychological diagnosis. </li></ul>(Bradley, 2006).
5. <ul><li>1956 Ritalin became the drug of choice for treatment of children with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Adderall was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Concerta and Focalin were added to the list of treatment possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Strattera, which carried no stimulants to treat ADHD, became the drug of choice for the treatment of ADHD. This medication acted more like an antidepressant, but increased the quantity of norepinephrine in the brain. </li></ul>Goldman, Genel, Bezman, & Slanetz, 1998
6. <ul><li>Fundamental milestones that a child approaches with each passing year. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor development. The normal grade school child, 7-11 years of age, engages in complex motor tasks (e.g., plays dodge ball, baseball, skips rope or plays tag). </li></ul><ul><li>Social characteristics. The school age child: </li></ul><ul><li>- Prefers to play with children of the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>- Identifies with the parent of the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>- Has internalized a moral sense of right and wrong (conscience) and understands how to follow rules </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive characteristics. The school age child: </li></ul><ul><li>- Is industrious and organized (gathers collections of objects) </li></ul><ul><li>- Has the capacity for logical thought and can determine that objects have more than one property (e.g., an object can be red and metal) </li></ul><ul><li>- Understands the concept of "conservation." a quantity of a substance remains the same regardless of the size of the container it is in </li></ul>Mooney, 2006
7. <ul><li>Imagine if a 7 year old, for example, had an undiagnosed learning disability and the child viewed or equated a basic grammar lesson to the difficulty level of an algebraic equation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rightfully so, the child would become possibly defiant due to not comprehending the lesson or due to the embarrassment manifested by thoughts of what the child’s peers might think of them. </li></ul><ul><li>The child’s parents are possibly called, the child has had time to “forget” about the incident or hopes their fellow classmates will have forgotten and is now ready to continue on with the rest of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>This could happen once or twice a week for six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing this example; Being defiant, forgetful due to the stress of an impending grammar lesson, blurts out answers that the child does know (trying to self-boost confidence), fidgeting due to stress related to thoughts of peers, parents’ reactions or teacher’s lack of patience…per the DSM-IV-TR, this child has ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>If these “abnormal” characteristics of a 7 year old are being viewed at school and the stress is re-fueled at home, both questionnaires filled out by the parents and teacher will mirror each other. Once again, the child now is labeled ADHD. </li></ul>
8. <ul><li>The questions were raised over society’s search for the “quick-fix” of children with ADHD and in return evidence was provided to show that the propensity for overmedicating or misdiagnosing children with ADHD increases with the uninformed parents and “pill-pushing” doctors. </li></ul>
9. <ul><li>The development of an organization that would conduct research on improving the diagnosis process and treatment alternatives of ADHD in school-age children. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of workshops directed towards teachers and parents to create a better understanding of what are symptoms of ADHD and what are normal developmental signs in school-age children. </li></ul>
10. <ul><li>Barkley, R. A. (1991). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessment methods of ADHD symptoms [Abstract]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 19 (2), 149-178. </li></ul><ul><li>Bracken, B. A., & Nagle, R. J. (Eds.). (2006). Psychoeducational Assessment of Preschool Children (4th ed.). Danbury: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Incorporated. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, R. T., Freeman, W. S., Perrin, J. M., Stein, M. T., Amler, R. W., Feldman, H. M., Pierce, K., & Wolraich, M. L. (2001). Prevalence and Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Care Settings [Abstract]. PEDIATRICS , 107 (3), 43-43. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/107/3/e43 </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV-TR: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). (2000). United States: AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC PRESS INC (DC). </li></ul><ul><li>DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2004). ADHD in the Schools: Assessment and Intervention Strategies (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: Guilford Publications, Incorporated. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldman, MD, L. S., Genel, MD, M., Bezman, MD, R. J., & Slanetz, MD, MPH, P. J. (1998). Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. The Journal of the American Medical Association , 279 (14), 1100-1107. Retrieved January 23, 2009, </li></ul><ul><li>from http://jama.amaassn.org/cgi/content/abstract/279/14/1100 </li></ul>
11. <ul><li>Lundholm-Brown, RN, J. (2001). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Educational Cultural Model [Abstract]. The Journal of School Nursing , 17 (6), 307-315. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://jsn.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/6/307 </li></ul><ul><li>Mooney, Carol G. Theories of Childhood : An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget and Vygotsky . 1st ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall PTR, 2006. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfson, M.D., M.P.H., M., Gameroff, PhD., M. J., Marcus, PhD., S. C., & Jensen, M.D., P. S. (2003). National Trends in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [Abstract]. The American Journal of Psychiatry , 160 , 1071-1077. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www.ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/160/6/1071 </li></ul><ul><li>Schachar, R. J., Tannock, R., Cunningham, C., & Corkum, P. V. (1997). Behavioral, Situational, and Temporal Effects of Treatment of ADHD with Methylphenidate [Abstract]. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , 36 (6), 754-763. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://journals.lww.com/jaacap/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1997&issue=06000&article=00011&typ e=abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Spencer, T., Heiligenstein, J. H., Biederman, J., Faries, D. E., Kratochvil, C. J., Conners, K. C., & Potters, W. Z. (2002). Results from 2 proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled studies of Atomoxetine in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Abstract]. The Journal of clinical psychiatry , 63 (12), 1140-1147. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14507631 </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmerman, APRN, CS, BC, M. L. (2003). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Nursing Clinics of North America , 38 (1), 55-66. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.nursing.theclinics.com/article/PIIS0029646502000658/fulltext </li></ul>