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Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
Aids
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Aids
Aids
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Aids
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Aids

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  • 1. Group 9Mouna Hammoud, Tamelia Malcolm, Terrie Robinson, Navrine Tahal Ich liebe dich oonoo he he Chapter 30 Lesson 2 10th Grade
  • 2. Is HIV and AIDS the same thing?
  • 3. HIV “Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome” A specific type of virus (a retrovirus) HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself. No Cure
  • 4. AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system No Cure
  • 5. New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group
  • 6. Four Stages of HIV
  • 7. Stage 1 - Primary Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection no symptoms at all Infected person can infect other people
  • 8. Stage 2 - Asymptomatic Lasts for an average of ten years This stage is free from symptoms There may be swollen glands The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  • 9. Stage 3 - Symptomatic The symptoms are mild The immune system deteriorates emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers
  • 10. Stage 4 - HIV  AIDS The immune system weakens The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
  • 11. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS Bacterial  Tuberculosis (TB)  Strep pneumonia Viral  Kaposi Sarcoma  Herpes  Influenza (flu)
  • 12. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS Parasitic  Pneumocystis carinii Fungal  Candida  Cryptococcus
  • 13. Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
  • 14. Through Bodily Fluids Blood products Semen Vaginal fluids Breast Milk
  • 15. Through IV Drug Use Sharing Needles  Without sterilization Increases the chances of contracting HIV
  • 16. Through Sex Intercourse (penile penetration into the vagina) Oral Anal Digital Sex
  • 17. Mother-to-Baby Before Birth During Birth Postpartum  After the birth
  • 18. Testing Options for HIV
  • 19. Anonymous Testing No name is used Unique identifying number Results issued only to test recipient 23659874515 Anonymous
  • 20. Confidential Testing Person’s name is recorded along with HIV results  Name and positive results are reported to the State Department and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Results issued only to test recipient
  • 21. Administration Blood Urine Oral
  • 22. Blood Detection Tests Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA) Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Western Blot Confirmatory test
  • 23. Urine Testing Urine Western Blot  As sensitive as testing blood  Safe way to screen for HIV  Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV
  • 24. Oral Testing Orasure  The only FDA approved HIV antibody.  As accurate as blood testing  Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue.  NOT A SALIVA TEST!
  • 25. Counseling
  • 26. Pre-test Counseling Transmission Prevention Risk Factors Voluntary & Confidential Reportability of Positive Test Results
  • 27. Post-test Counseling Clarifies test results Need for additional testing Promotion of safe behavior Release of results
  • 28. Treatment Options
  • 29. Antiretroviral Drugs Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors  AZT (Zidovudine) Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors  Viramune (Nevirapine) Protease inhibitors  Norvir (Ritonavir)
  • 30. Opportunistic Infection Treatment Issued in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available
  • 31. Four ways to protect yourself?  Abstinence  Monogamous Relationship  Protected Sex  Sterile needles
  • 32. Abstinence It is the only 100 % effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS. Refraining from sexual contact: oral, anal, or vaginal. Refraining from intravenous drug use
  • 33. Monogamous relationship A mutually monogamous (only one sex partner) relationship with a person who is not infected with HIV HIV testing before intercourse is necessary to prove your partner is not infected
  • 34. Protected Sex Use condoms (female or male) every time you have sex (vaginal or anal) Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a natural skin condom) Always use a latex barrier during oral sex
  • 35. When Using A Condom Remember To: Make sure the package is not expired Make sure to check the package for damages Do not open the package with your teeth for risk of tearing Never use the condom more than once Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms
  • 36. Sterile Needles If a needle/syringe or cooker is shared, it must be disinfected:  Fill the syringe with undiluted bleach and wait at least 30 seconds.  thoroughly rinse with water  Do this between each person’s use
  • 37. Needle Exchange Program  Non-profit Organization, which provides sterile needles in exchange for contaminated ones
  • 38. Thank You!

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